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Which complement proteins form the membrane attack complex?
C5b, C6, C7, C8, C9
If a personloses 500 mg/day of sodium in the urine, sweat, and feces, to remain inelectrolyte balance, he/she will have to consume at least _______ daily.
Which of the following is not true of cholera?
Which of the following is not a factor that directly increases an individual's risk of experiencing an opportunistic mycosis?
All of the following are aspects of the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus except __________.
All of the following are examples of superficial mycoses except __________.
Opportunistic fungi cause disease in all of the following individuals except __________.
Apicomplexans are members of which of the following groups of protozoa?
Which of the following is NOT associated with HHV-1 or HHV-2?
An ELISA is which one of the following types of tests?
Which of the following is part of the immune system's specific defense mechanism against virus-infected cells?
Final assembly and virulence of HIV is associated with the activity of a viral protein called __________.
A vaccine such as the rabies vaccine is an example of which of the following?
The negative single-stranded RNA genome of some viruses must be converted to which of the following during the virus infection?
The polymerase chain reaction is designed to do which of the following?
location is in the inner lining of blood vessel( Tunica Intima)
Function: controls permeability of vessel, reduce friction, absorption and secretion
: cube shaped cells
Location: kidneys, pancreas, secreting endocrine glands
Function: allow for secretions to occur
: Column shaped cells
Location: Intestines and respiratory tract
: Layered squamous cells
Locations; Skin, mouth, anus, throat, esophagus, rectum vagina
Only found in the urinary bladder
Function: Ability to expand and recoil
Psuedostratified Ciliated Columnar (PSCC)
-location: trachea and bronchi
Function: protect linings due to goblet cells
Goblet cells( produce mucus)
•Most widely distributed CT
–Semi-fluid or gelatinous matrix
•composed primarily of hyaluronic acid.
–All 3 fiber types present and loosely arranged.
–Predominant cell is fibroblast
–Supports and binds other tissues (fibers)
–Holds body fluids (ground substance)
–Defends against infection (WBC’s)
–Stores nutrients (fat cells)
Provide connections of all tissue. All contain the cell known as fibroblast
Fibroblast: produce collagen for strength and framework for organs
•Most abundant tissue type in the body
–Variable but overall low cellularity
•Lots of extracellular material
–Extracellular protein fibers
1. Epithelial: contains epithelial tissue ( Linings) and glands (secretions)
2. Connective Tissue
3. Muscular Tissue
4. Nervous Tissue
Typical epithelial tissue:
Polarity: (has an apical layer (Top) and the Basement layer ( Bottom )
Store Fat, provides insulation, energy reserve, and store vitamins ADEK
•Similar to areolar connective tissue but with many more adipocytes
–90% of tissue mass is adipocytes!
–Greater nutrient storing ability
•18-50% of your body mass!!
Location: muscle tendons ( connects muscle to bone)
Function: strength and support
Location: dermis of skin
Function: provides flexibility, strength and support, connects skin to muscle
Location: Tunica Media of the blood vessels
Function: elasticity to vasculature to combat pressure changes
Lines all the joints of the body
Secretes hyaluronic acid which reduces friction between joints
•Most common cartilage in the body
•Contains large amounts of collagen fibers
•Functions to provide firm support with some flexibility
–Covers ends of long bones
–Springy pads of joints
–Tip of nose
–Forms part of the larynx
All comprised of the cell that makes cartilage ( chondrocyte)
IVD ( intervertebral disc) --shock absorbers can withstand a lot of compression
Contains rows of chondrocytes alternating with rows of thick collagen fibers
•Resists compression, absorbs shocks and prevents bone-bone contact
Provides flexibility to tissues, contains protein elastin
Locations: tip of nose, ear auricle
•Identical to hyaline cartilage but with elastic fibers
•Found where strength and stretching are needed.
