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is acquired by humans as members of society through the process of enculturation.
Today's global economy and communications link all contemporary people, directly or indirectly, in the modern world system. People must now cope with forces generated by progressively larger systems—the region, nation, and world. For anthropologists studying contemporary forms of adaptation, why might this be a challenge?
According to Marcus and Fisher (1986), "The cultures of world peoples need to be constantly rediscovered as these people reinvent them in changing historical circumstances."
In general, Americans tend to maintain a greater physical distance from others they interact with on a day-to-day basis, especially when compared to Brazilians or Italians, who need less personal space. However, the story of American students' attitudes toward hugging reminds us that
any nation usually contains diverse and even conflicting cultural values, and these cultural values are not static.
Biological anthropology, linguistic anthropology, cultural anthropology, and archaeology
is an important historical reason for the development of U.S. four-field anthropology.
Each subfield studies human variation through time and space.
What is one of the most fundamental key assumptions that anthropologists share?
A comparative, cross-cultural approach is essential to study the human condition.
Cultural anthropologists carry out their fieldwork
Which of the following perspectives emphasizes that cultural forces constantly mold human biology? The
the fieldwork aspect of cultural anthropology.
Based on his observations that contact between neighboring tribes had existed since humanity's beginnings and covered enormous areas, Franz Boas argued
against treating cultures as isolated phenomena.
What component of cultural anthropology is comparative and focused on building upon our understanding of how cultural systems work?
Archaeologists studying sunken ships off the coast of Florida or analyzing the content of modern garbage are examples that
archaeologists study the culture of historical and even living peoples.
includes sociolinguistics, descriptive linguistics, and the study of the biological basis for speech.
Kottak defines anthropology as a science yet suggests that it is among the most humanistic of all academic fields. This is because
of its fundamental concern and respect for human diversity.
According to Kottak, anthropology may improve psychological studies of human behavior by contributing
a cross-cultural perspective on models of human psychology.
The American Anthropological Association has formally acknowledged a public service role by recognizing that anthropology has two dimensions
Academic anthropology and practicing, or applied, anthropology.
encompasses any use of the knowledge and/or techniques of its four subfields to identify, assess, and solve practical problems.
Which of the following statements about theories is not true?
Theories apply only to linguistic and biological phenomena.
In science, what is the relationship among explanations, associations, and theories?
An explanation must show how and why the thing to be understood is associated with or related to something else. Associations require covariation: when one thing (a variable) changes, the other one varies as well. Theories provide explanations for associations.
The study "Television's Behavioral Effects in Brazil" illustrates all of the following except
how investigators must carefully choose between a qualitative or quantitative data model.
Anthropologists study only non-Western cultures.
Humans can adapt to their surroundings through both biological and cultural means.
Culture is not itself biological but rests on certain features of human biology.
Adaptation refers to the processes by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stresses, such as those posed by climate and topography.
Anthropologists agree that a comparative, cross-cultural approach is unnecessary as long as researchers are diligent in their work.
Ethnography involves the collection of data that is used to create an account of a particular community, society, or culture.
Ethnomusicology is one of the four main subfields of anthropology.
Archaeologists study only prehistoric communities.
Biological anthropologists study only human bones.
As an academic discipline, anthropology falls under both the social sciences and the humanities.
The differences between sociology and cultural anthropology are becoming increasingly more distinct.
Psychologists tend to study only people living in the non-Western world, so anthropology has very little to offer this field.
Applied anthropology encompasses any use of the knowledge and/or techniques its four subfields to identify, assess, and solve theoretical problems.
Theories must be proved correct before they can be accepted.
Although science relies on the use of unbiased methods, complete objectivity is impossible. There is always an observer bias.
Which of the following statements about enculturation is not true? Enculturation
is the exchange of cultural features that results when two or more groups come into consistent firsthand contact.
Anthropologists agree that cultural learning is uniquely elaborated among humans and that all humans have culture. They also accept a doctrine designated in the 19th century as the "psychic unity of man." What does this doctrine mean?
Although individuals differ in their emotional and intellectual capacities, all human populations have equivalent capacities for culture.
Anthropologist Clifford Geertz defined culture as ideas based on cultural learning and symbols. For anthropologist Leslie White, culture originated when our ancestors acquired the ability to use symbols. What is a symbol? It is
something verbal or nonverbal, within a particular language or culture, that comes to stand for something else.
What is the term for a sign that has no necessary or natural connection to the thing for which it stands?
What do anthropologists mean when they say culture is shared?
Culture is an attribute of individuals as members of groups.
People in the United States sometimes have trouble understanding the power of culture because of the value that American culture places on the idea of the individual. Yet in American culture
individualism is a distinctive shared value, a feature of culture.
People have to eat, but culture teaches us what, when, and how to do so. This is an example of how
culture takes the natural biological urges we share with other animals and teaches us how to express them in particular ways
Since the 1970s, many anthropologists have done research among the Ariaal, a nomadic community of northern Kenya. Just as anthropologists have studied many aspects of this community's culture, the Ariaal have formed opinions based on observation of their visitors. For example, they note how anthropologists
slather white liquid on their very white skin to protect them from the sun, and often favor short pants that show off their legs and boots.
Culture can be adaptive or maladaptive. It is maladaptive when
cultural traits, patterns, and inventions threaten the group's continued survival and reproduction and thus its very existence.
The human capacity for culture has an evolutionary basis that extends back at least 2.5 million years. This date corresponds to
early toolmakers whose products survive in the archaeological record.
Why does this chapter on culture include a section that describes similarities and differences between humans and apes, our closest relatives?
To emphasize culture's evolutionary basis
Many human traits reflect the fact that our primate ancestors lived in trees. These traits include all of the following except
echolocation made possible by overlapping visual fields.
The incest taboo is a cultural universal, but
the definition of what constitutes incest varies widely across cultures.
What are exogamy and the incest taboo examples of?
Which of the following is a cultural generality?
The nuclear family
Which of the following least explains the existence of cultural generalities?
The arbitrariness of the sign
What are cultural particulars?
Traits unique to a given culture, not shared with others
All of the following are evidence of the tendency to view culture as a process except
analysis that attempts to establish boundaries between cultures
What process is most responsible for the existence of international culture?
Cultural borrowing or diffusion, whether direct, indirect, or by force
Which statement about subcultures is not true? Subcultures
are mutually exclusive; individuals may not participate in more than one subculture.
Which of the following statements about culture is not true?
It is transmitted genetically.
The Makah, a tribe that lives near the mouth of the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the Olympic Peninsula, see themselves as whalers and continue to identify themselves spiritually with whales. Their ongoing struggle to maintain their traditional way of life, which involves whale hunting, demonstrates how
contemporary indigenous groups have to grapple with multiple levels of culture, contestation, and political regulation.
The tendency to view one's own culture as superior and to use one's own standards and values in judging others is called
In anthropology, cultural relativism is not a moral position but a methodological one. It states that
in order to understand another culture fully, we must try to understand how the people in that culture see things.
How are cultural rights different from human rights?
Cultural rights are vested in groups, not in individuals.
Human rights are seen as inalienable. This means that
nations cannot abridge or terminate them.
Although rap music originated in the United States, it is now popular all over the world. Which of the following mechanisms of cultural change is responsible for this?
What is the term for the kind of cultural change that results when two or more cultures have consistent firsthand contact?
Which of the following is an example of independent invention, the process by which people in different societies have innovated and changed in similar but independent ways? The invention of
Culture helps us define the world in which we live, to express feelings and ideas and to guide our behavior and perceptions.
Culture is transmitted by both formal and informal instruction, but not by observation
Culture is transmitted in society.
According to Leslie White, culture is dependent upon the ability to create and use symbols
Anthropologists accept a doctrine designated in the 19th century as "the psychic unity of man." This means that although individuals differ in their emotional and intellectual tendencies and capacities, all human populations have equivalent capacities for culture.
Cultures are integrated, patterned systems in which a change in one part often leads to changes in other parts
Once an individual has been enculturated, that person must adhere to the cultural rules that govern that culture
Although culture is one of the principal means humans use to adapt to their environment, some cultural traits can be harmful to a group's survival.
While cultural abilities have a biological basis, they do not have an evolutionary basis.
Although humans do employ tools much more than any other animal does, tool use also turns up among several nonhuman species, including birds, beavers, sea otters, and apes.
Hunting is a distinctive human activity not shared with the apes.
Practice theory recognizes that the study of anthropology takes a lot of practice before resulting in accurate descriptions of a culture.
Although there are many different levels of culture, an individual can participate in only one level at a time.
