laterally facing structures found on the R and L sides of cervical, thoracic, & lumbar vertebrae
? articulate with the adjacent vertebrae above
superior articular facets
? articulate with the adjacent vertebra below
inferior articular facets
is the pointed portion of the vertebra located at the posterior midline
? and ? are the bony projections on each side of a vertebra adjacent to the articular facets
superior articular processes & inferior articular processes
central portion of a vertebra
is made up fo laminae and pedicles on each vertebra
broad, flat portion of the vertebra leading to the spinous process
form pillars between the body & the lamina of vertebrae
R and L pedicles
the opening encircled by the vertebral arch of each vertebra
formed by the intact vertebral column by the superimposition of all vertebral foramina
is protected within the vertebral canal
human body has ? vertebrae
How many vertebrae does the human body have?
26 - 7 cervical
- 12 thoracic
- 5 lumbar
- 3-5 coccygeal
vertebrae form the neck region
How many cervical vertebrae are there?
7 vertebrae in the neck region
C-1 through C-7 (Atlas = C1 Axis = C2) form neck region.
C1 is called ?
The atlas has no ?
C1. no body. anterior and posterior tubercles. superior articular facets articulate with occipital condyles of occipital bone. (nodding the head) inferior articular facets articulate with SAF of axis vertebra
-does not have a body
-anterior & posterior tubercles
-superior articular facets: articulates with occipital condyles of the occipital bone: allows nodding of the head
-inferior articular facets: articulates with the superior articular facets of the axis
How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
12. most have articular surfaces for ribs.
-Body has superior/inferior costal facets
-Head of rib articulation
-Except T10-12, only one facet for respective rib
-Long sharp spinous processes point inferiorly
-Circular vertebral foramen
-Transverse costal facets
-Tubercle of rib articulation (except T11/12) "giraffe"
posterior boundary of the thoracic cavity
Most thoracic vertebrae articulate with ?
How many lumbar vertebrae are there?
5. no articular sites for ribs. lower back region
lumbar do not have articular sites for ?
C2 - C6 have a ?
bifurcated spinous process
T1-T10 have a ? that articulates with the tubercle of a rib
transverse costal facet
sacral vertebrae fuse to form the ?
the sacrum articulates with the ?
ilium of each coxal bone
? form the tail bone
coccygeal vertebrae 3-5
the opening formed between the pedicles of adjacent vertebrae through which the spinal nerves exit
cartilaginous cushions between each vertebrae
primary and secondary curvatures of the spine
PRIMARY- thoracic, sacral
SECONDARY- cervical, lumbar
? curvatures form several months after birth & help distribute weight over the feet
the atlas has ? & ? tubercles
anterior & posterior
The ? of the atlas articulate with the occipital condyles of the occipital bone & allow the head to ?
superior articular facets; nod up & down
The ? of the atlas articulate with the superior articular facets of the axis
inferior articular facets
C2. dens points superiorly. articulation with atlas allows side to side head movement
-dens of the axis: tooth shaped structure above vertebral body
-fusion of body of atlas and body of axis = dens
-articulation of the dens wth atlas allows side-to-side movement of the head.
The ? of the axis is a tooth-shaped structure that points superiorly
dens or odontoid process
dens of the axis is formed by the fusion of ? and ?
the body of the atlas & the body of the axis
What is special about the articulation of the dens of the axis with the atlas?
it allows you to turn your head side to side
C vertebrae have ? within their transverse processes to allow the passage of paired ? & ?
transverse foramina; vertebral arteries & veins
C7 is known as the ? because it has a long, prominent ?
vertebra prominens; spinous process
_____of the thoracic vertebrae are slender, point inferiorly, and overlap in some areas?
? of T1-T10 have articular facets for articulation with tubercles of the ribs
? of thoracic vertebrae have ? or ? for articulation with the head of the ribs
bodies; facets or demifacets
? helps distinguish thoracic vertebrae from lumbar vertebrae
superior articular facets pointing posteriorly
? are located on the body & transverse processes of thoracic vertebrae & are articulation sites for the ? & ? of the ribs
transverse costal facets; head & tubercles
lumbar vertebrae spinous processes are ? & point ?
large, blunt & robust; directly posterior
lumbar transverse processes are ?
thick & heavy
lumbar bodies are
large & sturdy
lumbar superior articular facets point ? to help distinguish them from ? vertebrae
? sacral vertebrae unite to form the ?
