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The tendency to view one’s own culture as best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one’s own standards
The application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problems.
The accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems.
The branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in- and the cultural dimension of- economic development
Anthropology with respect to values, morals and interpersonal relationships. Anthropology can help recognize those different ways and different goals
- Cultural Anthropology- social and cultural similarities and differences, present day societies
- Physical or biological- biological variation in space and time, also human evolution
- Archaeology- studies communities through material culture- Linguistic- language in it’s social and cultural context
· Anthropology is a social science, anthropologists practice the scientific method. It is a humanity because it is an appreciation of music, art, literature, philosophy, mythology, language, etc. Studies all of those things as an element of culture.
· Learned- directly observed, conscious and unconscious
· Symbolic- bestow meaning on things, invented by humans within a culture
· Shared- people agree or at least are aware of symbolic meanings attached to things
-All encompassing- incorporates all parts of life
· Includes natural- traits mandated by environment
· Integrated- changes in oen part of culture lead to changes in others
· Instrumental- do something for a purpose, can be adaptive or maladaptive
What aspects of culture do we share with other primates? What aspects of culture are unique?
· We share parenting and alliances with primates
· Kinship is unique to humans
What is applied anthropology? Can you list fields of applied anthropology for each of the 4 subfields?
· Using anthropological data, methods, theory, and perspectives to bear on contemporary issues and real-world problems. Ex; heritage management (archaeology), forensic anthropology (physical), educational (socio-cultural), linguistic diversity studies (linguistic)
How do cultures change?
· Culture changes by the process of diffusion, acculturation, and independent invention.
· It changes because it’s active, lived, and contested
· Culture changes through developments in technology, political beliefs and religious ideas.
· External encounters with diverse societies and environmental factors also change cultural beliefs.
What are some of the ways anthropology can contribute to the modern world?
· Medical anthropology is a good example. Anthropology can contribute to the modern world by helping to find solutions to problems by looking at them through an anthropological perspective. Rather than one size fits all sort of solution, anthropology finds solutions that fits different cultures based on their needs
A language’s meaning system
Systems of communication among nonhuman primates, composed of a limited number of sounds that vary in intensity and duration. Tied to environmental stimuli.
A rule- governed dialect of American English roots in Southern English. BEV is spoken by African American youth and by many adults in their casual, intimate speech- sometimes called “ebonics”
Subdivision of linguistics that studies languages over time
What data do anthropologists use to study language?
Phonology (speech sounds), morphology (how sounds combine), lexicon/ semantics (languages meaning system), syntax (arrangement of words and phrases
How do languages change? Can you describe some of the language changes known to have happened in English?
Change by morphemic changes (combinations of the sounds and their significance) and analogic changes (clean up irregulars, can be driven by sound change).
What is the relationship between language and social status?
· Certain languages, dialects, and styles of linguistic production are given higher status (prestige languages). Certain types of speech are associated with certain types of people which is associated with certain types of social classes.
What is the relationship between language and culture?
Language can be viewed as a verbal expression of culture. Language maintains and conveys cultural ties, values and customs in our country. It shapes the way we think, act and speak
How does human language compare to communication in other primates?
· Human larynx is lower in the esophagus which allows us to resonate sound
How old is language? How do we know?
· Written language appeared first. Sumerian or Egyptian developed writing system which began to appear in about 3200 BC. Chinese is often cited as the oldest language (first written in 1500 BC) but Greek is also a possible tie.
Australopithecus africanus was an early hominid, an australopithecine, who lived between 3.03 and 2.04 million years ago in the later Pliocene and early Pleistocene
H. sapien neanderthalensis, representing an archaic H. sapiens subspecies that lived in Europe and the Middle East between 130,000 and 28,000 B.P.
Earliest (2.5 to 1.2 m.y.a.) stone tools; sharp flakes struck from cores (choppers)
Ethnicity – Identification with, and feeling part of, an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other groups because of this affiliation.
How do humans adapt to environmental stressors? What are some examples?
· Some of their adaptations are cultural and others are biological; examples include genes and disease, facial features, size and body build, lactose tolerance.
What is the significance of racial categories?
· It denotes what society believes to be important, and how that society views and categorizes other people (i.e. Brazil has many more racial categories than America)
Why are racial categories not good biological markers?
· Because they are not biologically determined; traits (skin color, hair type, body shape) do not co-vary
Are you able to compare and contrast racial categories used in different cultures? At different points in the past?
· Yes, because these categories are subjective to the culture. Racial categories change in terms (White, yellow, black can be changed to more politically correct terms like Caucasian, Asian, African American) and change in number of categories (i.e. Asian to Japanese, Korean, Chinese. As our understanding of race develops, so do the categories.
When and where did modern humans develop? How and why did they spread to the rest of the world?
· First humans developed in Africa. Homo erecture were the first to leave (about 1.8 mil), likely in pursuit of nomadic herds.
What are the major physical developments over the course of human evolution? When did they occur?
· Bipedalism- __________
· Change in teeth- 2.5 m.y.a.
· Encephalization- __________
What data do biological anthropologists use to find out about human evolution?
· They use genetics to study our genes and how they are evolving, skeletal biology which study the evolution and function of the musculo-skeletal system, paleopathology which is the study of ancient diseases (it studies this to predict what diseases can emerge in the future), human biology, forensic anthropology, paleoanthropology, and primatology.
