Anomalies of Craniovertebral Junction
Last Modified: 2013-06-10
-may occur as an isolated anomaly, with a __ or secondary to a __ such as osteomalacia or paget's disease.
-associated anomalies include __, __, __, __
-__ allows for evaluation of neurologic structures
-when it is primary, or congenital, it is often associated with __ of the atlas, __ of the atlas, __ abnormalities, __
-the secondary form occurs as a result of a __, such as paget's disease, osteomalacia, fibrous dysplasia, or rheumatoid arthritis
-patient may experience symptoms in their __ and __ decades of life.
-symptoms include __, __, dysphagia, __, unsteady __
-headaches, visual disturbances, facial pain, gait
-lateral skull radiographs show abnormal __ and __ line
-__ should be considered to assess the brainstem and cerebellum
-__ malformation is the most common
-__ are affected 3:2
-symptoms may include __ and __ pain
-__ are not helpful for showing abnormality, but may show associated conditions such as __
-headaches and neck pain
-the diagnosis is made with __ or __.
-the findings are low-lying __, triangular shaped __, and kinking of the __
-treatment is enlargement of the __
-cerebellar tonsils, cerebellar tonsils, fourth ventricle
-physical presentation may include a low __, short __, and restricted __
-may produce symptoms of __ pain.
-pain may dysfunction usually begin __ y.o.a
-early degenerative changes at __ and __ are commonly seen
-more common in __, 5:1
-alteration of adjustive techniques should be considered as __ and __ moves may compromise the spinal cord and vertebral arteries
-association b/w occipitalization and anomalies of the __, __, __ and __.
-__ will show the close approximation of C1 to the occiput.
-Fusion may be __ or __
-__ and __ films will show lack of motion between C1 and occiput
-__ will allow for evaluation of the brainstem and upper cervical cord
-bony or fibrous
-lateral cervical flexion and extension
-the occipital bone forms from four or five somites which fuse together to encircle the __
-when the most inferior somite fails to unite to others, it remains an __ and is called an __ or __
-occipital or pro-atlas vertebra
-may take the form of a __, __ or __, or __
-not usually __
-difficult to see on lateral cervical x-rays due to the overlying __
-are typically asymptomatic but may produce __ and __
-may lie __, __, or __
-ranges from a cleft in the __ to, __ agenesis, to __ agenesis
-__ is present at the site of bone agenesis
-union of the posterior arch is typically visible by age __
-posterior arch may join to the __, producing a mega-spinous sign
-hypoplasia of the posterior arch may present as a __ or a __.
-a short posterior arch may produce __
-thin arch or a short arch
-may occur with __ or __
-radiographs show an absence of the __.
-the __ of the atlas may appear sclerotic
-spinolaminar junction line
-hard to visualize on __ - may see a vertical lucency superimpose over the odontoidon the APOM view.
-on the lateral cervical view, the __ appears bulbous and indistinct
-when associated with posterior spina bifida, there may be offset of the __ of C1 on C2
-the __ transmits the vertebral artery and veins, the first cervical nerve, and the perivascular sympathetic nerves
-most are asymptomatic but it has been associated with ___ insufficiency, Barre-lieou syndrome, and chronic __
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