Only people living in the industrialized, capitalist countries of Europe and the United States are ethnocentric.
Cultural relativists believe that a culture should be judged only according to the standards and traditions of that culture and not according to the standards of other cultural traditions.
Anthropology is characterized by a methodological rather than moral relativism; in order to understand another culture fully, anthropologists try to understand its members' beliefs and motivations.
Methodological relativism does not preclude making moral judgments or taking action.
The idea of universal and inalienable human rights that are superior to the laws and ethics of any culture can conflict with some of the ideas central to cultural relativism.
Diffusion plays an important role in spreading cultural traits around the world.
In many countries, use of the English language reflects a colonial history and is thus a consequence of forced diffusion.
Independent invention occurs when two or more cultures independently come up with similar solutions to a common problem.
Acculturation is the process by which people lose the culture that they learned as children.
Indigenous cultures are at the mercy of the forces of globalization, as they can do nothing to stop threats to their cultural identity, autonomy, and livelihood.
Modern means of transportation and communication have facilitated the process of globalization.
What term is synonymous with applied anthropologists?
All of the following illustrates the kinds of work that applied anthropologists do except
borrowing from fields such as history and sociology to broaden the scope of theoretical anthropology.
Why is ethnography one of the most valuable and distinctive tools of the applied anthropologist? It
provides a firsthand account of the day-to-day issues and challenges that the members of a given community face, as well as a sense of how those people think about and react to these issues.
Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of the work that applied anthropologists do? They
enter the affected communities and talk with people.
Which of the following illustrates some of the dangers of the old applied anthropology?
anthropologists aiding colonial expansion by providing ethnographic information to colonists
Who was studied at a distance during the 1940s in an attempt to predict the behavior of the political enemies of the United States?
Germans and Japanese
What is the postwar baby boom of the late 1940s and 1950s responsible for? It
fueled the general expansion of the U.S. educational system, including academic anthropology.
As an aid to applied anthropology, anthropological theory
promotes a systemic perspective that aids the successful implementation of development projects.
All of the following are proper roles for applied anthropologists except
placing the cultural values of the local people above everybody else's cultural values.
This chapter's "Appreciating Anthropology" account describes how applied anthropologists can help communities preserve their culture in the face of threat or disaster, such as Hurricane Katrina. For example, after the hurricane, anthropologist Shannon Dawdy proposed treating one of New Orleans's most popular cemeteries among the city's poor as archaeologists would handle an ancient site. In practice this meant that
the government should treat the votive artifacts of the cemetery not as debris but as the religious artifacts they are, making some effort to restore the damaged site, find the objects, and at least record where they came from.
What is the commonly stated goal for most development projects?
In a comparative study of 68 development projects, Kottak determined that
culturally compatible development projects were twice as successful as incompatible ones.
Which of the following is not a valid criticism of many economic development projects?
Project planners have no real interest in helping communities.
What term refers to the tendency to view less developed countries as more alike than they are?
Development projects should aim to accomplish all of the following except
developing strategies with little input from the local communities.
Which of the following is a reason that the Madagascar project to increase rice production was successful?
Malagasy leaders were of the peasantry and were therefore prepared to follow the descent-group ethic of pooling resources for the good of the group as a whole
The Malagasy development program described in this chapter illustrates the importance of
the local government's ability to improve the lives of its citizens, when committed to doing so.
In an example of applied anthropology's contribution to improving education, this chapter describes a study of Puerto Rican seventh graders in a Midwestern U.S. urban school (Hill-Burnett, 1978). What did anthropologists discover in this study?
The Puerto Rican students' education was being affected by their teachers' misconceptions.
Anthropology may aid in the progress of education by helping educators avoid all of the following except
tolerance of ethnic diversity.
Robert Redfield's research recognized that a city is a social context that is very different from a tribal or peasant village. What did he study? Differences between
urban and rural communities
What did Robert Redfield argue about the relations between urban and rural communities?
Cities are centers from which cultural innovations are spread to rural and tribal areas.
Which of the following is not a feature of urban life?
A. Dispersed settlements
B. High population density
C. Social heterogeneity
D. Economic differentiation
E. Geographic mobility
Which of the following best illustrates urban applied anthropologists' ability to help social groups deal with urban institutions?
Vigil's study of gang violence in the context of large-scale immigrant adaptation to U.S. cities
Which of the following is true about medical anthropology?
his growing field considers the biocultural context and implications of disease and illness.
What is a disease?
A scientifically identified health threat
What is an illness?
A health problem as it is experienced by the one affected
Shamans and other magico-religious specialists are effective curers with regard to what kind of disease theory?
What is microenculturation?
the process whereby particular roles are learned within a limited social system (for example, a business)
An ethnographic study of the workplace
provides a close observation of workers and managers in their natural setting.
This chapter's "Appreciating Diversity" account describes how McDonalds was able to succeed in the Brazilian market once it adapted to preexisting Brazilian cultural patterns. This example illustrates
how the axiom of applied anthropology that innovation succeeds best when it is culturally appropriate applies not just to development projects but also businesses, such as fast food.
Anthropology has three dimensions: academic, applied, and a mix of the two.
Ethnography is one of applied anthropology's most valuable research tools, because it provides a firsthand account of the lives of ordinary people.
During World War II, the U.S. government recruited anthropologists to study Japanese and German cultures. This chapter uses this example to illustrate the dangers of the old anthropology.
Although its roots extend further back in time, the real boom for applied anthropology in the United States began in the 1970s.
Academic and applied anthropology have a symbiotic relationship as theory aids practice and application fuels theory.
Developmental anthropology is the branch of applied anthropology that focuses on social issues in, and the cultural dimensions of, moral development.
A commonly stated goal of recent development policy is to promote equity; that is, to reduce poverty and promote a more even distribution of wealth.
A comparative study of 68 rural development projects from all around the world found culturally compatible economic development projects to be twice as successful financially as incompatible ones.
It is safe to assume that there is less cultural diversity among the poorest, less developed countries in the world.
Fortunately for applied anthropologists eager to do effective international work, all governments are genuinely and realistically committed to improving the lives of their citizens.
When nations become more tied to the world economy, indigenous forms of social organization inevitably break down into nuclear family organization, impersonality, and alienation.
Sociolinguists and cultural anthropologists studying Puerto Rican communities in the Midwestern United States found that Puerto Rican parents valued education more than non-Hispanics.
In his comparison of rural versus urban communities, Robert Redfield found that cultural innovations spread from urban areas to rural ones.
The Samoan community living in Los Angeles has successfully has used the matai system to deal with modern urban problems.
Strictly speaking, medical anthropology is an applied field within anthropology.
An illness is a scientifically identified health threat caused by a bacterium, virus, fungus, parasite, or other pathogen.
Biomedicine, which aims to link an illness to scientifically demonstrated agents that bear no personal malice toward their victims, is an example of naturalistic medicine.
Health care systems refer to the nationalized health care services that exist only in core industrial nations.
Non-Western medicine does not maintain a sharp distinction between biological and psychological illnesses.
Non-Western medicine treats illnesses symptomatically, seeking an immediate cure.
Scientific medicine is not the same thing as Western medicine. Despite advances in technology, genomics, molecular biology, pathology, surgery, diagnostics, and applications, many Western medical procedures have little justification in logic or fact.
A bachelor's degree in anthropology is of little value in the corporate world
All of the following are true about the work of paleoanthropologists except that they
do not have to worry about ethical and legal concerns, because they are dealing with the remains of dead humans.
The American Anthropological Association's Code of Ethics
is designed to ensure that all anthropologists are aware of their obligations to the field of anthropology, the host communities that allow them to conduct their research, and society in general.
The legal and scientific debates that arose after the discovery in 1996 of a skeleton dubbed Kennewick Man illustrates all of the following except
the ineffectiveness of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, which has no real legal or political recognition.
Informed consent refers to
people's agreement to take part in research after they have been fully informed about its purpose, nature, funding, procedures, and potential impact on them.
Which of the following is not one of the fields of study mentioned in the textbook as part of the multidisciplinary approaches used in physical anthropology and archaeology?
A. Remote sensing
The specialist among a team of scientists at an excavation site who focuses on the study of ancient plants through pollen samples taken from the site is most likely a
Advances in technology enable archaeologists to gather evidence that is not visible to the naked eye. One example of such microscopic evidence is the study of
E. phytoliths, microscopic crystals found in many plants that are inorganic and do not decay, which means that they can reveal which plants were present at a given site even when no other plant remains survive.
