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Detail collective knowledge of flora & fauna in their surroundings/small community
1st cultivating economy
slash and burn technique to clear land
The subsistence practice in which people care for and domesticate animals, usually ungulates such as camels, llamas, cattle, reindeer, sheep, and goats.
kinship determines access to land & resources
goods are used to produce other goods
Band Societes are synonymous with hunting bad gathering?
1. When talking about sexual dimorphism, females are typically bigger than males.
1. In the film Ongka’s Big Moka, tree bark was used as a medium of exchange. In other words tree bark functioned general-purpose money.
1. Catastrophism is the view that extinct species were destroyed by fires, floods, and other catastrophes. After each destructive event, God created again, leading to contemporary species.
_____ discovered the basic principles of genetics.
1. Biological anthropologists study all of the following except
1. the study of the relationships between social and linguistic variation is called
1. The American Anthropological association’s code of ethics is
1. What kind of researcher has traditionally studied small, non-western populations?
1. Cultural relativism is defined as….
1. What kinds of people do anthropologists consider to be “cultured”?
1. The study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and expressions is known as
1. Most professional linguistics regard BEV as a
1. What is the name of the family in which a child is raised?
1. What is the name of the custom in which a widow marries the brother of her deceased husband?
1. Typically language extinction occurs when
1. The set of learned behaviors, beliefs, attitudes, values and ideals that are characteristics of a particular society or population is defined as
1. The Highlanders, in Papua New Guinea, believed that the Leahy brothers were
1. The type of kinship system practiced in our western society is known as the ____ pattern.
1. Mcdonaldization, Creolization and Clash of Cultures are
1. The range of problems encountered by anthropologists when they conduct ethnographic fieldwork is
1. Which of the following are cultural universals?
1. The Yanomamo in the Amazon practice cross cousin marriage because
1. Maladaptive customs
1. The following characteristics, such as communicating with verbal language, classifying people by age and gender and having sexual division of labor, all are examples of
1. In the National Geographic video we watched in class, honor killing was carried out in the nation of
1. The field of ethnography/participant observation was pioneered by
1. Among tribal societies in the middle east, ____ is a useful mechanism for the protection against foreign invaders
1. The following activities, _____ , are characteristics of horticulture.
1. Using artifacts, such as coins, to date burials and archaeological sites is a method known as
1. _____ is/are an example of an ecofact.
1. A bureaucracy is typically present in a _______ society.
1. The term “Survival of the Fittest: was coined to describe a particular political philosophy known as
1. The following factors, deforestation, logging, and hunting for bushmeat
1. In what kind of society is it most likely that leader will acquired their positions as a result of achieved status, rather than ascribed status?
1. In the movie Ongka’s Big Moka _____ functioned as general purpose money.
1. The Kula, Moka, and Potlatch are all examples of
1. _______ is the assignment of organisms to categories according to their relationship and resemblance.
1. Evidence for the first use of controlled use of fire is generally associated with
1. The Inca Empire was defeated by
1. Pre-industrial states had a subsistence strategy based on
1. The “Fertile Crescent” is a term used to describe a fertile region located in
1. A forensic analysis of one of the inca warriors who died at siege of Lima indicates that this individual was killed by
1. The material culture found in Upper Paleolithic Europe is Primarily associated with
1. The Natufians used _______ in order to cut and harvest wild cereals.
1. As mentioned in class, many examples of ancient monumental architecture, such as the Pyramids were built through the use of
1. The luxurious artifacts found inside Pu-abi’s royal tomb at Ur
1. Agriculture arose in the Old and New Worlds
1. The Younger Dryas
1. ___________ migrated out of Africa in large numbers and examples of this species have been found as far away as Asia.
1. Shanidar cave in Iraq is important as it provides evidence that
1. As mentioned in class the archaeological site of Lateoli, in Tanzania, is important because
1. The writing system known as Cuneiform was initially developed to
1. The following explanations: energy efficiency, freeing up hands, and provisioning the family are used to describe
1. The earliest evidence of lunar calendars is found in the _____ Paleolithic
1. A major difference between Gracile and Robust Australopithecines is
1. The artifacts associated with the boys buried at the site of Sungir
1. Cuneiform writing and cylinder seals are examples of administrative devices associated with ancient
1. The late Neolithic site of Catal Hoyok is best interpreted as
1. The following explanations: wanderlust, following animal herds, and escaping mosquito borne diseases, are all offered to explain the movement of ________ out of Africa
1. The Sphinx is believed to symbolized
________ were the economic backbone of ancient Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations.
1. The development from ‘tokens to tablets’ is a phrase that best defines
1. Anthropology is unique in that it is both holistic and cross-cultural.
1. Linguistic anthropologists study how languages vary in time and spaces, and how language and culture influence each other.
1. The origin of American anthropology is traced to an interest in the origins and diversity of Native Americans.
1. The term enculturation refers to the process through which children learn culture.
1. Paleopathology is the study of disease and injury in skeletons.
1. Black English Vernacular is a distinct language.
1. The term diglossia or code switching is use to refer to linguistic groups that use only two basic color term (black and white or dark and light).
