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PROXIMAL BONE OF THE UPPER LIMB (ARM)
(CONNECTS W/ SCAPULA @ THE GLENOID CAVITY)
Provides swift, but brief responses
Adjusts metabolic operations, and directs long term changes
2. STORE MINERALS
3. BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION
4. PROTECT ORGANS
what substance is transported to aid in fighting infectious agents
plasma and formed elements
liquid matrix of blood
what are the 3 formed elements?
what does the platelets do?
water, proteins & 1% of other solutes.
defend the body against pathognes and remove toxins, waste, and abnormal or damaged cells.
Granular leukocytes &
they transport chemicals important for clotting
temporarily patch walls of damaged blood cells.
CONTAINS SPECIALIZED CELLS AND EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX CONSISTING OF PROTEIN FIBERS AND GROUND SUBSTANCE.
(IS STRONG DUE TO DEPOSITION OF CALCIUM SALTS)
MATURE BONE CELLS THAT MONITER AND MAINTAIN BONE CONTENT.
(DIRECT THE RELEASE OF CALCIUM FROM BONE TO BLOOD)
AIR FILLED CHAMBERS THAT OPEN INTO THE NASAL CAVITIES
1. LIGHTEN SKULL BONES 2. PRODUCE MUCUS 3. RESONATE SOUND PRODUCTION
OVAL SHAPED/LARGEST OF THE VERTEBRAE AND BEARS THE MOST WEIGHT
(SPINAL COMPRESSION AND DISC INJURIES ARE COMMON IN THIS REGION)
IS FOUND ON THE LATERAL SURFACE OF THE HIP BONE.
(CONNECTS W/ THE FEMUR AT THE HIP JOINT)
EXPLAINS THE PHYSICAL CHANGES THAT OCCUR BETWEEN THICK AND THIN FILAMENTS DURING CONTRACTION.
1. H BAND AND I BAND (SMALLER)
2. ZONE OF OVERLAP (LARGER)
3. Z LINE (CLOSER)
4. A BAND (CONSTANT)
RESTING TENSION IN SKELETAL MUSCLE
SOME MOTOR UNITS ARE ALWAYS ACTIVE IN THIS AND STABALIZES BONES AND JOINTS
RED FIBERS THAT CONTAIN MYOGLOBIN (RED PIGMENT).
AEROBIC FIBERS THAT SPECIALIZE TO CONTINUE CONTRACTING FOR EXTENDED PERIODS OF TIME.
MUSCLE FIBERS ARE BASED OVER A BROAD AREA, BUT ALL FIBERS COME TOGETHER AT A COMMON ATTACHMENT SITE.
(MUSCLE HAS VERSATILITY AND MAY PULL ON A TENDON)
Anatomy is the study of internal and external structures and the physical relationships between body parts
Specific anatomical structures perform specific functions
The nervous system and the endocrine system
Coordinate and direct the activities of other organ systems
The nervous system encompasses ALL the neural tissue in the body
Central nervous system (CNS) – associated with the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – associated with all other tissue outside the CNS
Afferent: BRINGS sensory information toward the CNS (Can be further subdivided into somatic and visceral)
Efferent: carries motor commands AWAY from the CNS (Can be subdivided into somatic nerves, and autonomic nerves)
Visceral portion: monitors SMOOTH muscles, CARDIAC muscles, and other INTERNAL organs
Somatic nerves: controls SKELETAL muscle contraction
Autonomic nerves: controls INTERNAL organ activities (cardiac muscle, smooth muscle glands, ect.)
Parasympathetic nerves: cause PUPIL CONSTRICTION, decrease heart rate, and tense the urinary bladder - slows down the nervous system
Sympathetic nerves: cause PUPIL DILATION, INCREASE HEART RATE, and relax urinary bladder, speeds up the nervous system
Consist of a soma (cell body), axon, and dendrites
Astrocytes: LARGEST and most numerous glial cells – they maintain the blood-brain barrier to isolate the CNS from the general circulation
Oligodendrocytes: wrap CNS axons in a membrane sheath termed MYELIN, g
Microglia: SMALLEST cells
Ependymal cells: line ventricles of the brain – they assist in producing, circulating, and monitoring CSF
Somatic (skeletal) sensory and visceral (smooth) sensory
Categorized as exteroreceptors (provide information from the external environment), proprioceptors (monitor position and movement of joint), and interocepters (monitor digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproductive systems)
Motor neurons form the efferent pathways that stimulate or modify the activity of a peripheral tissue, organ, or organ system
Sends information from the CNS to the periphery
Associated neurons, located between sensory and motor neurons; they analyze sensory inputs and coordinate motor outputs
Excitatory and inhibitory
What does the central nervous system (CNS) consist of?
What does the adult spinal cord consist of?