In an example of how microscopic evidence in studying the past can yield surprising results that may overturn long-held assumptions, Williamson's analysis of microscopic residues stuck to the edges of cutting tools found at a cave site in South Africa revealed that
50 percent of the residues were from plants, contradicting the prevailing assumption that such tools were used mainly to hunt and butcher animals.
What is paleopathology? The study of
disease and injury in skeletons from archaeological sites
Which of the following researchers would most likely not be part of a paleoanthropological research team?
uses genetic analysis of a DNA sequence to assess evolutionary links.
Systematic survey and excavation
are the two major components of fieldwork in archaeology and paleoanthropology.
Data collected using systematic surveys typically address all of the following questions except
A. What is the relative chronology of the layers exposed during excavation?
B. How big are the sites in a given region?
C. How many people lived in a certain area?
D. What kinds of buildings existed in a given region?
E. Where are the archaeological sites located?
The principle of superposition states that in an undisturbed sequence of strata,
A. the oldest layer is on the top.
B. the oldest layer is on the bottom.
C. the stratigraphic techniques are useful only if the soils have a high content of sandstone.
D. the youngest layer is the least disturbed by environmental changes such as erosion.
E. the oldest layer is the shallowest in the sequence.
Why do archaeologists use flotation?
A. to identify regional settlement patterns
B. to recover very small remains like fish bones and seeds
C. to control for the location of artifacts in three-dimensional space
D. to establish relative chronologies
E. to study the processes of stratigraphy
Using a novel method of scanning neural activity in people playing games, scientists have discovered that cooperation triggers pleasure centers in the brain. This research suggests that
a neural tendency to cooperate and share would have conferred a survival advantage on our ancestors.
Which of the following is not one of the kinds of archaeology discussed in this chapter?
A. Classical archaeology
B. Historic archaeology
C. Underwater archaeology
D. Linguistic archaeology
E. Colonial archaeology
Under what conditions are fossils most likely to form?
A. Acidic soils
B. Geologically inactive regions
C. Regions with lots of scavengers
D. Newly forming sediments
E. Maritime environments
What term refers to the study of the processes that affect the remains of dead animals?
Paleoanthropologist Stringer once noted that "absence of evidence does not necessarily prove evidence of absence." Why is this important to keep in mind when assessing the use of fossils to study the past?
C. The failure to find a fossil species in a particular place does not necessarily mean that it did not live there.
The utility of stratigraphy for dating purposes is based on the fact that
the depth and order of undisturbed soil strata reflect the age of their deposition.
Radiometric dating techniques available to anthropologists
establish a probable date for fossils by calculating radioactive decay in the specimen found or the rocks surrounding it.
Which of the following statements about techniques used in dating fossil remains is not true
Carbon-14 dating is most accurate on specimens more than 70,000 years old.
What are both carbon-14 and potassium-argon dating techniques based on?
A. Radioactive decay
B. Stratigraphic associations
C. Reversals of magnetic fields
D. Accumulations of mineral salts
E. Relative as opposed to absolute dating
So-called Piltdown Man was once considered an unusual and perplexing human ancestor, but it turned out to be the jaw of a young orangutan attached to a Homo sapiens skull. What dating technique exposed the Piltdown fraud?
A. Fluorine absorption analysis
D. Electron spin resonance
What kind of dating technique is fluorine absorption analysis?
What kind of absolute dating technique is used to date volcanic rock?
A. Fluorine absorption analysis
D. Electron spin resonance
Upon what assumption is molecular dating based?
A. Human DNA does not change over time.
B. Human DNA is inherited only from the father.
C. The rate of genetic mutation in humans is constant.
D. Human DNA accumulates rings, much like trees.
E. The rate of genetic mutation in humans is always changing
Which of the following is a method of absolute dating based on the study and comparison of the patterns of tree-ring growth?
C. Electron spin resonance
E. Fluorine absorption analysis
Dendrochronology not only permits absolute dating for samples up to 11,000 years but is also useful
A. in areas with varying environmental patterns.
B. with any type of tree species.
C. because it provides information about climatic patterns in specific regions.
D. because it provides useful information for protecting water sources.
E. to date samples more than 1 million years of age.
Physical anthropology and archaeology both involve multidisciplinary approaches to research.
The American Anthropological Association's Code of Ethics is applicable only to research being conducted in the United States.
Informed consent refers to people's agreement to take part in research after they have been fully informed about its purpose, nature, funding, procedures, and potential impact on them.
Anthropologists who study the past do not have to worry so much about ethical concerns, since their studies do not concern living people.
Palynology is the study of ancient animals through fossil remains
Remote sensing refers to carrying out excavations in distant locations.
The most reliable evidence to study the past is that which is visible to the naked eye. Anything microscopic is too small to be considered reliable.
Anthropometry is the study of human culture using satellite imagery.
Paleopathology is the study of disease and injury in skeletons
Molecular anthropology studies evolutionary links using genetic analysis.
Archaeological anthropologists excavate sites to gain a better understanding of the regional patterning of the molecular record.
Digging according to arbitrary levels is quicker but less refined than digging according to the site's stratigraphy.
Flotation is a technique used by archaeologists to recover very small remains from an excavation.
Systematic survey refers to the archaeological technique of systematically digging through the cultural and natural stratigraphy of an archaeological site.
Experimental archaeologists try to replicate ancient techniques under controlled conditions.
Historical archaeologists use written records to supplement the archaeological record
Colonial archaeologists study pre-Columbian cultures of the Americas.
Classical archaeologists focus on archaeological sites that are threatened by development.
Taphonomy is the science that examines the ways in which sediments accumulate in layers.
Absolute dating uses stratigraphy to establish a time frame in relation to other strata.
Molecular dating uses an assumed constant rate of mutation to estimate the date of a most recent ancestor that is shared by two populations.
Electron spin resonance is used to date organic material from archaeological sites.
Dendrochronology, or tree-ring dating, is a method of relative, and therefore unreliable, dating based on the study and comparison of patterns of tree-ring growth.
We have learned that reliance on culture has increased in the course of human history. Yet the fact and mechanisms of evolution remain a key part of our human present and future because
people haven't stopped adapting biologically.
During the 18th century, many scholars became interested in biological diversity, human origins, and our position within the classification of plants and animals. At that time, the most commonly accepted explanation of the origin of species was
creationism, the belief that biological similarities and differences originated at Creation and that these characteristics, once set, could not change.
The Intelligent Design (ID) movement asserts that life forms are too complex to have been formed by natural processes and must therefore have been created by a higher intelligence. Attempts have been made to teach ID as an alternative theory to Darwinian evolution in biology classes in several states in the United States. However,
as a Pennsylvania district judge ruled in a 2005 case, ID violates the ground rules of science by invoking supernatural causation and making assertions that cannot be tested or falsified, and thus does not belong in a school's science curriculum.
Darwin and Wallace simultaneously proposed which of the following theoretical models?
B. Natural selection
Although Darwin became the best-known evolutionist, the idea of evolution had been around well before him. Darwin's key contribution was to propose a mechanism that drives evolution, which is known as
C. natural selection.
Which of the following does not seek to explain the origin of species by referring to an outside agent?
D. Extraterrestrial seeding
E. Intelligent Design
Sir Charles Lyell, the father of geology, influenced Darwin with his principle of catastrophism, the view that extinct species were destroyed by fires, floods, and other catastrophes. His geological research was also critical in Darwin's own formulations because it
cast serious doubt on the belief that the world was only 6,000 years old, allowing for a much broader time span for the gradual biological changes to take place that fossil finds were confirming.
What is the term for the belief that explanations for past events should be sought in ordinary forces that are at work today?
Natural selection is the process by which the forms most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment do so in greater numbers than others in the same population. But more than survival of the fittest, natural selection is the natural process that leads to
differential reproductive success.
For natural selection to work on a particular population
A. their members must have a sufficiently long enough life span.
B. the environment must remain constant.
C. there must be a strong will to survive among the members of the population.
D. there must be variety within that population.
E. there must be genotypic diversity but phenotypic homogeneity.
was first scientifically described by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace.
Which of the following statements about natural selection is not true? Natural selection
A. operates directly on genetic variety.
B. is the sum of environmental forces that conditions the survival of particular phenotypes.
C. operates with respect to specific environments.
D. is responsible for the maintenance of sickle hemoglobin polymorphism.
E. was first scientifically described by Darwin and Wallace.
This chapter describes the case of giraffes' long necks to illustrate how natural selection works on variety within a population. This explanation contrasts to the incorrect alternative of the inheritance of acquired characteristics which suggests that
in each generation, individual giraffes strain their necks to reach food just a bit higher, and that this straining somehow modifies their genetic material.
