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What was the purpose of the Rapa Nui (Easter Island) rock garden?
They provided agronomic advantages of enhanced wind protection and water permeability, reduced evapotranspiration and soil erosion, and possibly soil nutrient enhancement.
What were the two technological responses to environmental stress?
Developed a rock garden; farmers practiced a program of fertilization to increase yields
What were the two social responses to environmental stress?
Gardens are monitored by chiefs beginning AD 1450; Rapa Nui chiefs consolidated authority (territoriality) and invested in ritual (legitimization) and infrastructure (role distinctions)
In what century was Rapa Nui settled?
What three things does social class depend upon?
What is the difference between a clan and a lineage?
Lineage is a unilineal descent group based on demonstrated descent.
Whereas a clan is a descent group that claims common descent from an apical ancestor but cannot demonstrate it (stipulated descent)
What forms of social control do the Amish use?
What are the 4 types of political organization?
Band, Tribe, Chiefdom, State
What is the difference between a “Big Man” and a ‘Village Head”?
A “Big Man” is similar to a “Village Head”, but their authority may be regional and over more than one village.
Is there a difference between a sodality and a sorority?
Sodality- non-kin-based organizations that may
generate cross-societal linkages; secret societies
What is the difference between and “age-grade” and an “age-set?
age set is a unisex (usually male) political group, includes everyone born within a certain time span; the age grade is each individual level within the set
population control, judiciary, enforcement, and fiscal
What is hegemony?
Subordinates comply with domination by internalizing their rulers' values and accepting the "naturalness" of domination
How did the Inuit settle arguments over women?
They could kill the man the wife was cheating with but risk retaliation
A type of society, most typically found among hunter-gatherers, that lacks status distinctions except for those based on age, gender, and individual qualities, talents, and achievements
On what basis are roles assigned in egalitarian society?
age, gender, and individual qualities, talents, and achievements
How is a chiefdom organized?
Based on seniority of descent; All the people in a chiefdom are believed to have descended from a group of common ancestors
What is the process of redistribution in chiefdoms?
Process by which people offer part of their harvest to the chief through his or her representatives, products move up the hierarchy, eventually reaching the chief. This illustrates obligatory sharing with kin, chiefs would sponsor feasts in which they would give back much of what they received.
What is the function of redistribution in chiefdoms?
Offers economic advantages; made products available to the whole society and also played a role in risk management
What are the three dimensions to social stratification?
1. Economic status or wealth: material assets, including income, land, and other types of property 2.Power, ability to exercise ones's will over others 3. Prestige-the basis of social statues- refers to esteem, respect, or approval for acts, deeds, or qualities considered exemplary.
How do state systems control population?
They conduct census to determine who they govern, they demarcate boundaries that separate them from others, and they establish citizenship categories
What are the six attributes of a state?
· 1. States control specific regional territory.
· 2.Early states had productive
· 3. States used tribute and taxation to accumulate, at a central place, the resources needed to support hundreds, or even thousands, of specialists.
· 4. States were stratified into social classes (elites, commoners, slaves).
· 5. Early states had imposing public buildings and architecture.
· 6. Early states developed some
form of record-keeping system.
The complexity of division of social and economic labor tended to grow as food production spread and intensified. Systems of political authority and control developed to handle regulatory problems and competition for territory and resources. Forming states helped with water regulation
What are three theories proposed to account for state formation?
Population, War, and Circumscription
Carneiro: Wherever and whenever environmental circumscription (resource concentration), increasing population, and warfare exist, state formation will begin
What is the difference between egalitarian and chiefdom societies?
Egalitarian societies: cultures with rudimentary status distinctions, which were not usually inherited
Chiefdoms: relations among
villages and individuals are unequal
What is a primary state?
Primary states: states that arose on their own, not through contact with other state societies
Give 4 reasons why a state might collapse?
· 1. Environmental degradation
· 2. Low rainfall or drought
· 3. Famine
· 4. Disease
· 5. Invasion
What is the hydraulic hypothesis?
Wittfogel: One cause of state formation was the need to regulate hydraulic
(water-based) agricultural economies.
What is geographical circumscriptions and how does it impact state formation?
Geographical barriers that force groups into certain areas
What chiefdom was in existence before the Maya and invented the ball court?
