Chapter 11 The Rise of the Sate Archeological evidence: monumental architecture, central storehouses, and irrigation, written records Status: difference in wealth, burial goods, house size and furnishing First States: Mesopotamia- 5500 BP, Uruk: (6000-5200), Middle East, Jericho, Catal Huyuk (8000-7000) Factors in Mesopotamia: pop growth, specialized food production, trade, social stratification, and warfare Also in: Indus- Harappa, Vedic 6400-3900, China- Shang 3750, Egypt-5100 First writing: Summer- cuneiform, Why they collapse: invasion, disease, famine, and environments VOCAB: State: form of social and political organization that has a formal central government and a division of society into classes Chiefdom: pre-state, privileged and effective leaders but lack social class division like that in states Morton Fried?s Social Rank Egalitarian: lacks status distinction except those based on age, sex, and individual ability, not inherited- common among foraging bands and tribes Ranked: hereditary inequality but no sharp social divisions common among chiefdoms Stratified: status inherited and sharply divided between noble and commoner classes, states Chapter 12: Method and Theory in Cultural Anthropology Goals of Ethnography: describe and understand culture, provide foundation for generalizations about human behavior and society Ethnographic Methods: Participant observation: record what they see, feel, smell, and hear, total immersion Conversation: interviewing, face-to-face interaction with people Genealogical: understand current social relations to reconstruct history, rules of behavior, marriage practices, social realtions Key Cultural informant: expert on particular aspect of local life, people who teach the ethnographer about the culture Life Histories: recollection of a lifetime, experiences provides a more personal look into the culture Emic approach: investigates how local people think, rules of behavior, how they imagine things Etic approach: realizes that people in their culture are to involved to interpret their culture impartially Father of American Anthropology: Franz Boas We should not view different cultures as stage in one grand evolutionary scheme, integrated ideas of culturals relativism, Chapter 13: Language and Communication Language: type of system for encoding and decoding information for communication, which has some form of modality and is meaningful Sapir-Whorf hypothesis- language influences the thought and behavior of its speakers Structure of language- set of finite elements (phonemes, morphemes, grammar) to combined to and infinite number of possibilities Syntax- the study of sentence patterns Morphology- the study of word patters, or morphemes Phonology- the study of phonemes (sound patterns) Semantics- the study of meaning patterns, the investigation of the vocabulary that comprises a language, Gendered speech- women speak more politely and grammatically correct than men Nonhuman primate communication- only humans can speak; animals have natural communication systems, they are limited (small amount of signals), instinctive (evoked by stimuli), and non-flexible (lack productivity, displacement) VOCAB Productivity: use language to refer to an open ended set of possibilities Displacement: describing what is not present Kinesics: the study of communication through body language (facial expression, body stance, pitch of voice, gestures, movements) Lexicon- all the words in a language and their associated meanings Attributes- qualities that distinguish objects Segregate- a label that is placed on objects or array of objects Inclusion- to include other objects Generative grammar- the set of rules of combing words into grammatical sentences are universal and innate for human beings Universal grammar: nativism or the idea that the ability for language and to acquire specific language occurs through child development and through adulthood Chomsky Chapter 14 Ethnicity and Race Hypodecent- children are assigned to the same race as their minority parent Status- any position that determines where someone fits in society Ascribed status- little or no choice about occupying status Achieved status- gained through choices, actions, efforts, talents, or accomplishments Race- ethnic group assumed to have biological basis Acculturation- the exchange of culutural features that results when groups come into first hand contact, the culture patterns of both groups may change, but the groups remain extinct Assimilation- adsorption of minorities within a dominant culture Race is a Modern Idea VOCAB: Morgan?s levels of Cultural complexity Band Tribe Chiefdom State Cultural Evolution: Savagery, Barbarism, and Civilization Humans are polytypic: local populations differ in expression of one or more traits Race- ethnic group assumed to have biological basis, cultural category Racism- discrimination against and ethnic group that is assumed to have a biological basis Prejudice- devaluing group for assumed behavior, values, capabilities, attributes Discrimination- policies and practices that harm a group and members Chapter 15: Making a living Subsistence strategies and gender roles Hunting and gathering- division by gender and age, men hunt, women gather- more equality Horticulture- men hunt, clear fields, women work in the fields and have more political power as food producers Agriculture- men are farmers; women are domestic, women lose the role as primary cultivator, more domestic= inferior, first time women separated from production heavy labor of males and beast, sedentary lifestyle and higher fertility, isolated women Industrialist- transitioning from agricultural heritage to more egalitarian gender relationships Reciprocity- the exchange of goods and services proximately equal between two parties Generalized- between kin, value not calculated Balanced- immediately returned of equal value Negative- where the giver tries to get the better Big man-regional figure found among tribal horticulturalist and pastoralist, the big man occupies no office but creates his reputation through