Why are genetics and evolution so important to anthropology? They
help anthropologists document and explain human biological diversity.
What does Mendelian genetics study?
A. changes in gene frequencies in breeding populations
B. the ways in which chromosomes transmit genes across generations
C. how nuclear DNA transmits information to other parts of the cell
D. evolution in pea plants
E. phenotypic mutations
Gregor Mendel's work with hereditary traits of pea plants
A. confirmed the paint-pot theory of inheritance.
B. was the basis for Darwin's theory of evolution.
C. led to the formulation of the law of independent assortment.
D. discredited the phenomenon of balanced polymorphism.
E. proved that natural selection operates on genotypes.
What role do recombination and independent assortment play in evolution? They
D. act to create genetic variability in a breeding population.
What is the process by which sex cells are produced?
A. Directional selection
D. Independent assortment
The DNA molecule
A. was discovered in the decade after Darwin's death.
B. is the basic hereditary material.
C. initiates and guides the construction of complex sugars.
D. is made up of three bases: adenine, cytosine, and factor.
E. is the messenger molecule of RNA.
Mutations are the most important source of variety on which natural selection depends and operates. There are two forms of mutations,
A. both discovered by Mendel.
B. called cancer-causing mutations and chromosomal rearrangement.
C. which occur only during the development of an individual.
D. called base substitution mutation and chromosomal rearrangement.
E. which always result in phenotypic change.
The term gene pool refers to all the
A. alleles, genes, chromosomes, and genotypes within a breeding population.
B. mutations in a breeding population.
C. alleles, genes, chromosomes, and genotypes of the animal kingdom.
D. processes of achieving a perfect fit to the environment.
E. mechanisms of competition over strategic resources.
A. is no longer affected by evolutionary processes.
B. remains the best explanation for genetic evolution.
C. is all in the genes.
D. is 75 percent genotype and 25 percent phenotype.
E. is not set at birth but has considerable plasticity.
Early on in this chapter, we learned that evolution refers to descent with modification over generations. Geneticists, however, have an even more specific definition of evolution:
a change in gene frequency; that is, in the frequency of alleles in a breeding population from generation to generation.
Any factor that contributes to the change in allele frequency in a breeding population from generation to generation is considered a mechanism of genetic evolution. Those mechanisms are
natural selection, mutation, random genetic drift, and gene flow.
The example of the sickle-cell allele demonstrates a key aspect of evolution through natural selection in that
adaptation and fitness are in relation to specific environments; traits are not adaptive or maladaptive all the time.
Which of the following statements about individuals with the HbS allele in the homozygous form is true? They
A. lack the capacity to digest lactose.
B. usually develop fatal cases of sickle-cell anemia.
C. rarely develop any form of sickle-cell anemia before reaching reproductive age.
D. usually are found in temperate regions of the world.
E. always develop fatal cases of sickle-cell anemia late in life.
Which of the following statements about the HbS allele is not true?
A. It is found in higher gene frequencies in regions where malaria is endemic.
B. It causes sickle-cell anemia in homozygous individuals.
C. It spread through the tropics as communities adopted slash-and-burn agriculture.
D. Heterozygous individuals have an increased immunity to malaria.
E. Homozygous individuals usually develop fatal cases of dysentery.
The study of sickle-cell anemia and its relation to malarial environments demonstrates that
changes in cultural adaptation can result in changes in the selective pressures on a human population.
Anthropologists that study the evolution of disease, such as venereal syphilis, focus not just on its biology but also on
its context of social and political history, such as the role of globalization in the spread and transformation of disease.
What does the term gene flow refer to?
A. the random loss of genes through sampling error
B. the genetic mutations that occur during meiosis
C. the movement of alleles from one chromosome to another
D. the exchange of genetic material between populations of the same species
E. a random pattern of chromosome mutations
What do gene flow and interbreeding act against?
C. Natural selection
E. Balanced polymorphisms
In the debate of how speciation occurs, advocates of punctuated equilibrium
suggest that long periods of stasis (stability), during which species change little, are interrupted by evolutionary leaps.
The so-called modern synthesis, the currently accepted view of evolution,
suggests that speciation occurs after the genetic isolation of two populations, which allows their gene pools to diverge.
How have modern-day creationists sometimes misunderstood the contrast between microevolution and macroevolution to comment on evolution? By
suggesting that macroevolution, in contrast to microevolution, cannot be demonstrated based on the fossil record
The theory of creationism argues that all the species present today were created as natural selection selected the fittest individuals.
The inheritance of acquired characteristics is central to Darwin's theory of evolution
Uniformitarianism states that the natural forces at work today have more or less been the same as those at work in the past.
Darwin proposed the theory of evolution, although the fact of evolution was known well before his work.
Intelligent Design explains some biological facts that evolution cannot explain.
Mendelian genetics studies the ways in which gene frequencies vary in communities from generation to generation.
One of Gregor Mendel's contributions to genetics was his discovery that traits are inherited as discrete units.
Recessive traits are expressed only in homozygous individuals.
The genotype refers to expressed traits based on their genetic makeup.
A balanced polymorphism refers to two or more forms, such as alleles of the same gene that change frequencies in a population from generation to generation.
Mendel's concept of independent assortment is based on the fact that individual traits are inherited independently of one another.
In molecular genetics, the term crossover refers to a site on the DNA molecule where homologous chromosomes have exchanged segments by breakage and recombination
Mitosis is the special process by which sex cells are produced.
Genetic evolution involves changes in gene frequencies between generations within a given breeding population.
Natural selection is the only mechanism driving genetic evolution.
Natural selection operates directly on the genotype of an organism.
Directional selection works to reduce genetic variation by removing maladaptive traits from the gene pool.
Directional selection has eliminated sickle-cell anemia from all human populations, except those in regions where diabetes is endemic.
The HbS allele has been maintained in certain populations in Africa, India, and the Mediterranean because heterozygotes with this allele are less susceptible to malaria.
Globalization remains an important factor in the spread and mutation of disease in today's world.
Mutations introduce genetic variation into a gene pool.
Gene flow between populations works to prevent speciation.
Microevolution refers to small-scale change in allele frequencies over generations without speciation.
Which of the following statements about the concept of race as applied to humans is true? It
is a discredited concept in biology.
This chapter's "Appreciating Diversity" segment describes some of the identity issues that African Americans face in Ghana, where often—no matter how dark their skin color may be—they are equated with white foreign tourists. This situation shows how
racial and ethnic classification can depend on sociocultural factors such as class and nationality as well as on biological factors like skin color.
Which of the following statements about attempts to assign humans to discrete racial categories purportedly based on common ancestry is true? They are
culturally arbitrary, even though most people assume they are based in biology.
What is the term for a gradual shift in gene frequencies between neighboring populations?
Recall the mechanisms of genetic evolution discussed in the previous chapter. What is the relationship between gene flow and the existence of clines between human populations?
Gene flow, the exchange of genetic material across populations, results in clines, which are gradual, rather than abrupt, shifts in gene frequencies between neighboring groups.
In theory, a biological race is a geographically isolated subdivision of a species. Humanity (Homo sapiens) lacks such races because
human populations have not been isolated enough from one another to develop such discrete groups.
What term refers to an organism's evident traits, its "manifest biology?"
A. Manifest destiny
C. Biological circumscription
E. Hereditary inequality
In understanding the problems with attempts at human racial classification, why is it important to understand the difference between genotype and phenotype?
Attempts at human racial classification have typically used phenotypic traits like skin color as markers of common ancestry, but many such traits do not reflect shared genetic material. Instead, they are often the result of different populations biologically adapting to similar environmental stressors in similar ways.
An examination of racial taxonomies from around the world would indicate that
the classification of racial types is an arbitrary and culturally specific process.
In the early 20th century, anthropologist Franz Boas described changes in skull form among the children of Europeans who had migrated to North America. He found that the reason for these changes could not be explained by genetics. His findings underscore the fact that
phenotypic similarities and differences don't necessarily have a genetic basis.
Traditional racial classification assumed that biological characteristics such as skin color were determined by heredity and remained stable over many generations. We now know that
a biological similarity such as skin color is also the result of natural selection working among different populations that face similar environmental challenges.
Which of the following is the best plan of action for a light-skinned woman of childbearing age living in the tropics and concerned about giving birth to a child with neural tube defects (NTDs)?
Taking folic acid/folate supplements and protecting herself against the sun with sunscreen, clothing, and shelter
East Asians who have migrated recently from India and Pakistan to northern areas of the United Kingdom have a higher incidence of rickets and osteoporosis than the general British population. This illustrates that
natural selection continues today.
