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-Basis for peace among nations after war
-Reduce armaments (weapons and army)
-Self-determination- all people have right to own nation
Allowed for the management of water in the west.
Dams built to redirect water to dry arid lands
(1850-1924) Served as president of the American Federation of Labor from it's inception until his death. He focused on achieving concrete economic gains such as higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions.
Considered perhaps the best president between Abraham Lincoln and Theodore Roosevelt, he is the only one to serve two non-consecutive terms as the 22nd and 24th president. He was known for his honesty, stubbornness and hard work.
· Premier socialist and the American Railway Union leader
· Joined the Pullman Strike (due to wage cuts and no rent reduction)
· Shut down 24 rail companies and a major rail hub (successful)
· Cleveland had to send troops to get the railways running again, and Debs was arrested
is a system based upon democratic rules and institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and provincial state Goverments
Gibbens vs. Ogyden
1824, was a landmark decision in which the supreme court of the US held that the power to regulate in interstate commerce , granted to the Congress by the commerce clause of the US Constitution, encompassed the power to regulate navigation
McCulloch vs. Maryland
1819 Supreme decision upholding the right of Congress to create a bank
Ended slavery, lead to civil war (northern vs southern states )
Roe vs Wade
1973, ruled unconstitutional a state law that banned aprons except to save the life of a mother
Freedom of religion, speech, and press
the right to bear arms
the housing of soldiers
protection from unreasonable searches and seizures
Protection of rights to life, liberty and property
Rights of accused persons in criminal cases
Rights in Civil cases
Excessive bail, fines, and punishment forbidden
other rights kept by the people
Inelegant powers kept by the States and the people
are the rights that people have
what government has done to protect our civil liberties
freedom of press
1st amendment. to gather publish and distribute information and information without goverment restriction
Freedom of speech
the right to express any opinions without censorship or restraint
written, false accusation
Para granted to Congress by the Constitution
Para restrained by the States under the Constitution
Reserved powers are derived from the Tenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. Although not spelled out in the U.S. Constitution, these reserved powers to the states include police power, taxing power, proprietary power, and power of eminent domain.
powers held by both the national and state government in a federal system
makes federal law supreme over state laws
view that states have strong independent a thority to resist federal rules under the Constitution
right of states to invalidate of Congress they believed to be illegal
Fugitive Slave clause
required States to return runaway slaves ;by the 13th amendment
Election, typically in November of an odd-numbered year, in which voters are asked to approve one or more proposed constitutional amendments. An amendment must receive a majority of the popular vote to be approved.
Process for changing the Texas Constitution in which an amendment is proposed by a two-thirds vote of each chamber of the legislature and approved by a simple majority of voters in a general or special election.
Rights and protections assured under the U.S. Constitution. For example, among the guarantees to members of the Union include protection against invasion and domestic uprisings, territorial integrity, a republican form of government, and representation by two senators and at least one representative for each state.
Extensive or complete rewriting of a constitution.
A body of delegates who meet to make extensive changes in a constitution or to draft a new constitution.
A citizen-drafted measure proposed by a specific number or percentage of qualified voters that becomes law if approved by popular vote. In Texas, this process occurs only at the local level, not at the state level.
Counties, municipalities, school districts, and other special districts that provide a range of services, including rural roads, city streets, public education, and protection of persons and property.
The assignment of lawmaking, law-enforcing, and law-interpreting functions to separate branches of government.
The right to vote.
The Tenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution declares that “the powers not delegated by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people.”
Article I of the Texas Constitution, which guarantees protections for people and their property against arbitrary actions by state and local governments. Protected rights include freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly, and petition.
Texas Constitution of 1876:
Added to Article I, Section 3, of the Texas Constitution, it guarantees that “equality under the law shall not be denied or abridged because of sex, race, color, creed, or national origin.”
A farmers’ organization, also known as the Patrons of Husbandry, committed to low levels of government spending and limited governmental powers; a major influence on the Constitution of 1876.
Drawing the boundaries of a district designed to affect representation of a racial group (e.g., African Americans) in a legislative chamber, city council, commissioners court, or other representative body.
A district that elects two or more representatives.
Enacted by the U.S. Congress and signed by President George W. Bush in 2002, this law restricts donations of “soft money” and “hard money” for election campaigns, but its effect has been limited by federal court decisions.
To scrutinize the results of an election and then confirm and certify the vote tally for each candidate.
A primary in which voters must declare their support for a party before they are permitted to participate in the selection of its candidates.
A practice whereby a person participates in the primary of one party, then votes for one or more candidates of another party in the general election.
A nominating system that allows voters to participate directly in the selection of candidates to public office.
Conducted at the county courthouse and selected polling places before the designated primary, special, or general election day.
Official appointed by the county commissioners court to administer an election in a voting precinct.
Person appointed to supervise voter registration and voting.
Held in November of even-numbered years to elect county and state officials from among candidates nominated in primaries or (for small parties) in nominating conventions.
Drawing the boundaries of a district designed to affect representation of a political party or group in a legislative chamber, city council, commissioners court, or other representative body.
Although not used in Texas, exempted people from educational, property, or tax requirements for voting if they were qualified to vote before 1867 or were descendants of such persons.
Campaign money donated directly to candidates or political parties and restricted in amount by federal law.
A candidate who runs in a general election without party endorsement or selection.
Expenditures that pay for political campaign communications that expressly advocate the nomination, election, or defeat of a clearly identified candidate but are not given to, or made at the request of, the candidate’s campaign.
A nominating process in which voters indicate their preferences by using a single ballot on which are printed the names and respective party labels of all persons seeking nomination. A candidate who receives 50 percent or more of the vote is elected; otherwise, a runoff between the top two candidates must be held.
