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Working with geese, he rediscovered the principle of imprinting (originally described by Douglas Spalding in the 19th century) in the behavior of nidifugousbirds. He is often regarded as one of the founders of modern ethology, developing an approach that began with an earlier generation.
ethologist. discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns in animals.
an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. His work centered on investigations of the sensory perceptions of the honey bee and he was one of the first to translate the meaning of thewaggle dance.
any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior.
neural networks that can endogenously (i.e., without rhythmic sensory or central input) produce rhythmic patterned outputs" or as "neural circuits that generate periodic motor commands for rhythmic movements such as locomotion."
Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with a strong relation to certain other disciplines — e.g., neuroanatomy, ecology, evolution. Ethologists are typically interested in a behavioral process rather than in a particular animal group and often study one type of behavior (e.g. aggression) in a number of unrelated animals.
the evolutionary and comparative approach to the study of animal behavior and its underlying mechanistic control by the nervous system.
any relatively permanent change in response that occurs as a result of experience.
the origin and the development of an organism from the fertilized egg to itsmature form. It is in essence, the study of an organism's lifespan.
is part of an answer to a question about why some object or process occurred. Thus mechanism refers back from the object or process, along some chain of causation.
part of an answer to a question about why some object or process occurred in a system that evolved through a process ofselection.
the study of evolutionary relatedness among groups of organisms (e.g. species,populations), which is discovered through molecular sequencing data and morphological data matrices.
for such a large number of problems there will be some animal of choice, or a few such animals, on which it can be most conveniently studied
the effects of the "struggle between the individuals of one sex, generally the males, for the possession of the other sex".
influence the evolution of secondary sexual characteristics which determine the relative "attractiveness" of members of one sex to the other sex.
involves characteristics which affect the outcome of competition among members of one sex for access to members of the other sex.
an interaction between organisms or species, in which the fitness of one is lowered by the presence of another. Limitedsupply of at least one resource (such as food, water, and territory) used by both is required.
correlated with, or reliably predict, something useful to the receiver. In this usage, honesty is a useful correlation between the signal trait (which economists call ”public information” because it is readily apparent) and the unobservable thing of value to the receiver
theory that females almost always invest more energy into producing offspring than males invest, and therefore in most species females are alimiting resource over which the other sex will compete.
a type of courtship behavior in which the male offers up some sort of "gift" and the female can use the size or quality of the gift to determine whether to mate with that male or not.
an explanation which suggests that the traits females choose when selecting a mate are honest indicators of the male’s ability to pass on genes that will increase the survival or reproductive success of her offspring.
how evolution may lead to "honest" or reliable signaling between animals who have an obvious motivation to bluff or deceive each other. Suggests that reliable signals must be costly to the signaler, costing the signaler something that could not be afforded by an individual with less of a particular trait.
explanation for sexual selection of traits that do not obviously increase fitness of survival. That selection of such traits is a result of sexual preference; that members of the opposite sex find a trait desirable.
any behavior of one animal that affects the current or future behavior of another animal.
seeing average male with another female effects choice of mate.
both sender and receiver gain from internal intentional signal.
senders outcome is negative when signal is intercepted by another.
communication to and from oneself.
the sensory receptors of both the auditory system and the vestibular system in all vertebrates.
light-sensitive proteins involved in the sensing and response to light in a variety of organisms. They mediate light responses as varied as visual perception, phototropismand phototaxis, as well as responses to light-dark cycles such as circadian rhythm and other photoperiodisms including control of flowering times in plants and mating seasons in animals.
Any of a series of sensory organs in certain fish, such as sharks, skates, and electric eels, that detect electric fields and are located on the head and along the lateral line.
The first stage in the memory process, followed by storage and retrieval, involving processes associatedwith receiving or briefly registering stimuli through one or more of the senses and modifying that information; a decay process or loss of this information (a type of forgetting) occurs rapidly unless the next two stages,storage and retrieval, are activated
process by which a neuron or a neural circuit can encode information by detecting the occurrence of timely simultaneous yet spatially separate input signals.
a type of memory in which previous experiences aid in the performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous experiences.
any learning process in which a new response becomes associated with a particular stimulus.
those instances in which an animal’s behaviour toward a stimulus changes in the absence of any apparent associated stimulus or event (such as a reward or punishment).
an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus.
a form of non-associative learning, is the psychological process in humans and other organisms in which there is a decrease in psychological and behavioral response to a stimulus after repeated exposure to that stimulus over a duration of time.
a major component of the brains of humans and other mammals. It belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory and spatial navigation.
the capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.
the ability of the brain to change as a result of one's experience, that the brain is 'plastic' and 'malleable'. (relates to critical period)
an increase in synaptic efficacy arises from the presynaptic cell's repeated and persistent stimulation of the postsynaptic cell
endogenously driven roughly 24-hour cycle in biochemical, physiological, or behavioural processes
substances that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.
an action or object coming from the outside of a system.
any exogenous (external) cue that synchronizes an organism's endogenous (internal) time-keeping system (clock) to the earth's 24-hour light/dark cycle.
a tiny region on the brain's midline, situated directly above the optic chiasm. It is responsible for controlling circadian rhythms.
the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities versus personal experiences in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits.
the phenotypic effect of interactions between genes and the environment.
examines the expression level of mRNAs in a given cell population, often using high-throughput techniques based onDNA microarray technology.
the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions.
a scientific methodology which emphasizes analysis of large volumes of experimental data with the goal of finding new patterns or correlations, leading to hypothesis formation and other scientific methodologies.
a genetic phenomenon by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. It is an inheritance process independent of the classicalMendelian inheritance.
a discipline in genetics concerning the study of the genomes of organisms.
the measurement of the activity (the expression) of thousands of genes at once, to create a global picture of cellular function.
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