Which of the following statements about human skin color is not true?
The amount of melanin in the skin affects the body's ability to process lactose.
The explanations given in this chapter for the differences and distribution of skin color in populations around the world are examples of
explanatory approaches to human biological diversity.
Which of the following is the best example of how diseases have been powerful selective agents for humans, particularly before the arrival of modern medicine?
Smallpox, which appeared after people and animals started living together, has worked as a selective agent for people with blood types B and O who have an ability to produce antibodies against smallpox.
What does the relationship between genetic traits and the prevalence of diseases such as malaria and smallpox illustrate?
the ways in which human biological diversity reflects adaptation to such environmental stresses as disease, diet, and climate
What does Bergmann's rule state? Average body size tends to
increase in cold climates and decrease in hot ones.
What does Allen's rule state? The relative size of protruding body parts
A. decreases with temperature.
B. increases with altitude.
C. decreases with altitude.
D. increases with temperature.
E. increases with humidity.
What is a phenotypic adaptation, and what makes it possible?
It happens when adaptive changes occur during an individual's lifetime. It is made possible by human biological plasticity, our ability to change in response to the environments we encounter as we grow.
Genes and phenotypic adaptation work together to produce a biochemical difference between human groups in an ability to digest large amounts of milk. When is this an adaptive advantage? When
other foods are scarce and milk is available, as it is in herding societies
Indigenous highlanders living in the Andean altiplano in South America, in the Tibetan plateau in Asia, and at the highest elevations of the Ethiopian highlands in East Africa have all adapted to living in an environment of oxygen-thin air. Researchers have found that
each population has evolved its own distinctly different biological adaptation to this environment.
Human biological differences are evident only to individuals who wrongfully sustain the validity of human races.
Historically, scientists have approached the study of human biological diversity in two main ways: racial classification (now largely abandoned) versus the current explanatory approach, which focuses on understanding specific differences.
Biological races have been scientifically discredited not just among humans but also among all living species.
Humanity (Homo sapiens) lacks distinct races because human populations have not been isolated enough from one another to develop into discrete groups.
Biologists have rejected the idea of three great races (white, black, and yellow) largely because it fails to account for Native Americans.
The only chance for human racial classification schemes to work is to shift from using phenotypic to genotypic characteristics of human populations.
Physical features cluster into discrete genetic units.
Phenotypic similarities and differences always have a genetic basis.
There is much greater variation within each of the traditional so-called races than between them.
The role of natural selection in producing variation in human skin color illustrates the explanatory approach to explaining human biological diversity.
Higher amounts of melanin in the skin inhibit the body's ability to manufacture vitamin D. This confers an adaptive advantage in environments with excessive sun exposure.
Rickets is caused by an overabundance of vitamin D in the body.
The indigenous communities in the tropical regions of the Americas are not as dark skinned as populations living in other tropical regions, because the dense vegetation in this continent blocks out much of the sunlight.
Light-skinned individuals living in tropical climates are high-risk candidates for hypervitaminosis D
Skin color is a simple biological trait that is influenced by one gene and environmental exposure to sunlight.
One of the selective advantages of dark skin color in the tropics is that it reduces the susceptibility to folate destruction and therefore diminishes the likelihood of neural tube defects among human embryos. Folate is also necessary in men in order to maintain normal sperm production.
In the case of skin color, natural selection is no longer active today, thanks to human cultural adaptations that confer an advantage no matter the skin color or environment one lives in.
Thanks to medical advances, genetic resistance to diseases no longer confers any selective advantage.
According to Thomson's nose rule, longer noses are more adaptive to colder climates than shorter ones.
Allen's rule states that protruding body parts grow shorter as temperature increases.
This chapter's discussion of lactose tolerance highlights that genes and phenotypic adaptation can work together to produce human biological diversity.
Populations living at high altitudes have all developed similar biological and cultural adaptations to hypoxic conditions.
Primatology helps anthropologists make inferences about the early social organization of hominids and untangle issues of human nature and the origins of culture. Of particular relevance to humans are two kinds of primates:
those whose ecological adaptations are similar to our own (terrestrial monkeys and apes), and those most closely related to us—the great apes, specifically the chimpanzees and gorillas.
Which of the following is an example of an analogy?
D. dolphin fins and fish fins
What is the term for a trait that organisms have jointly inherited from a common ancestor?
For years, orangutans were believed to be the only great ape that lived a largely solitary life foraging for hard-to-find fruit thinly distributed over a large area, but primatologists have now turned this theory on its head. For example, van Schaik's work among orangutans living in Suaq, a swamp forest in Sumatra, has found that
not only can orangutans be very sociable animals, but they have the capacity to transmit the capacity culturally for tool use.
Common ancestry isn't the only reason for similarities between species. Similar traits can also arise if species experience similar selective forces and adapt to them in similar ways. This process is known as
Of the following primates, which are most likely to provide reasonable comparisons to humans?
C. New World monkeys
D. Terrestrial primates
E. Arboreal primates
Which of the following are most closely related to chimpanzees?
The tribe hominini describes
all the human species that ever existed (including extinct ones) but excludes chimps and gorillas.
Which of the following is not a hominoid?
Which of the following is not one of the general primate tendencies discussed in the textbook?
A. Relatively large brain size
B. Aquatic lifestyle
C. Five-fingered hands
D. Small litter size
E. Stereoscopic vision
Which of the following primate traits is believed to have been selected for life in trees?
A. Fewer offspring and bipedalism
B. Meat eating and aggression
C. Larger females and gentle males
D. Fingernails (instead of claws) and soft fingertips
E. Stereoscopic vision and an opposable thumb
Which of the following is not an adaptive trend in anthropoids?
A. Stereoscopic vision
B. Enhanced sense of touch
C. Grasping hands and feet
D. Decreased sociality
E. Increased brain complexity
Which of the following is shared by all anthropoids?
A. The ability to knuckle-walk and carry tools
B. Bipedalism and one offspring born at a time
C. Prehensile tails
D. A decrease in the size of canines and an increase in the size of molars
E. Stereoscopic vision
Ancient anthropoids began to have fewer offspring that required longer and more attentive care. What did this select for?
increased social complexity
Which of the following is not considered an anthropoid trend?
an increase in hearing capacity at the expense of smell
Which of the following was not one of the trends that distinguished anthropoids from other primates?
increased reliance on smell
New World monkeys are the only anthropoids that
A. have rough patches of skin on the buttocks.
B. exhibit sexual dimorphism.
C. have prehensile tails.
D. are capable of brachiation.
E. have orthograde posture.
Which of the following primates is arboreal, active during the day, and has a prehensile tail?
B. A New World monkey
C. An Old World monkey
D. A gibbon
Platyrrhines are to catarrhines as
New World monkeys to Old World monkeys.
Which of the following statements about orangutans is true?
Orangutans used to live over much of Asia but now are found only on two islands in Indonesia.
Bonobos, which belong to the same genus as chimpanzees, are exceptional among primates because of
the frequency with which they have sex, a behavior associated with conflict avoidance.
Which of the following is not a threat to endangered primates?
A. Interspecies conflict
C. Capture for laboratory testing
D. Capture for pets
Behavioral ecology studies the evolutionary basis of social behavior. What is one of the discipline's main assumptions?
The genetic features of any species reflect a long history of differential reproductive success (that is, natural selection).
How is individual fitness measured? By
A. techniques developed for anthropometry
B. the number of direct descendants an individual has
C. maximum lung capacity
D. the amount of genetic diversity in a breeding population
E. the gene an individual shares with relatives
In terms of numbers and range, what is the most successful living hominoid species?
A. The gorilla
B. Homo sapiens
C. The baboon
D. The gibbon
E. The chimpanzee
What are the eras of ancient, middle, and recent life, respectively?
Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic
Which of the following suggests that primates became primates by adapting to life in the trees?
A. Visual predation hypothesis
B. Terrestrial theory
C. Deciduous hypothesis
D. Mixed diet hypothesis
E. Arboreal theory
A tiny euprimate skull found recently in China confirms that
primates were already geographically widespread by 55 m.y.a., and their common ancestor must have evolved earlier than previously believed.
Which of the following statements about the Oligocene epoch is not true?
Hominins first appear during this epoch.
When do the first hominoid fossils appear? During the
Which of the following statements about Proconsul is not true? It
was a carnivore.
Why did Old World monkeys thrive as Miocene apes faded?
Old World monkeys were superior at eating leaves.
What species coexisted with Homo erectus in Asia?
Based on scientific theories of evolution, humans are not descended from gorillas or chimps. Rather,
humans and African apes share a common ancestor.