entrepreneurships and generosity to others, neither his wealth or position is passed down Subsistence strategies and social organization Adaptive strategies- similar economic causes produce similar cultural effects Foraging-people rely on available resources rather that controlling reproduction Band- basic social unit among foragers, fewer than 100 people, may split seasonally Highly mobile Egalitarian society Horticulture-cultivation that makes intensive use on none of the factors of consumption, land, labor, capital and machinery Slash + burn- clean land by fire, plant crops, sow, harvest Large permanent villages, small simple houses Agriculture- cultivation using land and labor continuously and intensively Irrigation not used in horticulture People live in large more permanent communities, increased contact with other groups Pastoralist- focus on domesticated animals hunting and gathering and trade to get the rest Nomadic-entire group movies with animals throughout the year Transhumance- part of the group moves with the herds, most stay home in the village Industrialism- machine run, Class- based society; economic domain stands apart from ordinary social life; specialization of occupation VOCAB Production- how good are brought in Distribution- how good are given out Reciprocity- principles governing exchange Redistribution- form of exchange, goods gathered to a central place, sorted, counted, distribution Exchange Consumption- how goods are used Capital- decision making is dependent on capital Market principle- buying, selling, and valuation based on supply and demand law of supply and demand Potlatch festive event on in the Pacific Northwest, regional exchange system, members give away good in order to gain prestige, helped those with bad years Chapter 16: Political Systems Definitions of band, tribe, chiefdom and state Band-kin based group (all members related by kinship or marriage), foraging economy, and some horticulture, nomadic or semi-nomadic, decisions made by consensus, power exercised by persuasion, informal social control Tribe- economies based on non-intensive food production, horticulture, pastoralist, live in villages, organized into kin groups based on common descent, lack formal government, no reliable means of enforcement, decisions generally by consensus, some social control, tribal leaders usually ?big men? Chiefdom- sociopolitical organization, intermediate between state and tribe, social relationships based mainly on kinship, marriage, descent, age, generation, gender, differential access to resources, permanent political structure, controlled by chief- political office, full time specialist who regulate economy, office always filled, has a role in production, distribution and consumption resources State- form of sociopolitical organization based on formal government structure and social stratification, specialized in population control, judiciary, enforcement, fiscal, wins loyalty through ideology Social control in the State- promotion of national belonging, citizenship rather than kin bases, concept of nationality, hegemony- internalized and comply with rulers, values and accept naturalness of domination, idea of subordinates gaining power some day, oppressed seem to accept domination, but question privatley VOCAB Sociopolitical organization: regulation or management of interrelations among groups Regulation: normal function of system Decision-making Social control Conflict resolution Power: ability to exercise one?s will over others Authority: socially approved use of power Social Control: maintaining social norms are regulating conflict Sodality: non-kin based organization that may generate cross-societal linkages Age sets: unisex (male) political groups that include everyone born within a certain time span who progress through a series of age grades together Law: legal code with trial and enforcement Military ? protects from neighbors Police- preserves internal order Fiscal system- finances and taxation Chapter 17: Gender Gender roles and matrilineal/ patrilineal societies Matrilineal- high female, resources needs, low warfare, less gender stratification Patrilineal- high males, high warfare, women are looked at as inferior, more gender stratification Sexual Orientation- a person?s habitual attraction to and sexual activities with others Opposite sex- heterosexual Same sex-homosexuality Either sex- bisexual, pan sexuality No interest- asexuality Third Sex Transgender- people who cross-over or occupy a culturally accepted intermediate position in the binary male/ female gender construction Berdache Tradition- Native American cultures of the Great Plains, alternative social space for transgendered individuals, males that dress and behave as females, thought to carry both sprits of men and women Hijra- India, transgender males, hermaphrodites or castrated males, choose to dress like women in exaggerated way Women vs. more valued work outside the home, work done in the home do domestic/Public- work at home, men do work done outside the home Feminization of Poverty- female headed households increasing, single mothers, male migration for work, warfare. Women?s human rights issues: poverty, homelessness, child care, health problems, domestic violence, sexual assault, reproductive rights VOCAB Sex- biological differences Gender-cultural construction of what is male, female, etc Gender roles- task and activities a culture assigns to the sexes Gender stereotypes- over simplified but strongly held ideas about the characteristics about the character of males and females Gender systems organize: reproduction and childrearing, gender roles, personality characteristics, gender stratification Enculturation- children learn culture by being fully emerged in it and being taught explicitly Intersexual- person born with reproductive organs not exclusively male or female Chapter 18: Families, Kinship, and Descent Cross-and parallel cousins- Parallel- the children of your parents siblings of the same gender, your uncles kids of you dads side, your aunts kids on your mom?s side