–external part of the ear
Connective tissue ( collagen framework) with hard matrix attached
Function: same as skeletal system
Formed elements: Red Blood cell (RBC)- used for O2/Co2 transsport
White blood cell (WBC)- contain nuclei, ImmunityPlatelet-Clotting
- Voluntary ( we can control it)
- Striations(stripes) and multinucleated
- Sliding filament contraction
- Location: Postural muscles of the body
•Consist of long cylindrical cells with many nuclei along the edge
•Has a striated (banded) pattern due to the arrangement of contractile proteins
•Attached to bone, responsible for voluntary movement
–Won’t contract unless stimulated by nerve
- Contain Intercalated disc (Hallmark Feature)
- Wave like contraction
- Location: Heart
Consist of branching, striated cells with a single nucleus
•Cells are attached by intercalated discs
–Membranes joined by desmosomes, intercellular cement and gap junctions
–Beat controlled by pacemaker cells
•Makes up the heart
- Spindle shaped cells
- Corkscrew contraction: (Twisting)
- Location: Stomach and Tunica Media (Middle layer of the blood vessel)
•Also called visceral or involuntary muscle
•Consist of spindle-shaped cells with a single central nucleus.
•Forms sheets with no striations
•Lines the walls of hollow organs (digestive, circulatory systems)
•Under involuntary control
•Forms our communication and control systems
–capable of transmitting electrical impulses
•Composed of two cell types
Muscle tissue that is striated is either
skeletal muscle or __________ muscle.
•produce organic matrix first, then deposit calcium on and between fibers
•mature bone cells that reside in lacunae within the matrix
What is integumentary system composed of?
•Outermost layer of the integument
•Avascular = no blood vessel
–Dendritic (Langerhans) cells
–Tactile (Merkel) cells)
•4 to 5 distinct layers…
Arise from a basal layer of cells by mitosis and are pushed to the surface.
•Produce keratin (fibrous, waxy protein that provides protection)
•Die as they are pushed toward surface and away from blood supply
•Pigment producing cells•Produce melanin which products the DNA of keratinocytes from UV radiation
•Sensory receptor for touch found in areas lacking hair
•Each is associated with a nerve fiber
Skin color is derived from three pigments
•yellow to black pigment, produced in epidermis
•yellow to orange pigment that is found in some plants (e.g. carrots)
•reddish molecule in red blood cells circulating through dermal capillaries
•“Thin” and “thick” refer only to epidermis
•Thick skin is found on palms of hands and soles of feet
•Thin skin covers the rest of the body
•Each cell travels upward through every layer.
Deepest epidermal layer, firmly attached to dermis
–Epidermal ridges + dermal papillae
•Single row of mitotically active cells called basal cells
•This layer contains the melanocytes and Merkel cells
•Consist of several (8-10) layers of keratinocytes pushed up from lower layer
•Some continue to divide, making layer thicker
•Cells bound by desmosomes
•Site of Langerhans cells (immune)
•4 to 6 layers of flattened keratinocytes
•Cells don’t divide but continue to produce keratin
•Secrete glycolipids into extracellular space, reduces water loss
•Above this layer cells are too far from blood vessels in the dermis. Die from lack of nutrients
•Thin, transparent band of cells consisting of 2-3 rows of flattened dead keratinocytes full of
•This layer is only present in thick skin
•Broad surface zone of 20 to 30 cells thick
•Consist of dead keratin-filled keratinocytes with glycolipids in the extracellular space
–Forms a water-resistant barrier
•Eventually slough off
–50,000 cells perminute, 40lb per lifetime!!
•When immersed in water, cells will swell or shrink depending on concentration
–Fresh water = cells swell
–Sea water = cells shrink
•Layer below the epidermis
•What is it composed of?
–Mainly dense irregular connective tissue
–Richly supplied with nerves and blood vessels
–Site of major portions of oil and sweat glands plus hair follicles
•Fibers in connective tissue woven into a loose mat with many blood vessels
•Includes the dermal papillae
•In thick skin, dermal papillae are located on top of the dermal ridges
–Nipple-like projections on superior surface
–Contain capillaries, nerve endings and tactile (Meissner’s) corpuscles (touch
–Larger mounds that result in the formation of epidermal ridges, which cause
–Dermal + epidermal ridges form “friction ridges”…enhance gripping ability and sense of touch.