Primatology is relevant only to applied anthropologists concerned about deforestation and poaching.
Humans and apes belong to the same taxonomic superfamily, Hominoidea
When scientists use the word hominid today, they mean pretty much the same thing as when they used this word 20 twenty years ago.
Homologies are similarities between two species that have been jointly inherited from a common ancestor.
Analogies are similarities that are shared by organisms that belong to the same genus.
All primates share a common arboreal heritage
Opposable thumbs evolved as early primates adapted to terrestrial life.
Because primates are highly social animals, they provide less care over a shorter period of time to offspring.
Prosimians are found only in Madagascar.
Platyrrhines are New World monkeys.
Most New World monkeys have a tendency to use orthograde posture.
Old World monkeys include both arboreal and terrestrial species.
Like apes and hominids, Old World monkeys have full color vision, which prosimians and most New World monkeys lack.
Because they are predominantly terrestrial, gorillas exhibit only minor sexual dimorphism.
Chimpanzees' social networks involve complex systems of dominance relationships.
We live in the Cenozoic era.
According to the arboreal theory, primates became primates by adapting to life in the savannah.
It was during the Oligocene that anthropoids became the most numerous of the primates.
Some people believe that Dryopithecus is still alive today, known as Big Foot
Bipedalism, considered a key defining characteristic that differentiated early hominins from other apes,
perhaps developed in the woodlands but became even more adaptive in a savanna habitat.
Which of the following was a key obstacle that hominins' increase in brain size had to overcome?
larger skulls demanding larger birth canals, even though the requirements of upright bipedalism impose limits on the expansion of the human pelvic opening
All of the following are true about the recent discovery of the world's oldest child, dubbed Lucy's baby, except that
the fossil suggests that the child died because her brain, which appears to have been larger than an average chimp brain at that age, was too large for her slowly developing skull.
A. member of Australopithecus afarensis
B.3.3-million-year-old fossilized toddler was uncovered in northern Ethiopia's badlands along the Great Rift Valley.
C.complete, include a remarkably well preserved skull, milk teeth, tiny fingers, a torso, a foot, and a kneecap no bigger than a dried pea.
Dwalked upright on two legs but still retained an apelike upper body, including two complete shoulder blades similar to a gorilla's, so it could have been better at climbing than are humans.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis, or Toumai,
may be the oldest possible human ancestor yet found.
A 2001 fossil find called Orrorin tugenensis, dated 6 million years of age,
appears to have been a chimp-sized creature that climbed easily and walked on two legs when on the ground.
In 2009, a newly reported Ardipithecus find–a fairly complete skeleton of A. ramidus, dubbed Ardi (4.4 m.y.a.),
replaces Lucy (3.2 m.y.a.) as the earliest known hominin skeleton
All of the following about Ardipithecus kadabba are true except
ts bipedalism is still questioned because none of the fossil bones found was a pelvis or a femur.
What is the significance of Kenyanthropus, a 3.5-million-year-old fossil that Maeve Leakey discovered in Kenya in 1999? It
suggests the possibility that at least two hominin lineages existed as far back as 3.5 million years ago
As this chapter makes clear, there are many issues within hominin evolution that remain open to debate. One of them regards the Kenyanthropus fossil found by Maeve Leakey, who argues that at least two hominin lineages existed as far back as 3.5 million years (the other being A. afarensis). Taxonomic "splitters" tend to agree with her interpretation, while taxonomic "lumpers" disagree. These two interpretations highlight
the distinction between those who stress diversity and divergence versus those who focus on similarities across fossil finds.
Although we now know that the various species of Australopithecus discussed in this chapter do not form a distinct subfamily within the order Primates,
the designation australopithecine has stuck to describe them
Interestingly, some of the physical markers that have led scientists to identify certain fossils as early hominins rather than apes are features that have been lost during subsequent human evolution. Which of the following is an example of this?
big back teeth
Although the first hominins appeared late in the Miocene, most hominin fossils have been dated to
the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs
Australopithecus had at least six species
A. anamensis, A. afarensis, A. africanus, A. garhi, A. robustus, and A. boisei
What was the major hominin group that lived from about 4 million to 1 m.y.a.?
Northern Tanzania and the Afar region of Ethiopia have yielded some of the most famous and informative glimpses into hominin evolution. All of the following are true about fossil finds in these areas except
that although the fossils from these two regions were deposited half a million years apart, their many resemblances justify including them all as part of the same species, Homo habilis.
What is the most important difference between Australopithecus afarensis and the modern apes? Australopithecus afarensis
Which of the following species was found in South Africa?
Which of the following statements about australopithecines is true?
Australopithecines as a group inhabited the earth longer than any other hominin genus
Which of the following statements about australopithecines is true? They
were fully bipedal.
A. Australopithecines had a higher incidence of rickets than genus Homo.
B. Australopithecines had smaller molars than genus Homo.
C. Australopithecines probably relied more on the use of tools than did the early Homo.
D. Australopithecus was the most geographically widespread of all hominin genera. bipedal
Which of the following is not a location where australopithecine fossils have been found?
E. South Africa
Fossils of Australopithecus afarensis are particularly significant because
it was the first fossil evidence to confirm that bipedalism preceded the evolution of a humanlike brain
Of the following features belonging to Australopithecus afarensis, which is evidence of its adaptation to bipedal locomotion?
the position of its foramen magnum underneath the skull
What is the term for the bony protuberance found on top of the skulls of robust australopithecines?
the sagittal crest
Which of the following is evidence of robust australopithecines' adaptation to eating hard-shelled seeds and grasses?
the presence of very large molars and a sagittal crest on the top of the skull
Which of the following is not discussed in this chapter as a probable cause of the anatomical variety found in the australopithecine fossils?
the poor condition of the fossils
What do the skull, jaws, and teeth of australopithecines indicate?
Their diet was largely vegetarian.
Which of the following statements about the so-called "black skull" is not true?
The skull shows evidence of cold-weather adaptations.
When did the split between the later australopithecines and the ancestors of Homo take place, when they became productively isolated from the later australopithecines?
sometime between 3 and 2 m.y.a
What is one of the probable explanations of the extinction of the later australopithecines?
They were eventually unsuccessful in competing for available resources with early populations of Homo.
Which of the following is not considered a direct ancestor of anatomically modern humans?
Oldowan pebble tools
represent the oldest formally recognized stone tools.
All of the following about A. garhi are true except that it
displaces Lucy as the most complete skeletal fossil specimen found so far.
Postcranial material from Ardipithecus, the earliest widely accepted hominin genus (5.8–4.4 m.y.a.), indicates a capacity–albeit an imperfect one–for upright bipedal locomotion.
Bipedalism has traditionally been viewed as an adaptation to open grassland or savanna country, although Ardipithecus lived in a humid woodland habitat. Perhaps bipedalism developed in the woodlands but became even more adaptive in a savanna habitat.
Orrorin tugenensis and the Toumai specimen unquestionably are hominins.
In trying to determine whether a fossil is a human ancestor, we should always look for traits that make us human today.
Some of the physical markers that have led scientists to identify certain fossils as early hominins rather than apes are features that have been lost during subsequent human evolution.
A characteristic trend in hominin evolution has been an increase in brain size, especially with the advent of the genus Homo.
As a result of the Kenyanthropus discovery in 1999, the place of afarensis in human ancestry has been and will be debated between the taxonomic "splitters" and the "lumpers."
The teeth and skulls of australopithecines suggest that they had a vegetarian diet.
The footprints at the site of Laetoli in northern Tanzania were made by Australopithecus afarensis
The cranial features of Australopithecus afarensis were poorly adapted to chewing, grinding, and crushing.
Sexual dimorphism is less pronounced in modern Homo sapiens than in the australopithecines.
The dentition of Australopithecus afarensis exhibits some similarities to the dentition of modern chimpanzees.
In apes, the thighbone angles into the hip, permitting the space between the knees to be narrower than the pelvis
Robust australopithecines have been found only in East Africa
The genus Homo did not appear until after all of the australopithecines had died off.
Compared to the australopithecines, early Homo had larger cheek teeth and a larger cranial capacity.
Oldowan tools were made by striking flakes off the sides of cobbles.
The oldest known stone tools date from between 2.5 and 2 m.y.a.
One of the reasons why the discovery of the specimen A. garhi and other materials in its site is important is that it provided evidence that large mammals were being butchered with early stone tool technologies, which suggests the onset of a dietary revolution.