What was the subsistence base of the Maya?
corn and cassava
How were Maya urban centers economically supported?
through intensive agriculture (the corn and cassava)
Why did the Maya state decline?
· 1) Environmental factors: erosion and soil exhaustion
· 2) 150 year period of low rainfall and drought identified in pollen analysis
· 3) Land clearance reduced evapotranspiration and increased impacts of drought
When (Date AD) did the Maya state decline in the Peten?
What did the Mayan stalea represent?
combination of phenetics and glyphs; they had different symbols meaning the same thing
The maya were a peace loving culture? T or F
What is gender stratification?
Describes an unequal distribution of rewards (socially valued resources, power, prestige, human rights, and personal freedom) between men and women, reflecting their different positions in a social hierarchy
What is the difference between gender and sex?
Gender refers to the cultural constructions of whether someone is female, male, or something else; Sex differences are biological
What are gender stereotypes?
Oversimplified, strongly held ideas of characteristics of men and women
In general males do most of the domestic work. T or F
What is the domestic-public dichotomy?
The strong differentiation between home and the outside world; or the private-public contrast.
What factors favor patriarchy formation?
Societies that feature a full-fledged patriarchy, with warfare and intervillage raiding, adopt such practices as dowry murders, female infanticide, and clitoridectomy.
What factors favor matriarchy formation?
Sanday: Matriarchies exist in that society, but not as mirror images of patriarchies.Among the Minangkabau, despite thespecial position of women, the matriarchy is not the equivalent of female rule.
What is the difference between matrilineal and patrilineal descent?
Matrilineal descent: people join mother's group at birth and Patrilineal descent: people have membership in the father's group
What are the 4 kinship classification systems and how do they differ?
· Lineal- nuclear family, neolocal, industrialism, foraging
· Bifurcate merging- unilineal descent group; horticultural, pastoralism, agriculture
· Generational- Ambilineal descent; ambilocal; agriculture, horticultural
· Bifurcate collateral- kin group varies, residence varies, and economy varies
What are the three types of relatives?
· Lineal relative: ancestor or descendant
· Collateral relatives: all other kin
· Affinals: relatives by marriage
What is a person’s social status and why does it vary?
Status encompasses the various positions that people occupy in society. They vary depending on the appropriate situation (ie, student, mother, friend, and woman can be statuses that are used in different context)
What are the three models that anthropologists use to explain ethnic groups living together peacefully?
What are examples of discrimination at the national level?
Segregation in the Southern United States and apartheid in South Africa
What is the concept of race? Is it a biological reality?
When an ethnic group is assumed to have a biological basis (shared blood) it is called a race. It is a cultural category rather than a biological reality
What is genocide and ethnocide?
Genocide is the most extreme form of ethnic discrimination; the deliberate elimination of a group and ethnocide is when a dominant group may try to destroy the cultures of certain ethnic groups or force them to adopt the dominant culture
What were the steps taken in the escalation of the AX Fight?
The man visitor struck the native villager woman and she told her fellow villagers who then retaliated against the man visitor and his people
What were the impacts of acculturation on the Yanomamo?
What did gold do to Yanomamo society?
It changed the economy because wealth became about gold and broke up their society and structure
What is the difference between genitor and pater?
The genitor is the biological father and the pater is the socially recognized father
What is descent group exogamy?
Exogamy is marriage outside of a given group
Is incest biologically based?
In patrilineal moiety organization you can marry your parallel cousin. True or False
What theory do Anthropologists prefer for the theory of incest taboo?
What is endogamy?
Marriage of people from the same group
What is the difference between manifest and latent functions when it comes to incest?
manifest is what YOU say to explain your actions
latent is the effects that a custom has
Who receives the bridewealth payment in a marriage?
The wife and her kin
Who receives the dowry payment in a marriage?
Why is divorce harder when bridewealth or dowry is involved?
Because leaving the marriage would mean losing the inheritence/assets of bridewealth or dowry payments
Polygyny is when a man has more than one wife at the same time and polyandry is when the woman has more than one husband at the same time
Sororate is when widower marries sister of the deceased wife and levirate is when the widow marries her deceased husband’s brother. These practices help to maintain the alliance between descent groups.
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