Deep to papillary region
•Consists of dense irregular connective tissue
•Collagen fibers from this layer extend into papillary layer and also into underlying
•Contains the lamellar (Pacinian) corpuscles
–Deep pressure receptors
•Structures derived from the skin, also known as “skin appendages”
–Hair and hair follicle
•Hair provides a number of functions:
•Senses things settling on us
–Hair on head
•Protect against physical trauma, heat loss and sunlight
•Shield and protect eyes
•Filters large particles from air
•Two main regions:
•Consist of 3 concentric layers of keratinized cells
•Central core, consists of large cells separated by air spaces
•Contains flexible soft keratin
•Several layers of flattened cells
•Consists of a thin layer of epithelial cells surrounding hair and an outer layer of connective
•Extends from epidermal surface into the dermis
•Arrector pili muscle
–Deep end of follicle is expanded to form a bulb.
–Sensory nerve endings
–Heavy, pigmented, sometimes curly hairs
–Hair on your head (including eyebrows and lashes)
•Axillary and pubic hairs become terminal in both sexes
•Facial hair and hair on chest and often arms and legs become terminal in males
•“Scale-like” modification of the epidermis
–Plates of tightly packed keratinized epidermal cells
•Form a protective covering on the dorsal surface of the distal parts of fingers and toes
–whitish semicircular area where stratum basale is thickened
–narrow band of epidermis that extends from the proximal margin of the nail
–epithelium under nail
–responsible for nail growth
•Merocrine type of secretion
•Glands are abundant on palms, soles and forehead.
•Secrete filtrate of blood. Mostly (99%) water, some salts, antibodies and metabolic wastes.
•Apocrine type of secretion (i.e. thicker, stickier)
–Secretes similar materials as above but also lipids and proteins
–Gives rise to body odor.
•Found under arms and genital region.
•Modified apocrine glands found in lining of external ear
•Secrete ear wax (“cerumen”)
•Anatomically related to apocrine sweat glands
•Secretions controlled by interaction of sex hormones and pituitary hormones
•Holocrine type secretion
•Gland associated with the hair follicles and skin.
•Secretes oils that soften and lubricate hair and skin (“sebum”)
–Prevents hair from becoming brittle
•Also releases bactericide
–Body temperature regulation
–Other metabolic functions
•Ex. Synthesis of vitamin D
•Stratified squamous epithelium forms a continuous, unbroken barrier.
•Limits diffusion of water and water-soluble substances
•What CAN get through?
–Lipid-soluble substances can penetrate
–Plant oleoresins (poison ivy or oak!)
–Salts of heavy metals like lead or mercury
–Some drugs or penetration enhancers
•Skin secretions keep surface pH acidic
–This “acid mantle” inhibits bacterial growth
•Skin also secretes bactericides (chemicals that kill bacteria)
•Melanin can be considered part of the chemical barrier
–Protects DNA from UV radiation
•Living cells that protect the skin
•Dendritic (Langerhan’s) cells and dermal macrophages
–Part of the immune system
–Macrophages in the epidermis and dermis attack foreign substances that penetrate the skin
•Cancer is a rapid proliferation of malignant cells
•1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer at some point!
•Skin cancer is generally results from overexposure to UV radiation
•Most common, least malignant.
–80% of cases
–99% cured by surgical excision
•Cells of stratum basale proliferate and invade dermis and hypodermis
Arises from melanocytes
•Most dangerous form of skin cancer
–Resistant to chemotherapy
•Used to be rare (2-3% of cases) but increasing 3-8% per year in the US!
•Best chance is early detection…
–ABCD rule (Asymmetry, Border irregularity, Color, Diameter)
•Rule of Nines
–Body is divided into 11 regions. Each region accounts for 9% of total surface area
–Head & Neck, left arm, right arm, anterior upper trunk, posterior upper trunk, anterior
lower trunk, posterior lower trunk, anterior right leg, posterior right leg, anterior left leg,
posterior left leg.
–Last 1% is perineum (groin region)