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1.CHEMICAL-- atoms combined to form molecules (this level is the symplest form)
2.CELLULAR-- cells are made of molecules.
3.TISSUE-- consist of similar types of tissue
4.ORGAN-- made up of similar types of tissue
5.ORGAN SYSTEM-- consist of different organs that work together
6.ORGANISMAL-- made up of the organ system....meaning YOU!! or the sum of you! (plus of minus, LOL)
hair, skin, nails
Function: Protection, synthesizes Vitamihn D, Site of cutaneous recpetor, and sweat/oil glands
Pain receptor-dectects pain called Noceceptor
Pain is a warning system.
bones, joints (joints are not an organ)
Functions: Protects and supports body organs, provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement
skeletal muscles(major organ)
Function: Allows manipulation of environment, location, facial expression, maintans posure, produces heat.
Organs: Senosry receptro, nervces, spinal cord
Function: fast-acting control system of the body. Responds to internal and external changes by activating apporpriate muscles and glands.
Organs: pineal gland, pituitary, thyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, overy, testis
Function:(also control) Glands secrete hormones, regulates processes like growth, reproduction and nutrients (motabolism) by the body cells
Endocrine is like the messanger, harmones sent through blood vessels reaching target organs,cells.
Organ: Heart, blood vessels
Function: Blood vessels transport blood which carries oxygen, carbond dioxide, nutrients, waste, etc..Heart pumps blood.
lymphatic system/immune sustem
Organs: red bone marrow, thymus, lymphatic vessels, thorasic duct, spleen, lymph nodes
Function: picks up fluids leaked from capilaries and retunrs it to blood, disposes debris in lymphatic stream, houses white blood cells( lymphocytes)involved in immunity, Immune system attack foriegn substances. Lymph nodes enlarge when your sick, makes extra cells ,kill infection
Organs: Nasal cavity, phrynx, larynx, treachea, lungs
Function: Keeps blood constantly supplied w/oxygen and removes carbon dioxide, gases exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
Organs: oral cavity, esophgus, liver, stomach, small intestine, large intestines, rectum, anus
Functions: "disasymbles food into absorbable units that inters the blood for even distribution to body cells, indigestables are eleminated as feces.
Organs: kidneys, utreter, urinary bladder, urethra
Function:Eliminates nitrogenous waste, regulates water, electrolytes and acid-basebalance of blood. (waste produces 3 ways- solids(defication), gas(exhale), liquids(urinate)
Male organs: prostate, penis, testis scrotum, ductus deferens
Female organs: Mammary glands, overy, uterine tube uterus vigina
Function: Production of off springs.
Integumentary system- portects body from external environment
Digestive/respritory systems- in contact w/external environ. take in nutrients/oxygen
Nutrients/Oxygen-- distributed by blood
Metabolic waste-- eliminated by unrinary and respritory system
Metabolism-- All chemical reatcions that occur in body
Excretion-- removal of waste
Reproduction--at cellular level, original cell devides, producing two identical daughter cells.
Produces offsprings at organismal level, keeps generation/spcies alive
Nutrients-- chemical sustance used for energy and cell building
Oxygen-- needed for metablolic reaction
Water- provides nesessary environment for chemical reaction
Atomospheric pressure-- required for breathing and gas exchanges in the lungs.
Ability to maintain a relatively stable internal environment in a changing outside world
Enternqal environment of body is in a dynamic state of equilibrium.
Chemical, thermal and neural factors interact to maintain homeostasis.
Variable produices change in body.
Three inerdependent components of control are:
In negative feed back system, the output shuts off the original stimulus (the responce often counteracts the stimuli)
Example: regulation of blood glucose levels.
Positive feed back
Systems output enhances/exaggerates original stimulus (the responce often enhances the stimulus)
Example: Parturation (giving birth)
Disturbance of homeostasis or body's normal quilibrium
Possible causes: Aging, overwhelmed negative feed back, overactive feed back.
Other common Positions
Toward the head end or upper part of a stucture or the body; above
The head is superior to the abdomen
Away from head end or toward the lower part of structure or the body; below
The naval is inferior to the chin.
Toward or at the front of the body; in front of
The breastbone is anterior to the spine
Toward or at the back of the body; behind
The heart is posterior to the breast bone
Toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of
The heart is medial to the arms
Closer to the origin of the body part of the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
The elbow is proximal to the wrist
Farther to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
The knee is distal to the thigh.
Toward or at the body surface
The skin is superficial to the skeletal muscles
Away from the body surface; more internal
Lungs are deep to the skin.