Scientists continue to debate the relationship between two Homo fossil finds: KNM-ER 1470, named H. rudolfensis by some, and KNM-ER 1813, generally considered to be an exemplar of H. habilis. Is the smaller KNM-ER 1813 a distinct species? Could it be a female version of KNM-ER 1470, both being simply a female and male pair of the highly variable H. habilis? The only sure conclusion is that
several different kinds of hominin lived in Africa before and after the advent of Homo
Which of the following statements about the appearance of Homo habilis is true? H. habilis
A. evolved from A. boisei, the hyperrobust australopithecines.
B. demonstrates the adaptive advantage of sedentism.
C. exhibits a relatively rapid expansion of cranial capacity.
D. shows evidence of a shift from an arboreal to an open-grassland environment.
E. represents a gradual shift away from predation to vegetarianism.
What is so significant about the recent fossil finds of an H. erectus and an H. habilis from Ileret, Kenya, east of Lake Turkana? They
negate the conventional view held since 1960 that habilis and erectus evolved one after the other. Instead, they lived side by side in eastern Africa for perhaps half a million years.
Excavations between Bed I and Bed II at Olduvai suggest that significant changes in technology occurred during a comparatively short 200,000-year period. The tools found illustrate a shift toward functional differentiation, which means that
the tools were being made and used for different jobs, such as smashing bones or digging for tubers.
Which of the following statements about Homo erectus fossils is not true? H. erectus fossils
have hyperrobust chewing muscles and broad, flat molars.
What have researchers learned by looking at the molars and other cranial features of H. erectus, such as a superorbital torus and an occipital bun?
H. erectus was more dependent on hunting—and the lifestyle it demanded—than were earlier hominins.
Biological and cultural changes enabled H. erectus to exploit a new adaptive strategy—gathering and hunting. This in turn was crucial for H. erectus to
push the hominin range beyond Africa, into Asia and Europe.
What is the name of the time period that evolved out of the Oldowan, or pebble tool, tradition and lasted until about 15,000 years ago?
Which of the following statements describes a key difference between Oldowan and Acheulian tools?
Acheulian tools, such as the hand ax, represent a predetermined shape based on a template in the mind of the toolmaker, suggesting a cognitive leap between earlier hominins and H. erectus.
Which of the following is a difference between Homo erectus and the australopithecines?
Homo erectus's cranial capacity was much larger.
The spread of H. erectus from tropical and subtropical climates into temperate zones was facilitated by all of the following except
Which of the following is not associated with H. erectus?
A. cave painting
B. a massive ridge over the eyebrows
C. more sophisticated toolmaking
D. the use of fire
E. the development of Acheulian tools
H. erectus is generally associated with which of the following technologies?
E. Upper Paleolithic
The fossil finds near Beijing, China (including Zhoukoudian) yielded the remains of more than 40 specimens of
A. H. habilis.
B. H. erectus.
C. archaic Homo sapiens.
E. anatomically modern humans.
One fairly complete skull, one large mandible, and two partial skulls were found in the 1990s at the Dmanisi site in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia. Dated to 1.7 to 1.77 m.y.a., these fossils
suggest a rapid spread, by 1.77 m.y.a, of early Homo out of Africa and into Eurasia.
What is the most likely explanation of why early Homo left Africa and spread into Eurasia?
the need to find meat
Which of the following sites is not included in the probable range of H. erectus?
C. South Africa
European fossils and tools have contributed disproportionately to our knowledge and interpretation of early (archaic) H. sapiens. What explains this?
the long history of Paleolithic archaeology in Europe relative to other regions in the world
Archaic H. sapiens (300,000? to 28,000 BP) encompass the earliest members of our species, along with
the Neanderthals of Europe and the Middle East and their Neanderthal-like contemporaries in Africa and Asia.
Traditionally and correctly, the geological epoch known as the __________ has been considered the epoch of early human life.
Worldwide, what were the Middle and Upper Pleistocene characterized by?
A. expansion in the number of hominin species
B. massive extinctions of hominin populations
C. widespread tropical rain forests
D. successive glacial advances and retreats
E. a climate much warmer than at present
. H. antecessor, a 780,000-year-old hominin found in Spain's Atapuerca Mountains,
is the possible common ancestor of the Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans.
Spain's Atapuerca Mountains hold one of the richest hominin fossil sites in the world. All of the following have been found in Atapuerca except
the first definitive evidence of human control of fire by 500,000 BP.
At the site of Terra Amata, in southern France, archaeologists have documented human activity dating back some 300,000 years. What do findings there indicate?
The site's inhabitants led an essentially human lifestyle.
What archaic H. sapiens group has a pronounced brow ridge, stocky build, and massive nasal cavities—characteristics that resulted as adaptations to cold weather?
Which of the following cold-weather adaptations predates the appearance of Neanderthals?
A. a stocky anatomy
B. the use of fire
C. wearing clothes probably made from animal skins
D. massive nasal cavities and brow ridges
E. a facial projection
Which of the following traits does not characterize a Neanderthal skull?
A. a broad face
B. a large brow ridge
C. huge front teeth
D. huge molars
E. an average cranial capacity larger than that of modern humans
What is the name of the stone-tool tradition associated with Neanderthals?
Although the Neanderthals are remembered more for their physiques than for their manufacturing abilities, their tool kits were sophisticated. In fact, the Mousterian technology, which Neanderthals are associated with,
included at least 14 categories of tools designed for different jobs.
Generations of scientists have debated whether the Neandertals were ancestral to modern Europeans. The current prevailing view, which denies the ancestry, proposes that
modern humans evolved in Africa and eventually colonized Europe, displacing the Neandertals there.
Until the recent—and surprising—discovery of H. floresiensis, few scientists
imagined that a different human species had survived through 12,000 BP, and possibly even later.
One of the most surprising aspects of the recent discovery of H. floresiensis is
the suggestion of sophisticated cultural abilities typically associated with anatomically modern humans, not with a hominin with a chimplike brain and extremities.
Several different kinds of hominin lived in Africa before and after the advent of Homo.
The recent hominin fossil finds from Ileret, Kenya, negate the conventional view held since 1960 that habilis and erectus evolved one after the other. Instead, they lived side by side in eastern Africa for perhaps half a million years.
The Paleolithic tool tradition associated with H. erectus is the Acheulian
With the movement of H. erectus out of Africa, H. erectus eventually colonized Europe and Asia.
The Acheulian tradition is characterized by cobble choppers that were made by removing flakes from one end of a cobble.
Biological and cultural changes enabled H. erectus to exploit a new adaptive strategy—gathering and hunting
The Acheulian hand ax, shaped like a teardrop, represents a predetermined shape based on a template in the mind of the toolmaker. Evidence for such a mental template in the archaeological record suggests a cognitive lead between earlier hominins and H. erectus
Given the potential for language-based communications in activities such as cooperative hunting and the manufacture of complicated tools, and given brain size within the low H. sapiens range, it seems plausible to assume that A. boisei had rudimentary speech.
The recent Dmanisi fossil finds suggest a rapid spread, by 1.77 m.y.a., of early Homo out of Africa into Eurasia.
Recently, a team uncovered a 1.2-million-year-old jawbone fragment from a species known as Homo antecessor in the Sierra de Atapuerca of Spain. The oldest hominid fossil ever found in western Europe, it provides conclusive evidence that Neanderthals interbred with archaic modern humans.
In addition to their stocky bodies, which were adapted to conserve heat, Neanderthals made clothes, developed elaborate tools, and hunted reindeer, mammoths, and woolly rhinos in order to adapt to the cold climate in Europe during the Würm glaciation.
The stone-tool tradition associated with Neanderthals is called the Mousterian
Compared to anatomically modern humans, Neanderthals exhibit a greater degree of sexual dimorphism.
One of the most surprising aspects of the recent discovery of H. floresiensis, a species of tiny people who lived, gathered, and hunted on the Indonesian island of Flores from about 95,000 BP until at least 13,000 BP, is the specimens' very large skulls, yet they lack behaviors associated with anatomically modern humans.
Recent fossil finds from Ethiopia such as the Herto skulls (160,000–154,000 BP) and the Omo remains (estimated date 195,000 BP) provide accumulating evidence to support
the African origin of anatomically modern humans (AMHs).
In 2003 scientists announced the 1997 discovery in an Ethiopian valley of three anatomically modern skulls—two adults and a child. Known collectively as the Herto skulls, the researchers dated them to 154,000-160,000 BP. All of the following clues suggested that these skulls in fact were of anatomically modern humans except
their tall and narrow saggital crests
Compared to Neanderthal skulls, anatomically modern specimens found at the Skhul and Qafzeh sites in Israel have a modern shape. Their brain cases are
higher, shorter, and rounder, with a more filled-out forehead region and a marked chin.