Cross- the children of your parents sibling of the opposite genders, your aunt on your dad?s side kids Matrilineal/Patrilineal Patrilineal- through the father, all the children, and the son?s children and his sons children, Keep male members together in the group, useful for subsistence patterns that require heavy labor investment, useful for keeping men together to protect the society from external threats Matrilineal- descent traced through the female?s line or group, cooperative labor of women, husband wife bond is weak, Mother?s brother is the dominant male figure (distributes goods, organizes work, settles disputes, controls inheritance, legal authority) Women?s children, and her daughters children and her daughters children Totem- mythical ancestor Multiple fathers (partible paternity) VOCAB Kinship- is the set of social rule that determine who is related to whom, regulate access to property, organize ceremonial functions, regulate labor, regulate access to leadership Clans- a collection of lineages that can trace their ancestry to an apical ancestor, real or fake Consanguineal relatedness- can be biological or socially determined, biological parentage: Genitrix/ Genitor, Social parentage: Mater/Pater, fictive kin (godparents) Descent- a kind on kinship in which membership requires being a direct lineal descendent Unilineal- through either male or female life, found in horticulturalist (matrilineal) pastoralist (patreilineal) Cohnatic- through a combination of male or female connections, most often found in foragers, and bands Ego female male Dead = marriage l marriage ? Sibling W- wife, H- husband F-father D ? daughter S- son Z- sister B-brother Chapter 19: Marriage Post marital residence patterns Patrilocality- married couple moves in with husband?s family, children will grow up in their parents village, associated with patrilineal descent Matrilocality- married couple lives with wife?s family associated with matrilineal descent Dowry/brideprice/brideservice Bridewealth- marital gift by husbands group to wife?s group Progeny wealth- martial gift from husband?s group to wife?s group- legitimizes their children Dowry- substantial gifts to husband?s family from wife?s group, compensation for the extra burden Incest taboo Incest- forbidden sexual relations between close family members Different across cultures American cousin is incest Unilienal ? cross cousins are not incest Endogamy/exogamy- Endogamy-marriage of people from the same group Exogamy- marriage outside of a given group Arranged marriage Polygamy/polygny/polygandry Polygamy- having multiple marriage partners Polygy- when a man has more than one wife, in societies where men marry late, women marry early, more wives, more productivity Polygandry- when a women has more than one husband, cultural adaption to mobility associated with male travel, always a man at home, scarce resources Widow remarriage Sororate- widower marries sister of dead wife Levirate- widow marries brother of dead wife Chapter 20- Religion Animism, animates, theism Animism- the belief that spiritual beings inhabit the world, people animals, places, natural phenomena Mana in Polnesia- belief in immanent supernatural domain or life-force in the bodies of chiefs- dangerous to others Mana in Melanesia- more like luck, objects with mana could change your fortune Theism- the belief in a god or many gods who are powerful supernatural agents and take some sort of active role in the lives of humans Polytheism- many gods, (Greece & Rome) Monotheism- one god (Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism) Magic- supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims, may be May be imitative- or contagious Used to control Found in cultures with diverse religious beliefs Often associated with witchcraft and sorcery Sometimes used as prevention Can be highly ritualized or idiosyncratic Witchcraft- has innate, inborn supernatural or magical ability to harm people either unconsciously and involuntarily, or consciously Soercery- specialist who have learned how to use magic, deliberate use of magi and manipulation of the supernatural Rites of passage- transform the participants from one social status and role to another Three phases Separation-withdraw Liminality- transition Incorporation, reintergration- re-enters with new status VOCAB Religion- belief and ritual concerned with super natural beings, powers, forces, must be excepted on faith Ways of dealing with the supernatural, explain the unknown, powerful moralizing influences, guide for behavior and relationship to world Cultural universal Explanatory, validating, integrating Social control, reduces conflict, group solidarity Supernatural- above or separate from the world or everyday experiences Spirituality- indicates distance from organized religion while maintaining belief in some form of higher power Ritual- formal, stylized, repetitive and stereotyped behavior, based on liturgical order, convey information about participants and their culture, rituals are social acts Rite of Solidarity- foster group cohesion, ancestor worship, holy communion group prayer Mystery Religion- any religion with secret wisdom and practices imparted only to initiates over time Mysticism- the effort to experientially connect with supernatural forces, truth, God, often involves altered states of consciousness Religious contact can lead to: peaceful coexistence, conversion, borrowing of concepts, co-opting of concepts or traditions by a dominant group Syncretism, revitalization, conflict Chapter 21: Arts, Media, and Sports Blombos Cave artifacts- 70 ka, remains of finely worked tools, ochre, and engraved artifacts Ethnomusicology- the study of musics of the world and of music as an aspect of culture and society, study of music itself and the instruments used to create it, Learning about Art -Individual vs. Collective- artwork is often collaborations in other genres of art Art and the Individual- we learn what is considered good art in our own society, music is different from culture to culture Art is becoming globalized