Brachial (upper arm)
Antecubital (front of elbow)
Pubic (genital region)
Patellar (anterior knee)
Pedal (foot) -----[tarsal (ankle)----Digital (toes)
Fibular, or peroneal (side of leg)
Hallux (great toe)
Regional Terms: Posterior View
Occipital (back of head or base of skull)
Acromial (point of shoulder)
Vetebral (spinal column)
Scapular (shoulder blade)
Bracheal (upper arm)
Dorsum or dorsal (back)
Olecranal (back of elbow)
Sacral (between hips)
Perineal (region between the anus and external genitalia)
Ppoliteal (back of knee)
Sagittal-- divides the body into right and left parts
Midsagittal or medial-- sagittal plane that lies on the midline
Para sagittal-- sagital cuts anywhere other than the middle
Frontal or coronal-- divides the body into divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse or horizontal (cross section)-- divides the body into superior and inferior parts
Oblique section-- cuts made diagonally
Dorsal cavity protects the nervous system, and is divided into two subdivisions
Cranial ccavity is with in the sckill and encases the brain
Vertebral cavity runs within the vertebral column and encases the spinal cord
Ventral cavity houses the internal organs (viscera), and is dividd into two subdivisions; thorasic and abdominopelvic
contains the skull (dorsal cavity)
muscle that helps you breath (ventral cavity)
Contains digestive viscera (ventral cavity)
contains bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum. (ventral cavity)
Includes the abdominal and pelvic area of course and is part of the ventral cavity. It is separated from the superior thoracic cavity by the dome-shaped diaphram
It is composed of two subdivisions; abdinubak cavity which contains the stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, and other organs
Pelvic cavity lies within the pelvis and contains the bladder, reproductive organs and rectum
Ventral body cavity
Parietal pericarduim (outer wall of the membrane)
Paricardial space with serous fluid (the middle)
Visceral pericardium (Inner wall that touches the organ)
Formed by the cranial bones.
Formed by bones of vertebral column.
Contains the spinal cord.
Layers of protective tissue that line the cranial cavity and vertebral canal.
3 layers are: Dura matter
Sub arachnoid space
Oral and digestive-- mouth and cavities of the digestive organs
Nasal-- located within and posterior to the nose
Orbital-- houses the eyes
Middle ear-- contain bones (ossicles) that transmit sounds vibrations
Synovial-- joint cavities
Right and left iliac or inguinal
right and left lumbar
Right and left hypochonriac
liver-----right hypochonriac, epigastric, and right lumbar
Ascending colon of large intestine---mostly on the right lumbar, some on embilical area and some ontheright illiac and bypogastric
descending colon of large intestine-----
initial part of sigmoid colon------
Used to asses aspects of body structure and function
Inspection of the body to observe any changes
Palpation---gently touching body surfaces with hands
Auscultation----listening to body via stethoscope
Percussion----Tappin on the body surface with fingertips and listening to echoes
Distinguishing one disorder of disease from another
Signs and symptoms
Collecting information about event
Present illnesses and past medical problems
Orderly evaluation of the body and its function
Non envasive techniques and other vital signs (pulse)
X-rays (since 1940's)
Produces image of interior sturctures
inexpensive and quick
Hollow structures appear black or gray
Do not pass easily through dense structure (bone)
At low dose, useful for soft tissue (breast)
Bone densitometry (bone density)
Magnetic Resonance Imagine (MRI)
High energy magnetic field (protons in body fluid align with field)
Color image on a video monitor (2D and 3D blueprint)
Relatively safe procedure (not used on patients that contain metal)
Used for differentiating normal and abnormal tissues (tumors, brain abnormalities, blood flow)
Hight frequency sound waves
Noninvasive, painless, no dyes
radioactive substance ( radionuclide) given intravenously)
Gamma rays detected by camera
Radionuclide image displays on video monitor
Color intensity represents uptake
Single-photo-emmission compouterized tomography (spect)
Specialized technique used to brain, heart, lungs, and liver
Positron (positively charged particles) emitting substance injected into the body
collision between positrons and negatively charged electron in body tissues
Gamma rays produced
Computer construced a PET scan image in color
Used to sutdy physiology of body structures
Endoscope--lighted instrument with lens and image protected onto a monitor
Colonscopy---Interrior of colon
Laparoscopy--Organs in abdominopelvic cavity
Arthroscopy--interior of joint (knee)
Stuctural Levels of Proteins are
(A)Primary structure( polypeptide strand)
(B)Secondary structure (alha-helix)
(C)Secondary structure (beta pleated sheet)
(E)Quaternary structure (hemoglobin molecule)
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