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A state of body equilibrium or stable internal environment of the body.
---- maintenance of constant internal conditions.
---- indicates a dynamic state of equilibrium, or balance, in which internal conditions vary, but always within relatively narrow limits.
0 is acid
7 is neutral
14 is basic alkaline
Acids and bases neutralize each other.
The major function of carbohydrates in the body is to provide a ready, easily used source of cellular fuel. Most cells can use only a few types of simple sugars, and glucose is at the top of the "cellular menu".
------Nutrient and energy source ( glycogen and starch)
-------Structural support ( cellulose and chitin)
Organic compound formed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; examples are fats and cholesterol.
Lipids are insoluble in water but dissolve readily in other lipids and in organic solvents such as alcohol and ether.
Monomers-- neutral fat ( Glycerol + 3 fatty acids)
Functions include, concentrated energy storage, insulation an protecton.d
Glycerol + 2 fatty acids + phosphate.
Major component of cell membranes.
Modified tryglycerides. Specifically, they are diglycerides with a phosphorus-containing group and two, rather than three, fatty acid chains.
Composes 10-30% of cell mass and is the basic structural material of the body.
Monomer---- amino acids
20 different amino acids
--- Cellular sructures
--- Recognition of molecules
Protein function requires each molecule to have unique shape.
Proteins can be described in terms of four structural levels. The linear sequence of amino acids composing the polypeptide chain is called the primary structure of a protein. This structure resembles a strand of amino acid beads and is the backbone of the protein molecule.
-------- Amino acid sequence
Alter shpae--alter function denaturation.
May or may not be reversable
* strand-like, insoluble in water
* structural-- collagen, actin
*spherical, water soluble, active
* functional-- enzymes, antibodies
Globular Proteins-- compact, spherical proteins that have at least tertiary structure.
* catalyst speed up reactions without being consumed.
* can not force reactions
* speed up reactions in cells
All reactions require some energy.
Enzymes act to lower the required start up energy.
Class of organic molecules that includes DNA and RNA.
* Pentose--5 carbon sugar
* Nitrogen containing base
*information (genetic) storage and retrieval (dna)
Nitrogen containing bases
Stores genetic code
( RNA )
Nitrogen containing bases
Functions in protein synthesis (information retrieval)
Adenine, ribose, 3 phosphates
Phosphates are negatively charged
Attachment of second and third phosphate groups requires enormous energy.
Remolval of phosphate releases energy--- high energy storage
ADP + energy +phosphate--- ATP
Glucose-6-PO4---- 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP + 2NADAH
Substrate level phosphorylation
** Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid--- an anaerobic process.
Glucose converted to
Glucose + O2 -- H2O + CO2 +38 ATP + heat.
Simple glucose molecules hold 38 ATP.
Aerobic metabolic pathway occurring within mitochondria, in which food metabolites are oxidized and CO2 is liberated, and coenzymes are reduced. Also called the citric acid cycle.
Pyruvate -- Acetyl CoA + CO2 + NADH
Acetyl CoA-- 3CO2 + ATP + FADH2 + 4NADH
Biochemical cycle in cellular metabolism where acetyl CoA is combined with oxaloacetate to form citric acid; the resulting citric acid is converted into a number of other chemicals, eventually reforming oxaloacetate; NADH, some ATP, and FADH2 are produced and carbon dioxide is released.
Each time the Krebs cycle runs you gain 1 ATP. Has to run twice because of the 2 pyruvic acid.
Series of carrier molecules.
10 NADH + 2 FADH2 + O2---- 34 ATP + 6 H2O
We get most of our ATP here.... 38 ATP pr glucose molecule
Electrons lose energy passing from molecule to molecule.
Energy used to pump H+ across membrane in mitochondria.
Electrons hop from enzyme to enzyme to get to O2 to generate ATP.
Separates two of the body's major fluid compartments== the intracelleular fluid within cells and the extracellular fluid outside cells.