1. Your nuclear family includes three generations, you, your parents, and your grandparents.
1. The caste system in India is an extreme example of exogamy.
1. Exogamy is the practice of seeking a mate within one’s own group.
1. People have a genetic predisposition to engage in incest.
1. The concept of cultural relativism was developed by Franz Boaz.
1. Among the Turkana in East Africa, a man often needs his wives’ permission if he wishes to marry another woman.
1. The purpose of both levirate and Sorority marriages is to continue the bon between two families, which were initially formed through marriage.
1. In “The Aims of Ethnology,” Boaz argues that indigenous belief systems are as complex as our own, that the human mind develops everywhere according to the same laws and that ethnocentrism is a valid research strategy.
1. Today in anthropology, cultural relativism is not a moral position, but a methodological one. It states: to understand another culture fully, you must try to see how people in that culture see things. This approach does not preclude making moral judgments or taking action.
1. A cultural materialist would argue that the Hindu taboo against killing cattle arose because this type of animal is worth more alive than dead.
1. Culture is synonymous with civilization.
1. A liberal art education is intended to provide general knowledge on the humanities, natural sciences, and social sciences.
1. “Consanguinal” refers to an individual who is related to another person by marriage.
1. Diglossia is the concept that a culture is similar to a biological organism, with various parts supporting the operation of the whole.
1. In a society with matrilineal descent, if the mother and father produce a son, the son’s children with be a part of his parent’s descent group.
1. When people use a makeshift language in the workplace to communicate, it is called pidgin.
1. Norms are standards or rules about what is acceptable behavior in a society.
1. Band societies are synonymous with hunting and gathering.
1. Various non-human primates practice the following types of locomotion: brachiation, leaping, and quadrupedalism.
1. As represented in Ongka’s Big Moka, Ongka’s authority is based on ascribed status.
1. Populations in band level societies do not have to worry about exceeding the carrying capacity of their environment.
1. Feudal societies arose in Japan and Western Europe when centralized states collapsed.
1. Gorillas are vicious meat eaters.
1. Melanin is produced by cells known as melanocytes, and all humans have about the same amount of melanocytes.
1. Cheifdom level societies are divided into two classes, those related to the chief and those who are no related to him.
1. Larmarckian evolution is synonymous Darwinian evolution.
1. Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace are both examples of 19th century Naturalists.
1. Archaeological sites have been discovered by accident, such as through road construction.
1. In broad strokes, polygamy is widely practiced in state level societies.
1. Humans share about 98.4% of our DNA with chimps.
1. Neanderthals exhibit the same amounts of trauma as rodeo riders.
1. Domestication is the process by which human selection causes changes in the genetic material of plants and animals.
1. A state is a form of social and political organization that has a formal, central government and a division of society into classes.
1. The pyramids and their surrounding temples transformed the Giza Plateau into a vast city of the dead.
1. The sphinx was carved from a rock that protruded from the surface of the ground.
1. Bipedal locomotion is a form of quadrupedal locomotion.
1. Cultivation is synonymous with agriculture.
1. As a group, Neanderthals never practiced cannibalism.
1. The Multi-regional model states that modern humans evolved only in Africa. According to this model, Archaic Humans are not related to modern humans.
1. The Sumerians are best described as a series of competing city states which were located in southern Mesopotamia.
1. The development of bipedalism was associated with the expansion of open grassland or savanna habitats in East Africa.
1. The irrigation/hydraulic hypothesis is used to describe the emergence of state level societies in the Middle East.
1. The reduction of sexual dimorphism among Homo erectus population is interpreted as evidence of pair bonding.
1. Composite tools are made from multiple raw materials.
1. The interpretation of archaeological data by drawing inferences from ethnographic observations is known as ethnographic analogy.
1. Dogs were domesticated during the Upper Paleolithic period. It is generally believed that domesticated dogs evolved from wolves.
1. About 60,000 years ago modern humans colonized Australia. This trek involved an arduous walk from southeast Asia to Australia.
1. The Nile river was an extremely important resource for people that lived in ancient Egypt.
1. The shell beads and red orchre unearthed inside Blombos cave are evidence of behavioral modernity.
1. The burials at lake Mungo, in Australia, are evidence of ritual activities associated with concepts of an afterlife.
1. Robust Australopithecines have more pronounced or robust facial features than Gracile Australopithecines.
1. Neanderthals have no connections with Africa. That is to say that Neanderthals did not live on this continent.
1. The Egyptian pyramids and Mesopotamian Ziggurats were constructed and used for the same exact purpose.
1. Venus figurines and cave art are representative of the Lower Paleolithic.
All cultures are unique and have historical background EX. Shoes
personal space that is dependent upon cultural norms
The position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. In order to understand another culture fully, anthropologists try to understand its members’ beliefs and motivations.
the idea that differences in the way languages encode cultural and cognitive categories affect the way people think, so that speakers of different languages will tend to think and behave differently depending on the language they use
What is Sociolinguistics?
a marital exchange in which the wife’s group provides substantial gifts to the husbands family
In certain cultures, the killing of a relative, esp. a girl or woman, who is perceived to have brought dishonor on the family.
