Morgan Green Green, 1 Professor Echelberger ENG 201 T/R 9:30 10 October 2009 Green, 2 Annotated Bibliography Every day we spend hours in conversation. From business conversations, to talking to friends and family, a large portion of our days is spent talking to others. Countless studies have been done on the many different aspects and types of conversation. One such aspect that tends to draw a lot of attention is conversation between the sexes. Most studies seem to suggest that cross-sex friendships are very different from same-sex friendships, and, therefore, create different conversations. A plethora of research has been done in examining the differences in how men and women communicate, and how this affects conversation. There are numerous books and studies looking at things such as the differences in speech, sexual tension in cross-sex communication, how early development affects our communication methods, and how gender plays a role in conversation in the workplace. Research has proven that the ways men and women communicate are very different, and understanding these differences could allow for more effective communication between the sexes. This bibliography provides a list of resources that can be used when looking at communication differences between genders. The studies listed below provide a variety of perspectives on the differences in communication between men and women. These resources can be used to study what these differences are, and to better understand why they exist. Barrett, Mary, and Marilyn J. Davidson. Gender and Communication at Work. Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2006. Print. This study illustrates the idea of how gender affects conversation in the workplace. The topics range from communication differences in body language between the sexes, to how each sex writes and interprets emails differently. The chapter discussing the gender differences in how they manage a workplace was particularly interesting. The differences in management have a lot to do with how the one in charge communicates with those they are in charge of. According to the study, women in management tend to be more focused on forming a personal relationship with those they are in charge of, one in which communication is open and honest, and they can be emotionally supportive. Men, on the other hand, tend to use the way they communicate to show their superiority in the workplace. They don?t form personal relationships with the people they are in charge of, they speak more directly, and mostly about matters relating to the work that they are doing. Hopper, Robert. Gendering Talk. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2003. Print. This book discusses many of the differences in the way that males and females talk, both content and the actual process. One section discussing the differences is a study done on interruptions. The book suggests that men tend to interrupt women far more often than women interrupt men. It also talks about why this might be the case, in the book it states, ?Interruption is an intrusion, a trampling on someone else?s right to the floor, an attempt to dominate.? (178) The book uses this idea, and a variety of studies showing that men do interrupt far more often than women to show that it is an attempt for men to dominate women in conversation. Another subject the book covers is the differences in content of conversation. There are four topics in the book that tend to be different; quantity, men tend to talk more than women, questions, women tend to ask more questions, qualifiers, women tend to have more qualifiers and disclaimers, and politeness, women tend to be more polite in their speech. All of these differences have been researched over a wide variety of studies. Rawlins, William K. The Compass of Friendship. California: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2009. Print. This book shows talks a lot about the aspects of same sex and cross sex friendships. It particularly focuses on cross sex friendships with people in their late teens and early twenties. On the positive side, it talks about how the differences between males and females make cross sex friendships special. Men can allow themselves to feel more vulnerable with women, and discuss emotional issues that they may not feel comfortable discussing with other men. Men can make good friends for women because they often like to do activities rather than just talking, while talking is good, it is also good to get out and do activities every once in a while. On the negative side, however, oftentimes females don?t feel like they can open up with males, they are not as comfortable talking about many topics that they can discuss with other females. Also the differences in communication can cause frustration when the other person doesn?t understand what you are trying to communicate because of the differences. The book also discusses the possible interference of sexual tension in cross sex friendships. Rudacille, Deborah. The Riddle of Gender. New York: Pantheon Books, 2005. Print. This book discusses communication at a much earlier age than the other books. It discusses the ideas of how a person is communicated with at an early age helps to set their definition of themselves within their gender. It suggests that how a person is talked to and treated at a young age, especially by their parents, greatly contributes to how the person will communicate with others as they grow older. As a very broad and apparent example, the book discusses how when girls are very young they many times are more nurtured than boys are; they are asked more about their feelings and emotions. On the other hand, boys at an early age are communicating in a more physical way, many times roughhousing with their peers or parents. This translates into how they communicate at an older age; women tend to be more willing to talk about their emotions than men are, and men are more likely to spend time with another person doing a physical activity.
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