? passes through the sacrum from superior to inferior & allows the ? to pass through it
sacral canal; spinal cord
openings through the body of the sacrum that allow ? to exit
sacral foramina; spinal nerves
formed from the union of the transverse processes of the first sacral vertebra
? surfaces of the ala articulate with the ilium of the ? bone
lateral ; coxal
coccygeal vertebrae ? develop as separate vertebrae but fuse into one between the ages of ?
3-5; 20 & 30
coccygeal vertebrae are located inferior to the ?
The thoracic cage is made up of the ? & the ?
ribs and sternum
we have how many ribs?
12 sets or 24
ribs ? are true ribs because they ?
1-7; articulate directly with the body of the sternum via costal cartilage
ribs ? are false ribs because they ?
8-10; articulate indirectly with the body of the sternum via costal cartilage
articulate directly with the body of the sternum
articulate indirectly with body of sternum via costal cartilage
articulates with Thoracic vertebrae
-articulate /directly/ with body of sternum via costal cartilage
The ? of the sternum articulates at its ? surface with the clavicle to form the ?
superolateral; sternoclavicular joint
The ? of the sternum has articulations with the ? of ribs
body; costal cartilage
The body of the sternum also articulates with the inferior end of the ? and the superior surface of the ?
manubrium; xiphoid process
what is the pointed inferior end of the sternum
articulates with the inferior end of the body of the sternum
? of a rib articulates with the demifacets of the body of ? vertebrae
? of a rib articulate with transverse processes of the 10 superior ? vertebrae
ribs ? are floating ribs that ?
11-12; do not articulate with the sternum
shallow depression on the superior, lateral side of the scapula
the glenoid cavity of the scapula is the articular site for the ?
head of the humerus
is a synovial ball-and-socet joint formed between the head of the humerus and the glenoid cavity of the scapula
beak-shaped projection of the scapula located superiorly & anteriorly to the glenoid cavity
bony ridge running diagonally along the posterior side of the scapula
spine of the scapula
lateral, expanded end of the spine of the scapula
acromion process of the scapula
? forms the lateral-most extremity of the scapula
acromion process of the scapula
? of the scapula faces the vertebral column
a depression located above the spine of the scapula
depression located below the spine of the scapula
The clavicle articulates with the ? of the sternum at its ? or ? end forming the ?
manubrium; medial or proximal; sternoclavicular joint
The clavicle articulates with the ? of the scapula at its ? or ? end forming the ?
acromion process; lateral or distal; acromioclavicular joint
The ? is the region located between the elbow and the shoulder
large rounded structure at proximal end of humerus
head of the humerus
what is the raised area at the proximal end of the humerus ?
small raised area near greater tubercle at proximal end of humerus
lesser tubercle of the humerus
attachment site for many muscles located between the greater & lesser tubercles of the humerus
intertubercular groove of the humerus
rough, raised area along the diaphysis of the humerus
deltiod tuberosity of the humerus
depression at distal end & posterior surface of the humerus
The ? of the humerus forms a hinge with the ? of the ulna
olecranon fossa; olecranon process
small depression at the distal end & anterior surface of the humerus
The coronoid fossa of the humerus articulates with the ?
coronoid process of the ulna
the ___ articulates at the coronoid fossa of the humerus
coronoid process of the ulna;
pulley-shaped structure at distal, posterior surface of the humerus that articulates with the ? of the ulna
trochlea of the humerus; trochlear notch of the ulna
rounded structure on lateral distal end of humerus that articulates with the ?
capitulum of the humerus; head of the radius
? are located just superior to the capitulum and trochlea of the humerus
medial & lateral epicondyles
medial bone of the forearm
region betwee n the elbow & wrist
U-shaped depression at proximal end of the ulna that articulates with the ? of the humerus forming the ?