A form of plural marriage in which a man is allowed more than one wife
marriage pattern in which a man may be married to more than one wife at a time
Service rendered to the bride's family by the bridegroom as a bride-price or part of a bride-price.
Sociocultural, Archaeological, Biological, and Linguistic Anthropology
How people make a living. People needed a means to study different cultures and this person realized "lets study cultures by finding out what different cultures do for a living"
a pidgin language that has become the mother tongue of a population
people join the mother’s group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life
nuclear family in which one is born and grows up
nuclear family established when one marries and has children
a kinship group consisting of parents and children
A type of marriage in which the brother of a deceased man is obliged to marry his brother's widow, and the widow is obliged to marry her deceased husband's brother.
A form of polygamy whereby a woman takes two or more husbands at the same time.
marriage pattern in which a woman may be married to more than one husband at a time
The practice of having a number of long-term romantic or sexual partners in succession or after death/divorce.
Any cultural rule or norm that prohibits acts of sexual relations between relatives.
An amount of money or property paid by the man (bridegroom or groom) or his family to the family of the woman (bride) upon the marriage of the woman to the man.
a customary gift before, at, or after marriage from the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin
One that is acquired on the basis of merit; it is a position that is earned or chosen and reflects a person's skills, abilities, and efforts.
social status that comes through talents, actions, efforts, activities, and accomplishments
One that is beyond an individual's control. It is not earned, but rather something people are either born with or had no control over. Examples of ascribed status include sex and race.
social status that people have little or no choice about occupying (i.e. race or gender)
A portable, arbitrarily valued medium of exchange. All market economies today use this form of money. It can have a variety of physical forms--e.g., coins, paper money, or bank checks.
As mentioned in class, Anthropology is part of __________.
something that can be found in almost every culture worldwide, i.e. kinship, language, sexual division of labor, and marriage
Associated with nuclear families. Calls many people father and mother. Focus on nucleuar family. Found in Europeans. Nuclear families fend for themselves.
Ex. We welcome immigrants. A positive custom.
when men or women can marry another partner but only after ceasing to be married to the previous partner
post marital residence pattern in which a couple establishes a new place of residence rather than living with or near either set of parents
descent in which the individual has the option of choosing their own lineage
describing societies based on what we think they look like
Labov’s experiments in New York city demonstrated that…?
sign language, writing, body gestures, etc.
a linguistic capacity that allows humans to speak of things and events that are not in the present
The generalization that members of cold-climate adapted populations tend to have wider and shorter bodies than members of tropical-climate adapted populations.
The generalization that members of cold-climate adapted populations tend to have shorter arms and legs, relative to their height, than members of tropical-climate adapted populations.
One of the four mechanisms of genetic evolution; best explanation for evolution.
Position of an archeological find in time and space, established by measuring and assessing its associations, matrix, and provenance. Includes study of what has happened to the artifact since it was buried in the ground.
A technique used to estimate the antiquity of archaeological materials, generally based on association with materials of known age or
simply to say that one item is younger or older
than another. (Coin example in class)
Ongka uses Moka to elevate his status as the "Big Man" of his tribe. Moka are reciprocal gifts of pigs through which social status is achieved.
Yes, there are a lot of traditional decoration for important occasions and he needs to dress up well for ceremony in order to represent his highest status.
Big Man refers to a highly influential individual within a tribe. This individual maintains recognition through skilled persuasion and wisdom. They may not have formal tribal or other authority. He provides his followers with protection and economic assistance, in return for receiving support which he uses to increase status.
Moka refers specifically to the increment in the size of the gift; giving more brings greater prestige to the giver. Pigs= General Purpose Money.
Yes it is major, Ongka’s wife felt compelled to take care of the pigs due to peer pressure and shame even though Ongka's other 4 wives didn't do anything.
The assignment of organisms to categories according to their relationship and resemblance.
One of the four mechanisms of genetic evolution; changes in the DNA molecules of which genes and chromosomes are built.
What are some examples of common primate traits?
What are some important points about chimpanzees?
Many human traits, engage in warfare, make tools, kill. Use tools.
What are two explanations offered for the development of stereoscopic vision among primates?
One is you need to be able to grab to eat and the other is if you can’t just distance it can’t have some negative effects (falling).
A method of assignment archeological dates in calendar years so that an age in actual number of years is known or can be estimated.
What is an advantage of horizontal excavation?
What is the advantage of vertical excavation?
2.7 – myr Heads are completely different as result of what they are eating. “Chewing Machines”
What are some of the reasons or advantages of bipedal locomotion?
Why is the site of Laetoli significant?
What is pair bonding and why is it important?
What term refers to the practice of marrying a person within the group to which one belongs?
Began incorporating animal meat in their diets with the rise of hunting and gathering
Limitations on ethnographic analogy, man was buried in his best suit with over 3000 beads on him meaning he was highly valued, two kids also buried with beads on them nearby, evidence of ascribed status, strange because they were thought to be egalitarian