Fluid Mosaic Model-- membrane structure depicts the plasma membrane as an exceedingly thin (7-10 nm) structure composed of a double layer, or bilayer, of lipid molecules with protein molecules "plugged into" or dispersed in it. The proteins, many of which float in the fluid lipid bilayer, form a constantly changing mosaic pattern
* phospholipid bilayer--fat
* 5% glycolipids (external)
* 20% cholesterol
* integral proteins
* peripheral proteins
Diffusion of a solvent through a membrane from a dilute solution into a more concentrated one.
Diffusion of solvent (water) through a selectively permeable membrane.
Either aquaporins (channels) or tiny spaces between phospholipid tails allow water to move freely across membrane at all times.
Osmolarity--- number of particles in a solution.
More particles less water.
Covalent-- one molecule=one particle (organic molecules)
Ionic-- dissociate (eletrolytes)
NaCl= two particles
CaCl2= three particles
Water moves across membrane
8 when solute particles can't diffuse
8 until number of particles per unit of solution are the same
General rule-- charged particles do not difuse readily
Osmotic pressure-- the pull of water across a membrane by non-diffusible solutes
charged particle= ions
Molecular movement across a membrane along a concentration gradient.
* membrane permeable
* from higher to lower
* based on size and solubility of molecule
Molecules in constant motion
Bump into each other
Driving force: kinetic energy
Speed influenced by:
* size of molecules
Equilibrium-- uniform distribution of molecules
Non-polar and lipid soluble molecules
* along concentration gradient
* oxygen, carbon dioxide
* fat-soluble vitamins
Passive transport process used by certain molecules, e.g., glucose and other simple sugars too large to pass through plasma membrane pores. Involves movement through channels or movement facilitated by membrane carrier.
Protein carrier or channel
* along concentration gradient
* protein recognition involved
Passage of a solvent and dissolved substances through a membrane or filter.
Drivin by hydrostatic pressure
* occurs along pressure gradient
* solvent forced through pores
* membrane pore size limits which molecules or particles (non-selective)
* urine formation
Molecular movement against a concentration gradient with the use of ATP and a carrier protein.
* lower to higher
* ATP channels shape of carrier protein to move across membrane
-to create gradient: move Na out of cell, move K+ inside cellex- Na+ - K+ ATPase pump
The movement of large particles and macromolecules across a plasma membrane.
Endocytosis-- bring into cell
* moving substances from extracellular fluid to cell interior
Exocytosis--- to move out of
* reversal of endocytosis
Engulfing of foreign solids by (pagocytic) cells.
pseudopods encircle Prticle (phagosome)
Converting DNA to protein
DNA---- blueprint for cell
Gene--- segment of DNA coding for one protein. (code for DNA)
DNA copied to RNA
* copy DNA to mRNA
* convert mRNA to protein
* translate nucleotides into amino acids
based on 3 nucleotide "word"
3 nucleotide sequence on DNA triplet
3 nucleotide sequence on RNA codon
Codons orm mRNA (m=messegner)
DNA is copied to mRNA in nucleus using precise base pairing
* Uracil replaces Thymine
mRNA enters cytoplasm
Ribosomes attaches to mRNA
* 2 subunits
* rRNA (ribosomal)
Ribosome "reads" mRNA
tRNA (translationsl) brings amino acids to site
Pertaining to a primary tissue that covers the body surface, lines it's internal cavities, and forms glands.
Living cells surrounded by a non-living matrix.
Most common tissue in the body
* binding and support
Regulates and controls
* generate and conduct electrical impulses
* supporting cells---glial (insulate) cells
* support, insulate, protect
Well innervated and vascularized.
Types of Muscle tissue
* skin, largest organ of the human body.
