Sahelanthropu s tchadensis CHIEF SPECIMENS: cranium, jaw fragments, teeth found in western Chad, 2001 WHEN LIVED: 7?6 mya BRAIN SIZE: 360-370 cc (slightly smaller than a male chimp ' s) SPECIAL FEATURES: oldest known hominin; set apart by smaller canines, thicker and larger cheek teeth, and more downwardly oriented foramen magnum (hole where spinal cord exits brain), suggesting upright posture and locomotion ORIGIN OF NAME: skull nicknamed Toumai, " Hope of Life " in local Goran language Orrorin tugenensis CHIEF SPECIMENS: arm and leg bones and teeth found in northern Kenya, 2000 WHEN LIVED: 6.2?5.6 mya BRAIN SIZE: unknown (no skulls or even skull fragments found so far) SPECIAL FEATURES: size and shape of femur suggests it may have been bipedal ORIGIN OF NAME: species name from Kenya ' s Tugen Hills, where found Ardipithecus ramidus, Ardipithecus kadabba CHIEF SPECIMENS: skull, mandible, teeth, and arm bones of Ar. ramidus found in central Ethiopia, 1992-1993; type specimen (right lower jaw fragment) of a second species, Ar. kadabba, also found in Ethiopia, 1997 WHEN LIVED: 4.4 mya (ramidus); 5.8?5.2 mya (kadabba) BRAIN SIZE: unknown (only skull fragments) SPECIAL FEATURES: features of leg bones and foramen magnum suggest bipedalism, but more evidence needed ORIGIN OF NAME: in local Afar language, Ardi means " ground floor, " pithecus comes from the Greek for " ape " Australopithecus anamensis CHIEF SPECIMENS: first fossil, a lower arm bone, found in Kenya, 1965; other bones, including a piece of ear canal and a jaw joint used as type specimen, also found in Kenya WHEN LIVED: 4.2?3.8 mya BRAIN SIZE: unknown (insufficient cranial material) SPECIAL FEATURES: the lower leg bone, including surface for a knee joint, indicates species was bipedal ORIGIN OF NAME: Australopithecus means " southern ape " ; anamensis from word anam ( " lake " ) in Turkana language Australopithecus afarensis CHIEF SPECIMENS: adult lower jaw from La etoli, Tanzania, is type specimen; many other fossils known, including Lucy, a ~40%-complete skeleton found in Ethiopia ' s Afar region in 1974 WHEN LIVED: 3.7?3 mya BRAIN SIZE: 446 cc (avg. of five skulls) SPECIAL FEATURES: Lucy ' s shoulder joint is a mixture of ape and human features that suggests it also still spent time in the trees ORIGIN OF NAME: afarensis honors Ethiopia ' s Afar region; Lucy nicknamed after Beatles ' " Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds, " playing in camp when fossil discovered Australopithecus africanus CHIEF SPECIMENS: Taung Child, ~3.5 years old when died, found in quarry in South Africa, 1924; many other A. africanus fossils also found in South Africa WHEN LIVED: 3?2.3 mya BRAIN SIZE: 400-560 cc (mean = 460) SPECIAL FEATURES: bipedal, but probably also good at climbing trees; thicker teeth than A. afarensis ORIGIN OF NAME: binomial name means " southern ape of Africa " Australopithecus garhi CHIEF SPECIMENS: fragments of skull, jaw, and arm found in 1990, and partial skull with upper dentition found in 1997, both in central Ethiopia WHEN LIVED: 2.5 mya BRAIN SIZE: 450 cc (based on one cranium) SPECIAL FEATURES: limb proportions thought to be more human-like than those of A. afarensis (Lucy) ORIGIN OF NAME: garhi means " surprise " in local Afar language Paranthropus aethiopicus CHIEF SPECIMENS: tooth less lower jaw and " Black Skull " found in 1967 and 1985, respectively, both in Ethiopia; other fossils known from Kenya WHEN LIVED: 2.8?2.2 mya BRAIN SIZE: 410 cc (based on one specimen, the " Black Skull " ) SPECIAL FEATURES: skull and teeth