The filum terminale (a strand of fibrous tissue) originates at this tip and extends through the vertebral canal to the second sacral vertebra, ultimately becoming part of the coccygeal ligament (which stabilizes the spinal cord)
The spinal cord has 31 segments
Each segment is associated with a pair of dorsal root ganglia (containing sensory neuron cell bodies)
Pairs of dorsal roots (sensory) and ventral (motor) roots – merge to form a spinal nerve
Motor nerves: efferent nerves, transmit impulses AWAY from the spinal cord
The spinal meninges are a series of specialized membranes that provide physical stability and shock absorption for neural tissue of the spinal cord
Cranial meninges are membranes that surround the brain
Dura matter (outermost, tough, fibrous)
Arachnoid matter (middle layer)
Pia matter (innermost layer)
Lies internal to the inner surface of the dura matter
When present, it separates the dura matter from the middle meningeal layer – the arachnoid matter
Lies internal to the arachnoid matter
This space contains CSF which acts as a shock absorber and used for spinal tap
Tip of the needle used for spinal tap will be in the subarachnoid space
The pia matter is the innermost meningeal layer
Surrounds the central canal and contains cell bodies of neurons and glial cells
The grey matter projections towards the outer surface of the spinal cord, called HORNS
How is gray matter organized?
Posterior gray horns: Somatic sensory and visceral nuclei
Lateral gray horns: Visceral motor nuclei
Anterior gray horns: Somatic motor nuclei
Gray commissure: Consist of axons crossing from one side to the other
Consists of columns of nerves (fasciles)
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Spinal nerves enter and exit the vertebral canal through the intervertebral foramen
Epineurium: outer layer – becomes continuous with the dura matter
Perineurium: layer surrounding a fascicle – a fascicle is a bundle of axons
Endoneurium: layer surrounding a single axon
What is a neural reflex?
What is a monosynaptic reflex?
What is a polysynaptic reflex?
What are the motor and sensory areas of the cerebral cortex?
In the cerebrum, what is the left hemisphere of the brain responsible for?
What is the pons responsible for?
What is the cerebrum responsible for?
What are the ventricles of the brain?
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
IS RESPONSIBLE FOR INTERGRATING, PROCESSING, AND COORDINATING SENSORY INPUT AND MOTOR OUTPUT.
CONSISTS OF BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
REGULATES SMOOTH MUSCLE, CARDIAC MUSCLE, AND GLANDULAR ACTIVITY.
CONTROLS SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS, JOINTS, AND THE SKIN.
4. EPENDYMEL CELLS
SURROUNDS THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD. PROVIDES A PROTECTIVE CUSHION AND TRANSPORTS GASES, NUTRIENTS, AND WASTES.
EPEDYMAL CELLS MONITER THE COMPOSITION OF THIS.
1. SCHWANN CELLS
2. SATTELITE CELLS
NEURON BODIES IN THE PERIPHERAL GANGLIA ARE SURROUNDED BY THESE.
THEY REGULATE THE EXCHANGE OF NUTRIENTS AND WASTE PRODUCTS BETWEEN THE NEURON AND EXTRACELLULAR FLUID. THEY HELP ISOLATE THE NEURON.
DELIVER INFORMATION TO THE CNS
THEY COLLECT INFO CONCERNING THE EXTERNAL OR INTERNAL ENVIORONMENT. AXONS OF THESE ARE CALLED AFFERENT FIBERS.
IS A TOUGH FIBROUS SHEATH THAT FORMS THE OUTERMOST LAYER OF A PERIPHERAL NEVER.
CONSISTES OF DENSE IRREGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE. (COLLAGEN FIBERS/FIBROCYTES)
1. ULNAR NERVE
2. AXILLARY NERVE
3. RADIAL NERVE
4. MEDIAN NERVE
5. MUSCULOTANEOUS NERVE
CONTAINS THE FEMORAL NERVE AND THE OBTURATOR NERVE
CONTAINS THE AXONS OF THE SOMATIC "MOTOR NEURONS" AND SOME VISCERAL "MOTOR NEURONS" THAT CONTROL PERIPHERAL EFFECTORS.
ROOT THAT LEAVES SPINAL CORD
CONTAINS THE AXONS OF THE "SENSORY NEURONS" IN THE DORSAL ROOT GANGLION.
THESE ROOTS ARE THICKER THAN THE ANTERIOR ROOTS.
1. PRODUCE MOVEMENT
2. MAINTAIN POSTURE
3. SUPPORT TISSUES
4. REGULATE MATERIAL (ENTERING/EXITING)
5. MAINTAIN BODY TEMP
BINDS EACH MUSCLE FIBER TO ITS NEIGHBOR AND SUPPORTS CAPILLARIES. IT IS A DELICATE NETWORK OF RETICULAR FIBERS.
CONTAINS MYOSATTELITE CELLS (REPAIR DAMAGED MUSCLE)
IS A CYLINDRICAL STRUCTURE, THAT CONSISTS OF BUNDLES OF MICROFILAMENTS ,RESPONSIBLE FOR MUSCLE FIBER CONTRACTION. THEIR CONTRACTION SHORTENS THE ENTIRE CELL.
(ARRANGED PARRELLEL LONG AXIS OF THE CELL)
REGION BETWEEN THE A BAND AND Z LINE IS PART OF THIS BAND (LIGHT BANDS)
COVERS ACTIVE SITES PREVENTING ACTIN AND MYOSIN FROM INTERACTING.
A MUSCLE WHOSE CONTRACTION IS CHIEFLY RESPONSIBLE FOR PRODUCING A MOVEMENT.
EX: BICEPS BRACHII
MUSCLES WHOSE ACTION DO THE OPPOSITE OF AN AGONIST
(IF AGONIST PRODUCES FLEXION THIS WILL PRODUCE EXTENSION)