Although not used in Texas as a prerequisite for voter registration, the test was designed and administered in ways intended to prevent African Americans and Latinos from voting.
Legislation requiring certain government offices (e.g., motor vehicle licensing agencies) to offer voter registration applications to clients.
A general election held in the even-numbered year following a presidential election.
A primary in which voters are not required to declare party identification.
An organizational device used by corporations, labor unions, and other organizations to raise money for campaign contributions.
A tax levied in Texas from 1902 until a similar Virginia tax was declared unconstitutional in 1962; failure to pay the annual tax (usually $1.75) made a citizen ineligible to vote in party primaries or in special and general elections.
A preliminary election conducted within the party to select candidates who will run for public office in a subsequent general election.
Held after the first primary to allow party members to choose a candidate from the first primary’s top two vote-getters.
Unregulated political donations made to national political parties or independent expenditures on behalf of a candidate.
A brief statement of a candidate’s theme communicated by radio or television in a few seconds.
An election called by the governor to fill a vacancy (e.g., U.S. congressional or state legislative office) or to vote on a proposed state constitutional amendment or local bond issue.
Independent expenditure–only committees that may raise unlimited sums of money from corporations, unions, non-profit organizations, and individuals.
The body of state law concerning parties, primaries, and elections.
A state agency that enforces state standards for lobbyists and public officials, including registration of lobbyists and reporting of political campaign contributions.
Voting is open for virtually all persons 18 years of age or older.
A qualified voter must register with the county voting registrar, who compiles lists of qualified voters residing in each voting precinct.
The percentage of the voting-age population casting ballots in an election.
The basic geographic area for conducting primaries and elections; Texas is divided into more than 8,500 voting precincts.
A nominating system designed to prevent African Americans and some Latinos from participating in Democratic primaries from 1923 to 1944.
A trial in a juvenile court.
Commonly referred to as solitary confinement, this practice isolates an inmate in a separate cell as punishment, typically for violent or disruptive behavior.
A crime punishable by death or life imprisonment.
The system of law enforcement that is involved in apprehension, defense, prosecution, sentencing, and punishment of those suspected or convicted of committing a crime.
Additional penalties or prison time for those who engage in organized crime or hate crimes, and repeat offenders.
Evidence that helps a defendant and may exonerate the defendant in a criminal trial.
Depending on the nature of the crime, felonies are graded as first degree, second degree, third degree, and state jail; misdemeanors are graded as A, B, and C.
The delay or suspension of an activity or law. A moratorium may be imposed when something is seen as needing improvement.
A deal between the prosecutor and the defendant in a criminal case in which the defendant agrees to plead guilty to a specific charge and in return will get certain concessions from the prosecutor.
Criminal behavior that results in reincarceration after a person has been released from confinement for a prior offense.
Set of codes that provide the laws, penalties, and correctional measures for crime in Texas.
A budget in which total revenues and expenditures are equal, producing no deficit.
A plan of financial operation indicating how much revenue a government expects to collect during a period (usually one or two fiscal years) and how much spending is authorized for agencies and programs.
The process whereby the governor and the Legislative Budget Board oversee (and, in some instances, modify) implementation of the spending plan authorized by the Texas legislature.
A program administered by the Texas Attorney General’s Child Support Division in which medical support payments from noncustodial parents are used to provide insurance for their children.
A program that provides medical insurance for minimal premiums to children from low-income families.
A restricted state fund that can only be appropriated for its designated purpose. If the fund is consolidated within the general revenue fund, it usually must be spent for its intended purpose. Any unappropriated amounts can be included in the calculations to balance the state budget.
The compilation of separate budgets by the legislative branch and the executive branch.
A charge imposed by an agency upon those subject to its regulation.
Public policy that concerns taxing, government spending, public debt, and management of government money.
A tax levied on the annual receipts of businesses that are organized to limit the personal liability of owners for the privilege of conducting business in the state.
Amount borrowed by the state that is repaid from the General Revenue Fund.
An unrestricted state fund that is available for general appropriations.
Texas’s largest source of tax revenue, applied at the rate of 6.25 percent to the sale price of tangible personal property and “the storage, use, or other consumption of tangible personal property purchased, leased, or rented.”
Money, goods, or services given by one government to another (for example, federal grants-in-aid to states for financing public assistance programs).
A 10-member body cochaired by the lieutenant governor and the Speaker of the House. This board and its staff prepare a biennial current services budget. In addition, they assist with the preparation of a general appropriation bill at the beginning of a regular legislative session. If requested, staff members prepare fiscal notes that assess the economic impact of a proposed bill or resolution.
An employer-paid tax levied against a portion of the wages and salaries of workers to provide funds for payment of unemployment insurance benefits in the event employees lose their
A tax in which the effective tax rate increases as the tax base (such as individual income or corporate profits) increases.
A fund used like a savings account for stabilizing state finance and helping the state meet economic emergencies when revenue is insufficient to cover state-supported programs.
A tax in which the effective tax rate falls as the tax base (such as individual income or corporate profits) increases.
Amount borrowed by the state that is repaid from a specific revenue source.
A plan for equalizing financial support for school districts by transferring tax money from rich districts to poor districts.
“Toward Excellence, Access, and Success” is a college financial assistance program that provides funding for qualifying students.
A mandatory assessment exacted by a government for a public purpose.
A selective sales tax on items such as cigarettes, other forms of tobacco, alcoholic beverages, and admission to sex-oriented businesses.
An excise tax levied on a natural resource (such as oil or natural gas) when it is severed (removed) from the earth.
Businesses that provide services, such as finance, health care, food service, data processing, or consulting.
A tax charged on specific products and services.
What does the Texas constitution do?
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