trochlear notch of the ulna; trochlea; humeroulnar joint
The humeroulnar joint is a ? joint
synovial hinge-type joint
formed by trochlea and trochlear notch
forms the point of the elbow on the posterior surface at the proximal end of the ulna
tip of the olecranon on proximal end of the ulna that articulates with the ? of the humerus
olecranon process of the ulna; olecranon fossa
? of the ulna articulates with the coronoid fossa of the humerus
coronoid process of the ulna
small depression at proximal end of the ulna where the ? of the radius articulates
radial notch; head of the radius
pointed structure at the distal end of the ulna
ulnar styloid process
? is located at the distal end of the ulna just proximal to the styloid process
head of the ulna
lateral bone of the forearm
roughened, raised area at proximal end of the radius
pointed structure at distal end of the radius
styloid process of the radius
rounded structure at proximal end of the radius that articulates with the ? of the humerus & the ? of the ulna
head of the radius; capitulum of the humerus; radial notch of the ulna
? is ? types of joint located between the head of the radius & and radial notch of the ulna
radioulnar joint; synovial pivot-type joint
most lateral of carpal bones when hand is in anatomical position; articulates with the ? & ? to form the wrist joint
scaphoid; distal radius & lunate
located medial to the scaphoid & articulates with the ?, ?, ?, and ?
distal radius, triquetrum, hamate, capitate
located medial to the lunate; has articulations with ? & ?
triquetrum; hamate & pisiform
located at base of palm on medial side
only articulates with the triquetrum
articulates with the scaphoid & hamate & distal articulations with metacarpals II and I
lies between the trapezium and capitate
& distal articulation with metacarpal II
located between trapezium & hamate; distal articulations with metacarpal III & proximal articulations scaphoid & lunate
most medial carpal of distal row; proximal articulations with triquetrum & lunate & distal articulations with metacarpals IV & V & lateral articulation with capitate
hook-shaped structure of hamate
hamulus of the hamate
the thumb has ? phalanges
2- proximal & distal
The 3 regions of the coxal bones are formed by the fusion of the ? at the ?
ilium, ischium, & pubis; acetabulum
articulation site for the ? of the femur that is a cup-like depression on the lateral side of each coxal bone
ridge along the superior edge of the ilium
bony prominence that forms the anterior-inferior boundary of the iliac crest
anterior-superior iliac spine
bony prominence located just inferior to the anterior-superior iliac spine
anterior-inferior iliac spine
forms the posterior-inferior boundary of iliac crest
posterior superior iliac spine
bony projection located inferior to the posterior superior iliac spine
posterior inferior iliac spine
groove located below the posterior inferior iliac spine through which ? pass from the hip into the thigh
greater sciatic notch; sciatic nerve
rough area on inferior surface of ischium that is the attachment site for ?
ischial tuberosity; hamstring muscles
large, oval opening in coxal bone formed by parts of the ? & ? through which ? & ? leave and enter the thigh from the pelvis
isolation, protection, sensitiviy, support, regulation of exchange with environment
? can diffuse through lipid bilayer of plasmalemma
lipids, lipid soluble molecules, CO2 & O2
water, small water-soluble molecules, & ions diffuse through
membrane channels of plasmalemma
large molecules that cannot fit through channels such as AA's and glucose require ? to cross the plasmalemma
1. anchor cytoskeleton to integral proteins
2. stabilize position of membrane proteins
3. anchor plasmalemma to the cytoplasm
4. produce movement of the cell
intermediate filaments provide:
strength, stabilize organelle position, & transport material within the cytosol
thick filaments are found where & are involved in what there?
muscle cells; muscle contraction
microtubules are involved in the formation of ?
centrioles, cilia, & flagella are examples of
peroxisomes contain ? that breaks down ? into ?
catalase; hydrogen peroxide into water
chromosomes consists of ? wrapped around ?