Mucous Membrane (mucosae)
* stomach and respitory lining
Serous Membrane (serosae)
* stratified (layered), squamous (flat) epithelium
* dense irregular CT
* exposed to air, dry
* line open body cavities
* secrete mucus
* some adapted for absorption or excretion
* epithelial sheet over loose CT
* may rest on smooth muscle
* wd40 of the body
* line closed body cavities
* simple squamous epithelium
* areolar CT
* secrete serous fluid-- lubricant
* pleura, peritoneum, pericardium
* Regeneration/ Fibrosis
* response to damaged tissue
* body resources called to area
* control, minimize damage
* clean up in preparation for repair
( Restoring blood supply)
* clot only temporary---fibrin fibers
* fibroclasts secrete collagen
* new capillaries bud from undamaged capillaries---granulation tissue
* Blood supply restored to area
* macrophages remove clot
* surface epithelium regenerates
* scab falls off--- epithelium thickens
* underlying collagen fibers mature
* scar tissue matures
* scar becomes pale as blood
* supply diminishes to collagen
* area replaced with same tissue ( no scarring)
* new tissue functional
* area replaced with fibrous CT
* scar tissue
* Well approximated wound
* heals from edge to edge
* minimum scarring
* Heals from bottom up
* "dead space" in wound
* significant scarring (layering of fibrous tissue)
* tissue type
* epithelia and vascular connective tissues best
* smooth muscle and dense CT moderate
* skeletal muscle and cartilage weak
* cardiac muscle and nervous have no functional regenerative powers
* type of injury, treatment,care
* nutrition ( vitamins, proteins)
* blood supply
* state of health
* age of individual
* scar tissue nonfuntional
* repair site strong and flexible
* does not function same as replaced tissue
* Adhesions (non-functional)
* internal scar tissue
* attaches organs to each other
* organs may not function well
* Stratum basale (germinativum)
* Stratum spinosum (prickly layer)
* Stratum granulosum (granular)
* Stratum lucidum (clear layer)
* Stratum corneum (horny layer)
* actively dividing keratinocytes
* 10-20% melanocytes
* several layers, desmosomes
* scattered melanin granules
*area of most langerhans' cells
* 3-5 cell layers
* dramatic changes in keratinocytes
* cells flatten, organells and nuclei disintegrate
* keratin accumulates from previous layers
* waterproof glycolipid accumulates extracellularly
* cells die beyond this layer
* only seen in thick skin (calluses)
* 20-30 layers
* outer layers dead
* prtoects from abrasion and penetration
* chemical barrier
*antibacterial skin secretion (sweat)
* physical/mechanical barrier
* waterproof (except lipid soluble) keratin
* biological barrier
* macrophages, langerhans' cells
* Body temerature regulatiion
* capillary blood flow
* cutaneous sensation
* meissner's corpuscles
* pacinian receptors
* root hair plexuses
* bare nerve endings (pain)
* vitamin D precursor
* breaks down carcinogens
* Blood Resivoor (5%)
* long bones
* short bones
* flat bones
* irregular bones
* longer than wide
* bones of limbs and digits
* bones of wrist and ankle
* sesamoid bones
* embedded in tendon
* thin, flattened slightly curved
* sternum, cranial bones
* odd shaped
* vertebra, hip bones
* Storage (minerals, fat, growth factors)
* Hematopoisis ( blood cell formation ) (creation of blood cells)
* compact bone
* spongy bone (cancellous)
Bones are Organs
* connective tissue, nervous tissue
* diaphysis (meduallary cavity)
* epiphysis (articular cartilage, epiphyseal line) (growth plate, on the end of each bone to cushin)
* membranes (periosteum, endosteum)
* hematoma forms
* fibrocartilage callus forms
* bony callus forms
Where two bones meet.
Mobility and protection.
Weakest part of skeleton
Structural Binding material
* synarthroses (no movement)
* amphiarthroses (minimal movement)
* diarthroses (free movement)
* held together by fibrous tissue.
