Anth 204 February 23, 2010 Week 7 Midterm In Class Thursday Feb 25th 35 Multiple choice and 8 Short answer Teachers available for questions Wednesday February 24th in Lilly G402 3:00pm-4:15pm Themes Scientific Method Biocultural Approach Adaptation Diversity Evolution Course Topics Evolution? What is Anth? Is a holistic discipline that uses a biocultural approach to scientifically study humankind 4 subfeilds? 6 features unique to humans Bipedalism Non-honing chewing Material culture and tools Hunting The History fo Evolutionary theory Prior to Darwin- fixed species theology Alfred Russell Wallace and Erasmus Darwin Influences on Darwin Geology Paleontology Toxonomy and SYstematics Charles Darwin Rote On the Origin of Species Evolution By Natural Selction Evolution occurs Common descent Varitaion is real and imp[ortant Environmental specific Traits that are beneficial are passed on more often From individual to population Individuals make up population Changes in ? Gregor Mendel Demonstrated mechanicas of Inheritence via pea plants Traits did not blend Alles carry genes Carried by parents to offspring Modern Synthesis Unified approach to genetics Biologicval basis for life Somatic cells- body cells comprise most tissues- bones, skin, brain Gamete cells- sex cells Cell division Mitosis Somatic cell division 1 cell= 2 daugter cells Meiosis Gamete cell division 1 cell= 4 daughter cells Protein synthesis Proteins are chains of amino acids Transcib from DNA to RNA Translation from Rna to proteins Medelian Inheritence Principle of Segregation Genes are descript units Genes are in pairs One gene from each parent Independent Assortment Most traits are not simple Most complex traits Many genes= one trait(polygenic, pleitrophy) Problems Non-dysjunction or anueploidy- 3 copies or no copies Unequal cross-over Codominance- both alleses are expressed equally Sex Chromosomes- X or Y(some traits passed only by these) Microevolution Small scale changes form one generation to next Hardy Weinberg equilibrium equation If nothing change= no evolution IF allele frequencies change=micro evolution Change is caused by forces in evolution 4 forces of microevolution Mutation Selection Gentic drift Mutatin Heritable change in structure or amount of DNA Can be spontaneous or induced Selection Favors individuals that enhance survival anfd reproduction Fitness= reproductive success- average number of kids from one genotype Ntural Selection Those with advantageous characteristics wil survive and reproduce in higher numbers Genetic Drift Genetic changes due to chance Change in the relative frequency in which gene is passed on Gene Flow Transder Bottle Neck A significant part of population is killed of isolated Founder effect= small group of a large parent population moves into isolation Macroevolution Restricted to fossils and living animals Palosepcies- morphology or anatomically defined species Origin of a species Speciation- populations of a species become reproductively isolated- changes build up resulting in new species Cladogensis- brac=nching evolution 2 or more daugheer species Tempo of evolution Gradualism- evolutionary change at a slow and steady rate Punctuated- short bursts of evolutiona and then stability Fossils Provide direct physical evidence to past= key component to evolution Require time How species relate Cladistics- uses taxonomy that groups species based on shared derived characteristics Primative- inherited by a large group from remote ancestor Derived- shared by a smaller number Rare and requires optimal conditions Rare Time and Environment Datin Methods Absolute-numerical Relative-associtaion Dating Steno;\?s law of superpost=ition- series of geo layers higher rocks younger than lower Relative- Stratigraphical dating Absolute dating Radiometric revolution Non-radiometric Molecular clock Genetic Datinf Based on assumption?. Primate Agroup of mammals in order of primates, include prosimians, monkeys, apes and humans. What makes a primate Aboreal adaptation Parental investment? Generalized skeletal patterns Hands and feet- opposable thumbs 5 functionally different vertebra Geralized teeth patern- y-5, Canine-premolar homing complaex Parental investment-longer gesatation Bigger brains and more complex Color vision Depth perception Bony eye socket Decrased smell and hearing Theories as to why All say from environment Primeate evolutions begins in Cenzioc post 60 mya Oligocene= 1st anthropoids Fayum Egypt Rich in plants Miocene apes- 17 my of adaptive radiation for hominids Out of Africa Miocnee fossils Mostly large bodies More closely related to ape-humans Origin of Monkeys Early Miocnee Primative- victoriapithecus? Prosimsians Found in old world Retain ancestral traits Dental comb Variety of locomotor patterns
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