lysosomes fuse with ? to digest solid material
1. primary lysosome can fuse with membrane of another organelle forming a secondary lysosome
2. secondary lysosome can form what a primary lysosome fuses with a vesicle containing materials from outside the cell
3. lysosome membrane can break down leading to digestive enxymes attacking the cytoplasm = autolysis
what 2 cell types can contain as many as 300 mitochondria per cell ????
liver & muscle
RBC's lack these two organelles
mitochondria and nucleus
peroxisomes are abundant in ? cells
? vesicles connect the ER with the golgi apparatus
? vesicles connect the Golgi with the plasmalemma
2 major types of junctions
comunicating & adhering
? junctions permit the free diffusion of ions & small molecules between two cells
communicating or gap
gap junctions are held together by ?
? junctions prevent the diffusion of fluids & solutes between cells
tight or occluding junctions
A ? is formed by the fusion of interlocking proteins of the outer layers of 2 plasmalemmae
? junctions attach one cell to another
anchoring junctions are formed by
a sheetlike anchoring junction that serves to stabilize nonepithelial cells
type of anchoring junction that stabilizes adjacent epithelial cells
? create links that are so strong that dead skin cells are shed in sheets rather than individually
? connect intracellular microfilaments to basal lamina
? are found in epithelial tissues that are subject to abrasion & shearing forces like cornea of eye, skin, & mucosal surfaces of vagina, esophagus
? & ? may remain in G0 indefinitely & may never undergo mitosis
skeletal muscle cells & neurons
G1 of interphase
normal cell functions, cell growth, duplication of organelles, protein synthesis; can take 8 or more hours
DNA replication, synthesis of histones; takes 6-8 hours
protein synthesis; 2-5 hours
mitosis & cytokinesis takes
cytokinesis overlaps with
anaphase & telophase
in which organelle are the most free radicals produced?
Cells that secrete a protein substance are abundant in which 2 organelles?
Rough ER & Golgi
microfilaments are composed of ?
microtubules are composed of
what structure of the respiratory systems warms, filters, & humidifies air
organ system that functions to control erythrocyte production & elevate bp, controls maturation of lymphocytes, & regulates Ca levels
function of body cavities
cushion viscera while walking, jumping, and running
order of increasing radiodensity (6 things)
air, fat, liver, blood, muscle, bone
What is a types of anchoring junction also termed a desmosome
What mechanism of endocytosis is performed only by specialized cells of the immune system
Cilia are anchored to a compact centrosome near the nucleus. T or F
What nonmembranous organelle forms the primary components of the cytoskeleton
Skeletal muscle cells do not contain ?
What cells never enter the G0 phase
viscous, superficial coating on outer surface of plasmalemma
? cells in the body
four tissue categories
epithelial, connective, muscular, neural
functions of epithelial tissue:
1. cover exposed surfaces - physical protection
2. line internal passageways & chambers
3. produce glandular secretions
4. provides sensation
5. controls permeability
epithelial tissue characteristics
cells bound close together with no intercellular space; have exposed apical surface & attached basal surface; basal attachment to basal lamina; avascular; cells continuously replaced; composed of one or more layers; innervated - have nerve endings
specialization of epithelial cells
1. microvilli- for absorption & secretion
2. stereocilia- long microvilli found in inner ear
3. ciliated epithelium- moves substances over apical surfaces of cells
3 factors involved in maintaining integrity of epithelium
1. intercellular connections
2. attachement to basal lamina
3. epithelial maintenance & renewal is self-perpetuated
? forms the boundary between epithelial cells & the underlying connective tissue
types of epithelial tissue cells
squamous, cuboidal, columnar, & transitional
secrete watery fluids rich in enzymes
secrete glycoproteins (mucins) that absorb water to produce mucous
contain both serous & mucous secretions
mixed exocrine glands
types of exocrine glandular epithelia
serous, mucous, & mixed exocrine glands
exocrine glands secretions travel
through ducts to the epithelial surface
endocrine gland secretions travel
directly into the blood or lymph
simple vs. compound glands
simple glands do not have branching ducts but compound glands do have branching ducts