* lenght of fibers--- movement
* sutures (synarthroses)
* Ligament (synarthroses)
* Interosseous membrane (amphiarthrosis)
* gomphosis---- peg in socket (synarthroses)
* united by cartilage
* no joint cavity (hollow space)
* bar or plate of cartilage
* Epiphyseal plate (synostosis)
* symphysis (very thick cartilage)
* fusion of articular cartilages
* pubic symphysis, vertebral discs
* Amphiarthroses (does not typically move except when giving birth)
* fluid filled cavity
* all diarthrotic
* general features
* articular cartilage (hyaline)
* joint cavity (synovial fluid) wd40
* articular capsule
* fibrous capsule, synovium
* synovial fluid
* reinforcing ligaments
* articular surfaces flat
* gliding, slipping, sliding
* carpal, tarsal, vertebral
* extension, flexion
* elbow, knee
* bony projection fits into ring
* atlas-axis, radius-humerous
Condyloid or elliptical
* oval projection fits in depression
* extension, flexion, abduction, adduction
* saddle and rider
* thumb only
Ball and socket
* spherical head, rounded cavity
* greatest ROM (range of motion)
* flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, circumduction
* produce movement
* Maintain posture to hold you upright and give posture
* Stabilize joints
* Generates heat (shivering)
* muscle well supplied with each nerves and blood
* Enter at center of muscle
* Branch profusely through CT
* CP stored in muscles
* CP + ADP ----- ATP
* 15 seconds of contraction
* glycogen stored in muscle
* glycogenolysis= glucose
* glucose--- pyruvate + ATP
* pyruvate used anaerobically to form lactic acid (no ATP)
* vigorous contraction limits o2
* lactic acid--- pyruvate (liver)
* 5% energy yield, 2.5% x faster
* 1 minute of energy
* 95% of ATP
* prolonged muscle activity
* sustained by o2 in muscles (myoglobin storage)
* mitochondria required
* many steps, slower process but higher ATP yield
Surge of Power
* ATP + CP (creatine phosphate)
* weights, diving
On-off or burst-like activity
* anaerobic glycolysis
* tennis, warm-up
* aerobic respiration
* marathon running
(use of energy)
(lack of oxygen)
* point at which muscle converts to anaerobic pathway
* fatigue in 1--2 minutes
(complete burn out)
* body requirement for o2 after exercise completion
* restore cellular chemistry
* restore glycogen stores (ATP)
* rostore myoglobin stores
* convert lactate to glucose (ATP)
* restore CP (ATP)
* restore ATP reserves
* major muscle of movement
* opposes movement
* assist prime mover
* fixator--- stabilizers
Location of muscle.
Size of muscle
direction of fibers
number of origins
muscle origin and insertion
Effort provided by muscle
bone is lever
Joint is fulcrum
Resistance is object moved
Lever allows less effort to move load further or faster
Power lever-- mechanical advantage
* load close to fulcrum
* effort far from fulcrum
* little effort, maximum movement
Speed lever----- mechanical disadvantage
* load far from fulcrum
* effort close to fulcrum
* more effort than load, fast
* load closer to fulcrum
* uncommon in body
* powerful-- mechanical advantage
* effort closer to fulcrum
* most muscles in body
* great speed---- mechanical disadvantage
Structural unit of nervous system.
* longevity (100 years)
* high metabolic rate\
Irritable and conductive cells (easy to trigger responce)
Conduct nerve impulses
* cell body
* Large nucleolus, cytoplasm
* biosynthetic center---organelles
* nissl bodies (rough er)
* most found in CNS--- nuclei
* few clusters in PNS---ganglia
* extend from cell body
* bundles of process in CNS---tracts
* bundles of processes in PNS---nerves
* dendrites and axons
* short, highly branched
* organelles present
* receptive or input region
* conduct impulses to cell body using graded potentials
* one per neuron (nerve fiber)
* arise from axon hillock
* accounts for length of neuron
* may give off axon collaterals
* branch profusely at end telodendria
* ends of teolodentria
* axon terminals
* synaptic bulbs
* conducting component--action potential
* secrete neurotransmitter
* all organelles except Golgi and Nissl bodies
* cant make and package proteins
* must transport from nucleus
* use special cytoskeletal elements
* anterograde--toward axon terminals
* retrograde--- toward cell body
Central Nervous System
* cerebral hemispheres
* diencephalon (thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus)
* brain stem (midbrain, pons, medulla)
* walls of third ventricle
* sorts all sensory information comming into cerebrum
* associates emotion to input
* emotional response, cortical arousal, learning, memory
* only part of the brain that lacks blood brain barrier (BBB).
* floor of third ventricle
* mammillary bodies---olfactory input
* infundibulum--attachment of pituitary
* main homeostatic center (no bbb)
* autonomic control center
* body temperature regulator
* center for emotional response
* satiety, thirst, sleep-wake cycles
* controls endocrine system
* roof of third ventricle
* pineal gland--melatonin
* choroid plexus---CSF formation
* Medulla Oblongata
* Corpora Quadrigemina
* auditory and visual reflexes
* connects all parts of the brain.