How has evolution continued to occur with fully modern humans? What are some examples?
· People being able to adapt to high altitude like the Tibetan, Ethiopian and the Andean people.
New Stone Age, coined to describe techniques of grinding and polishing stone tools; the first cultural period in a region in which the first signs of domestication are present.
Can you describe the steps of a typical archaeology project?
· 1. Determine where the site is (Remote sensing, systematic archaeological survey)
· 2. Excavate (study the stratigraphy at the site)
· 3. Analysis (study the artifacts, ecofacts, and feature data)
· 4. Interpretation (put it all together)
What developments characterize the late stone age (ca. 20,000 years ago)? What is the archaeological evidence for this?
· Broad Spectrum Exploitation: expand the range of resources exploited to include a heavier emphasis on wild plants, small animals, birds, marine life, fish.
How do archaeologists study the development of complex societies? What materials are indicators of such societies?
· Settlement patterns
· Evidence of Status Differences
· Evidence of Administration
· Evidence of Food Preparation
· Evidence of Craft Production
· Texts where available
What are some examples of such societies (i.e. early states)?
· Cities develop from early Neolithic towns ca. 10 kya (e.g. Jericho, Catal Hoyuk) then into chiefdoms and eventually city-states (Uruk) ca. 5700 ya into territorial states (Sumer) and empires (Akkadian, later Babylon)
· Also the Dynastic Egypt, Mesoamerica, China, Andes, Indus Valley and Africa
What kind of impact does domestication have on human society?
· Sedentism occurred (people stayed at one spot for longer periods of time), enabled complex societies.
What are some places where domestication occurred?
· Peru, Mesoamerica, Eastern US, African Sahel, African Rainforest, South China, North China, Ethiopia SE.
How do archaeologists study the environment? Using what data?
· Archaeologists study the environment using Paleo-environmental data:
o 1. Climate Data
o 2. Geology and soil
o 3. Archaeobotany (Plants)
o 4. Zooarchaeology (Animals)
o 5. Bioarchaeology (Human Remains)
· The theoretical perspective on studying the environment is Humans and Environment are in a reciprocal relationship where each influences the other and changes in one lead to changes in the other through feedback mechanisms
Fieldwork in a particular culture
Means that the anthropologist takes part in community life as she/he observes it. By participating, we aim to learn how and why local people find certain events meaningful and we observe how they are organized and conducted
A population’s system of production, distribution and consumption of resources.
Proscriptive practices exogamy which is to marry out side of your group and prescriptive are endogamous which is to marry inside your group (incest)
The arts; people express themselves creatively in dance, music, song, painting, sculpture, pottery, cloth, storytelling, verse, prose, drama, and comedy.
Use of supernatural techniques to accomplish specific aims
What are some potential methods of ethnographic research?
· There is direct observation and participant observation. One can simply sit aside and watch the customs and daily life of people being studied or one can actively engage in the lives and live with a family and participant in the culture.
What are some difficulties with ethnographic research?
· Lack of Boundedness/ Not Standing Still
· Power Relationships
What are the major adaptive strategies? What are their social and cultural correlates?
· Foraging- Recent foragers are not “stone age survivals,” interact with and involved in modern society
· Cultivation- With industrialization we can talk about a further intensification of production
· Pastoralism- Movement has knock- on effect for social and political structures.
What aspects of the economy do anthropologists study?
· Modes of production, Distribution, Consumption or resources
What distinguishes political anthropology from political science?
· Political anthropology is more global, comparative and likely to include non-state situations, it’s not just politics, less about government and more about social networking of power.
Kinship in different cultures
· Kinship: USA is more of a nuclear family. Brazil places emphasis on the extended family. New Guinea tends to have a patriarchal society. Madagascar have a generational terminology, they don’t differentiate between mothers and aunts and fathers and uncles.
· Gender: Brazil describes a third gender place occupied by trans individuals. Serbia: Shamans of either gender can copy the dress, speech, and hairstyles patterns of the other and thus join an alternative gender category. Guayaki Indians- males are defined by hunting, women by gathering and children as neutral.
What kinds of cultural and social conditions lead to greater/lesser gender stratification?
· Gender stratification is the least where there is less of a public-private contrast, Women contribute more to the family economy.
What are some examples of marriage rules/rights in different cultures? How do these point to larger cultural differences?
· Legal parentage, monopoly on sex, rights to labor, rights to property, children can inherit shared property, relationship of affinity
What is the relationship between (expressive culture, media, sports) and cultural norms/status quo?
· Identifies role for art, sports, media in both shaping and reflecting social and cultural values. Because it is a place for contestation and of collective invention. It can both challenge and reinforce the status quo. Some meanings overt, some hidden or naturalized.
What is the history of the production of art? What was art produced for in non-Western societies?
· Blombos Cave, SA: Evidence of carved ochre about 70,000 years ago.
· Slovenian “Dibje flute” 43,000 years ago
· Assume some expressive culture for at least as long as anatomically modern humans have been around.
· “Art for Art Sake” the idea of art as apart from everyday life and ordinary culture.
What is the relationship between religion and culture?
· Society and Culture are bound together by codes of behavior and by tacit agreements to live together in harmony.
· Some cultures identified themselves by their Religion,
· Home, farming, relationships, marriage, birth and death, these are all common events in cultures;
· Religion gives transcendental meaning and purpose, a goal to aspire to when life is complete.
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