adapted for eating very mechanically demanding diet ORIGIN OF NAME: Para because namer considered Paranthropus a side branch of human lineage; aethiopicus because it was the first fossil hominid found in Ethiopia Paranthropus robustus CHIEF SPECIMENS: Gert Terblanche, a schoolboy, found first fossils, including a damaged skull and half a jawbone, in 1930s in South Africa, from which all P. robustus fossils are also known WHEN LIVED: 2.2?1.5 mya (deposits have not yielded absolute dates) BRAIN SIZE: 530 cc SPECIAL FEATURES: generally considered a dead-end side branch of the human family that nevertheless flourished for perhaps 1 million years ORIGIN OF NAME: robustus ref ers to its robust teeth and skull, adapted for a tough vegetarian diet Paranthropus boisei CHIEF SPECIMENS: several complete skulls, including famous " Zinj " skull found by Mary Leakey in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in 1959; fossils also known from Kenya, Ethiopia, and possibly Malawi WHEN LIVED: 2.2?1 mya BRAIN SIZE: 400-550 cc SPECIAL FEATURES: similar to P. robustus, but with greater development of the big cheek teeth, large chewing muscles, and other masticatory features that set the genus apart from the gracile australopithecine and Homo lineages ORIGIN OF NAME: boisei honors Charles Boise, who helped cover the Leakeys ' expenses during excavation at Olduvai Homo habilis/rudolfensis CHIEF SPECIMENS: lower jaw fragment found in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 1959; later in Kenya and Ethiopia WHEN: 2.3?1.6 mya BRAIN SIZE: 510-687 cc SPECIAL FEATURES: considered first definite stone toolmaker, and first species of the genus Homo ( " human " ) ORIGIN OF NAME: habilis ( " able, handy " in Latin) Homo erectus/ergaster CHIEF SPECIMENS: braincase in Java, Indonesia, in 1891 (Java Man); later in China, Georgia, and Africa; perhaps W. Europe WHEN: 1.8 mya?27,000* ya BRAIN SIZE: 600-1,200 cc SPECIAL FEATURES: large brain and oblong braincase, large browridges, small teeth, and relatively vertical face Homo heidelbergensis/antecessor CHIEF SPECIMENS: lower jaw found in 1907 in Germany; later fossils found elsewhere in Africa and Europe WHEN: 780,000*?200,000 ya BRAIN SIZE: 1,274 cc (mean for 10 ind.) SPECIAL FEATURES: big-brained, big-bodied, sophisticated hunter; probable ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans Homo neanderthalensis CHIEF SPECIMENS: skull cap and partial skeleton found in Germany ' s Neander Valley in 1856; other fossils found throughout Europe and in Asia as far east as Uzbekistan WHEN: 200,000?30,000 ya BRAIN SIZE: 1,420 cc (mean of 24 skulls) SPECIAL FEATURES: rugged physique adapted to survival in Ice Age Europe; made and used sophisticated tools, hunted, and buried dead; evidence for personal ornaments or art Homo floresiensis CHIEF SPECIMENS: " Hobbit " skull from Flores, Indonesia, in 2003; two jaws and limb bones from perhaps eight more individuals found in 2004 WHEN: 95,000?13,000 ya BRAIN SIZE: 400 cc SPECIAL FEATURES: 1/3 the size of contemporaneous H. erectus and H. sapiens , and had smallest brain size ever found in a tool-using hominid; status remains controversial Homo sapiens CHIEF SPECIMENS: oldest known sapiens fossils (195,000 years old) found in Ethiopia in 1960s WHEN: 195,000 ya?present BRAIN SIZE: today ' s mean = 1,350 cc (range 1,100-1,800) SPECIAL FEATURES: rounder cranial vault with vertical forehead; smaller, more retracted face; and a protruding chin ORIGIN OF NAME: sapiens means " to know "
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