world; we have a wealth of artistic traditions draw on for inspiration Media- becoming to affect cultures and globalization processes VOCAB Art- includes music, dance, theater, visual art, story telling, and literature, it is expressive culture, manifestation of human creativity, many cultures lack terms that translate, art is associated with aesthetic experience, stimulates and sustains contemplation, can be religious or secular Sports- football as a reflection of American society, different attitudes about wining Chapter 22: The World System and Colonialism Modern world system- three worlds- nations are economically and politically interdependent and relations are shaped by capitalist world Capitalist world economy- world system committed to production for sale or exchange with object of maximizing profits World system theory- discernible social system, based on wealth and power differentials, extends beyond countries Marx/Weber social stratification theories Marx & Engels-sharp separation between two classes, Bourgeoisie: owned means of production Proletariat- working class, had to sell labor to survive Weber- three dimensions of social stratification- Wealth- economic status, power- political status, prestige- social status, Cross-cut by other identities: ethnicity/race, religion, nationality Proleterianization- separation of the workers from the means of production Class consciousness- recognition of collective interest and personal identification with ones economic group Ethnocide/genocide/ecocide Genocide-deliberate extermination of a group Ethnocide- destruction of the culture of a group Ecocide- destruction of the environment VOCAB Wallerstien?s theory to understand the modern world economic system Core- dominant and most powerful; advanced system of production, monopolize world finance Semi-periphery- industrialized but fill intermediate position between core and periphery Periphery- least privileged and powerful, produce raw materials, agricultural products, labor External- remained outside of the system all together Industrial Revolution: historic transformation of traditional into modern societies through industrialization of the economy, replaced domestic system of manufacture, began with cotton, iron, potter, scientific innovation, capital, coal and cheap labor Socioeconomic effects- initially it raised the overall standard of living, but soon factory owners began to recruit cheap labor, social ills worsened factory life, cities- concentrate people for work Lenski- social equality tends to increase in advanced industrial societies, wealthy control but no longer own means of production, development of middle class- skilled workers and professionals complicates the class system Imperialism: policy of extending rule of a nation or empire over the other nations Colonialism- political, social, economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for extended period of time, marked by industrialism (unmatched weapons, unrivaled sea power, unlimited cheap labor, extraction of natural resources, export agriculture) Goal- extract as much wealth for themselves and homeland as possible, seizing wealth colonized, putting population to work extracting resources and products White man?s burden- justification of colonization (British) Mission civilsatrice- civilizing and Catolicizing mission Indirect rule- practice of governing through native political structures and leaders Direct rule- practice of imposing new governments upon populations Legacy of Colonialism- left colonies underdeveloped, destroyed indigenous patterns of economic production, changed and sometimes destroyed cultural patterns, introduced Christainity, science, medicine Settler countries- large numbers of European colonist and sparser native populations Nonsettler- large native populations and only a small number of Europeans Mixed post colonies- sizable native and European populations World classification- first world- democratic, capitalist, modern industrial states, Second world- Eastern bloc, former communist states, industrializing at the time, Third world- originally the unaligned nations, came to be the developing world Fourth-world- nations of indigenous people living within or across state boundaries Econmic development- desirable evolutionary advanced with long -term benefits for natives Development- improve quality of life, adequate levels of economic consumption Assuring suitable, political and economic systems that allow individual potentiality and self-esteem Underdevelopment- a new phenomena, new kind of poverty, denied access to resources and material wealth available in the modern world system, largely due to colonial policies, linked with dependency on outside power, economic pressures to maintain status quo Globalization- Broad scale changes and transformations, resulting from the impact of industrialization global economy with respect to capital, labor, technology, electronic communication, multinational corporations Chapter 23: Global Issues Today Culture Contact Acculturation- refers to changes that result when groups come into continuous contact, changes in the cultural changes in one or both groups Westernization- the acculturation of Western expansion on local cultures worldwide Religious Change-religious proselytizing can promote ethnocide as native beliefs, customs, ideology and behavior are replaced Cultural Imperialism- spread of one dominant culture at the expense of others When forces from world centers enter new societies, the new societies are indigenized, or made to fit the new culture Legacy of industrialization- reduced manufacturing sector, development of high-tech computer hardware and software capacities, based on information rather that manual labor, making the integration of global economies possible Global climate change- climate change- global warming plus changing sea levels, precipitation, storms, and ecosystem effects, due to human activates, Greenhouse affect- warming from trapped atmospheric gases Disease
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