* Pneumotaxic and apneustic centers (control respiratory rythem)
* Pyramids---ridge where motor cortex neurons cross (decussation)
* hypothalamus relays to ANS-- autonomic reflex center
* vital centers
* divided into hemispheres
* processes input from motor cortex, brain stem nuclei, and sensory receptors.
* coordinates timing and patterns of skeletal muscle contraction
* smooth, coordinated movements and subconscious activity (music)
* Limbic System
* emotional brain
* group of structures (cerebrum, diencephalon)
* feelings and thoughts interrelated
* psychosomatic illness (stress)
* Reticular Formation
* extends through central core of medulla, pons, and midbrain.
* reticular activating system (RAS)
* continuous stream of info through thalamus to cerebrum.
* alertness--can be inhibited
* inhibited by sleep center, alcohol, drugs (tranquilizers)
* filters repetitive, familiar or weak signals
Reticular formation has motor arm
* regulates coarse limb movements
* autonomic centers---visceral motor functions
* conscious perception of sensation
* voluntary initiation and control of movement
* capabilities associated with higher mental processes (memory, logic)
* continuum of behavior
* highest state of consciousness
* proceeds to sleep
* normal form of unconsciousness
* severly impaired interpretation of surrounding
* complete lack of response to stimuli
* sign of impaired brain function
* usually lack of oxygen to brain
* unresponsive to sensory stimuli
* brain activity lower than in sleep
NREM (non-rapid eye movement)
REM (rapid eye movement)
Sleep alternating pattern between two
(non-rapid eye movement)
* relaxation, rouse easily
* deeper, not easy to arouse
* deeper sleep-- theta, delta
* deep, slow-wave sleep---- bedwetting, sleepwalking
REM (rapid eye movement)
NREM--- 90 minutes
REM--- 5-10 minutes but increasing in length with each time (20-50). Skeletal muscle paralysis
NREM, REM alertness during night
(randomly fall asleep)
* lapse abruptly into sleep.
* episodes last about 15 minutes.
* often triggered by pleasurable experience
* chronic inability to get quantity or quality sleep.
* healthy adults need 4-9 hours a day.
* exaggeration by "insomniacs"
* usually age related
* psychological factors---relaxation techniques
* temporary cessation of breathing.
* likelihood increases with age.
* upper airway blockage---surgery or air mask
* can contribute to other medical problems
Short term memory
* working memory
* lasts seconds to hours.
* limited (7-8 chunks of information)
Long term memory
* ability to score and retrieve declines with age
* emotional state
* association of "new" to "old"
* automatic (extraneous material)
Memory consolidation (permanence)
Declarative (fact) Memory
* explicit information
* conscious memory
* less conscious
* procedural (skills) memory (piano)
* motor memory (bike riding)
* emotional memory (pounding heart)
* different types of memories stored in different parts of the brain.
* thalamus and association cortex involved in fact and skill memory.
* memory retrieval involve activtion of same neurons.
* Damage to hippocampus and surrounding structures.
* Consolidated memories intact.
* no new memories form.
* Live "in the moment" (like in 50 first dates)
* can learn new skills.
Provides chemical stability
Filtrate of Plasma (500 ml/day)
* controls material in CSF
* no protein
* two-thirds of glucose
* more vitamin c
* different in concentrations
Choroid plexus in roof of each ventricle.
* clusters of capillaries.
* covered with ependymal cells.
* tight junctions between ependymal cells.
* controls what leaves plasma.
Total CSF volume = 150 ml
Replaced every 8 hours
CSF moves through ventricles and down central canal.
Most leaves fourth ventricle to subarachnoid space.
* collection of CSF
* blockage of flow and reabsorption
Extends from medulla to L1-L2.
* path to and from brain.
* major reflex center.
End tapers to conus medullaries.
Fibrous extension of pia mater anchors cord to coccyx---filum terminale.
Saw--toothed extensions of pia mater attach spinal cord to vertebra at various points--denticulate ligaments.
Arrangement of Meninges
* dura not fused to bone.
* epidural space--space between bone and dura-- fat and veins.
* dura and arachnoid extend to S2
* lumbar puncture (spinal tap) below L2
* ascending and descending.
* anterior, posterior,lateral
* anterior horn
* posterior horn
*lateral horn (thoracic only)
I. Olfactory bulb (sense of smell)
II. Optic (vision--sensory)
III. Oculomotor (eye movement)
IV. Trochlear (eye movement)
V. Trigeminal (facial sensation movement)
VI. Abducens (eye movement)
VII. Facial (facial expression, taste)
VIII. Vestibulocochlear (balance--hearing--sensory)
IX. Glossopharyngeal (swallowing, taste)
X. Vagus= wanderer (viscera--heart and brain connection)
XI. Spinal Accessory (shoulder movement--shrugging)
XII. Hypoglossal (tongue movement)
31 Pair from Spinal Cord
31 pair from spinal cord.
T1-T12----- 12 pair
L1-L5--- 5 pair
Attached to spinal cord by roots.
* Ventral root-----Motor
* Dorsal root-----Sensory
All spinal nerves mixed.
Leave vertebral column through intervertebral foramina.
* dorsal rami--dorsal surface (muscle and sensation to back)
* meningeal branch--meninges
* rami communicatons--white rami ANS
* ventral rami--ventral surface
"rapid, predictable, expected, involuntary motions"
Respon to stimuli.
* smooth & cardiac muscle
* skeletal muscle
Practice or repetition.
Like driving a car.
Muscle contracts if stretched suddenly or too far.
* maintains muscle tone and posture.
* patellar (knee-jerk) reflex
* monosynaptic, ipsilateral
* checks for intact sensory-motor connection
* absent/hypoactive---peripheral nerve damage, ventral horn injury.
Ganglia close or inside target organs.
Preganglionic fibers long.
Postganglionic fibers short.
oculomotor, facial, vagus, and glossopharyngeal nerves.
ganglia near eye, salivary glands.
Ganglia for vagus nerve near heart, lungs, stomach, pancreas, and gallbladder.
S2--S4 form pelvic splanchnic nerves.
large intestine, bladder, ureters, and reproductive organs.
Ganglia close to spinal cord.
Preganglionic neurons short---rami communications
Postganglionic neurons long
* paravertebral ganglia---either side of spinal cord.
* form sympathetic chain ganglia---neck to pelvis (23 gagnlia/chain)
* prevertebral ganglia---anterior to spinal cord.
* touch--general senses.
* smell, taste, sight, hearing--special senses.
* equilibrium--sensors housed in head---complex structures.
Ducts open at eyelid edge.
Keep eyelids from sticking together.
Chalazion---infection of gland
Ciliary glands---oil glands of lashes
Sty--infection of ciliary gland.
Extrinsic muscles of the eye not perfectly coordinated.
Congenital weakness of extrinsic muscles.
Structure of eyeball
* fibrous--sclera, cornea
* vacular (uvea)--choroid, ciliary body, iris
* inner (retina)---pigmented layer, neural layer
* prevents light scattering
* photoreceptors (rods and cones)
* bipolar neurons
* ganglion cells (optic nerve)
* biconvex, transport, flexible
* encased in epithelium
* suspensory ligaments
* cataract--clouding of lens
Eyes "preset to focus" for distance.
Far point vision---no need to change lens shape--- 20 feet.
Light travels in parallel rays.
Lens flattened--- ciliary muscle relaxed.
Convergence---inward rotation of eyeball for focusing.
* distant objects focus in front of retina.
* near objects focus behind retina..
Photoreceptors. Modified neurons contain visual pigments---photopigments. Vulnerable to damage---immedately begin to deteriorate if retina detaches or if exposed to intense light.
Rod function impaired.
Unsafe to drive at night.
Vitamin A dificiency.
Retinitis pigmentosa----rods selectively destroyed.
Basic taste sensations:
* umami (meaty/metalic)
* no localization of tast on tongue.
Physiology of taste
* chemicals dissolve in saliva.
* gustatory hairs stimulated
* fibers of glossopharyngeal and facial nerve stimulated.
* medulla, thalamus, gustatory, cortex in insula.
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