According to the mtDNA analyses, when did the first modern humans leave Africa?
no more than 135,000 years ago
In 1997, ancient DNA was extracted from one of the Neanderthal bones originally found in Germany's Neanderthal Valley in 1856. This was the first time that the DNA of a premodern human has been recovered. When comparing this DNA with that of modern humans, the researchers found
27 differences between the two, many more than would be expected in closely related humans, suggesting that there may have been little interbreeding between Neanderthals and the direct ancestors to modern humans.
Anthropologists have recently recalibrated the radiocarbon dating of Neanderthals and AMHs in Europe. What did they find?
Modern humans may have been in Europe longer than previously thought—perhaps for 50,000 years—and their time of overlap with the Neanderthals was less than previously thought, perhaps no more than 2,000 years in western Europe.
What does the advent of behavioral modernity refer to?
when early anatomically modern humans became fully human in behavior (relying on symbolic thought, elaborating cultural creativity) as well as in anatomy
There is much debate among scientists about when, where, and how anatomically modern humans achieved behavioral modernity. Some researchers suggest that about 50,000 years ago a genetic mutation acted to rewire the human brain, allowing for an advance in language and other related modern behaviors. Others propose
that instead of a sudden event in Europe due to a mutation, behavioral modernity resulted from a slow process of cultural accumulation within Africa, where Homo sapiens became fully human long before 40,000 years ago.
Although the debate on the origin of behavioral modernity continues, archaeological work in many world areas
suggests strongly that neither anatomical modernity nor behavioral modernity was a European invention.
Recent discoveries in a cave at Pinnacle Point, South Africa, suggest that humans had achieved behavioral modernity as early as 164,000 BP. All of the following were found at this site except evidence of
animal butchery for the first time
Which of the following characterizes Upper Paleolithic traditions?
A. Hand axes
B. Pebble tools
D. Plant domestication
E. Blade tools
How was the blade-core method, which characterizes the tools of Upper Paleolithic traditions, superior to Mousterian technology?
The Upper Paleolithic blade-core method was faster and produced 15 times as much cutting edge from the same amount of material.
All of the following characterized the changeover from the Mousterian to the Upper Paleolithic except
marked social and economic stratification among members of a society.
During the Upper Paleolithic, the hominin range
expanded significantly, in large part due to Homo's increasing reliance on cultural means of adaptation.
Climate changes had a profound impact on the hominin way of life. In southwestern Europe, for example,
the melting of the ice sheets with the end of the Würm glacial period gradually pushed big game farther north, pressuring hominins to use a greater variety of foods.
What species is associated with the broad-spectrum revolution?
anatomically modern humans
Why was the broad-spectrum revolution a significant event in human evolution? It
A. consisted of a massive fluorescence of colored cave paintings beginning about 70,000 BP, which suggests the evolution of color vision and a truly human-style brain organization.
provided new environmental circumstances that made important sociocultural adaptations, like the development of plant cultivation, more likely.
Which of the following is not a general trend in hominin evolution?
a greater reliance on biological means of adaptation
Which of the following has not been suggested as an explanation for why Upper Paleolithic people made cave paintings? The paintings
gave Homo erectus a way of recording and transmitting information across generations.
What species is associated with the cave paintings in western Europe?
anatomically modern humans
How did modern humans take advantage of global climate change to expand their range?
During major glacials, with so much water frozen in ice, land bridges formed, aiding human colonization of new areas, such as Australia by 46,000 BP and the Americas perhaps by 18,000 BP.
When and how was Australia settled?
Humans crossed the narrow straits separating Asia and the then continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania), perhaps in primitive watercraft, around 50,000 BP.
What is the name of the land bridge that linked the eastern tip of Siberia to Alaska?
E. Monte Verde
The Clovis tradition, a sophisticated stone technology based on a sharp point that was fastened to the end of a hunting spear, flourished (widely but briefly) in the central plains and in what is now the eastern United States. Until recently, the Clovis people were considered to the first settlers of the Americas. Recent research now suggests, however, that
most likely the Americas was settled by several colonists who came at different times, perhaps by different routes, and had different physiques and genetic markers, which continue to be discovered and debated.
The Clovis tradition—a sophisticated stone technology based on a sharp point that was fastened to the end of a hunting spear—flourished
in the central plains, on their western margins, and in what is now the eastern United States between 12,000 and 11,000 BP
Recent research has pushed back the probable date of the first arrival of anatomically modern humans to the Americas to
A. 12,000 years ago.
B. 10,000 years ago.
C. 5,000 years ago.
D. 18,000 years ago.
E. 3,000 years ago.
The Monte Verde archaeological site in south-central Chile dates to at least 1,500 years before the Clovis people (which itself dates to 13,250 BP). This evidence for the early occupation of southern South America, along with other lines of evidence, suggests that
the first migration of humans into the Americas may date back to 18,000 years.
Although there is evidence now that several human groups colonized the Americas, possibly using different routes, those that crossed over through Beringia to reach the Americas did so
following herds of big-game animals (woolly mammoths, especially).
Which of the following aided the rapid expansion of human populations throughout North America?
A. the invention of the wheel
B. abundant big-game animals
C. the domestication of primitive horses
D. widespread slash-and-burn horticulture
E. raised-field cultivation
All of the following are true about the peopling of the Americas except that
The first migration of people into the Americas reached the continent's southwestern coasts from the Pacific islands.
Which of the following is true about the peopling of the Pacific?
Navigation skills played an important role in the peopling of the Pacific.
Anatomically modern humans (AMHs) evolved from an archaic Homo sapiens African ancestor. Eventually, AMHs spread to other areas, including western Europe, where they replaced, or interbred with, the Neanderthals, whose robust traits eventually disappeared.
With an estimated date of 195,000 BP, the Omo Kibish remains appear to be the earliest anatomically modern human fossils yet found in Asia.
The evidence from the Mount Carmel caves in Israel indicates that anatomically modern humans may have inhabited the Middle East before the Neanderthals did
Recent genetic research comparing Neanderthal DNA and modern human DNA supports the theory that Neanderthals evolved into the European populations of anatomically modern humans.
Recent recalibration of radiocarbon dating has dismissed the previously held belief that Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans coexisted in time and place.
Although scientists agree with what behavioral modernity is, they disagree on how and where it originated.
Some authors attribute the rise of modern human behavior more to increasing social competition than to population increase or a mutation that led to reconfigurations of the brain.
The stone-tool traditions of the Upper Paleolithic were based primarily on blade tools which, compared to those of the Mousterian, are faster to make and are better at maximizing the amount of cutting edge from the same amount of stone
Unlike the Mousterian technology, which had many different kinds of stone tools, the tool traditions of the Upper Paleolithic included only a few different kinds of implements
With the end of the Würm glacial time, human groups shifted their subsistence strategies to a broader spectrum of species that they exploited.
Most researchers today no longer believe that the Upper Paleolithic cave paintings were ritualistic; rather, they argue that these paintings were used to decorate domestic residences.
What did Kent Flannery (1969) refer to with the term broad-spectrum revolution? The period
beginning around 15,000 BP in the Middle East and 12,000 BP in Europe, during which a wider range, or broader spectrum, of plant and animal life was hunted, gathered, collected, caught, and fished
The broad-spectrum revolution in Europe includes the late Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic, which followed it. What tool type characterized the Mesolithic?
All of the following were true in Europe by 10,000 BP except
The continent's coasts and lakes were fished intensively with new technologies such as the characteristic Mesolithic stone blades and cores used as fishhooks and in harpoons.
What is the name given to the cultural period in which the first signs of domestication are present?
A. Upper Paleolithic
Middle Eastern food production arose in the context of four environmental zones. From highest altitude to lowest, they are:
high plateau, hilly flanks, piedmont steppe, and alluvial desert (the area watered by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers)
Where do scholars believe that food production first began in the Middle East?
B. Alluvial desert
C. Hilly flanks
D. Desert oases
E. High plateau
Where did the earliest domestication of animals and plants in the Middle East occur?
A. in desert oases
B. in the area where wild forms of wheat and barley grew
C. along the banks of the Nile
D. in the marginal zone next to the hilly flanks
E. in the Fertile Crescent, where the world's first civilization emerged
What is sedentism?
A. life in permanent villages
B. living off domestic species
D. a capitalist-based exchange
E. living off wild species
When did sedentary life develop in the Middle East?
A. before farming and herding
B. after farming, but before herding
C. after herding, but before farming
D. after farming and herding
E. at the same time that farming and herding developed
The Natufians' ability to exploit their rich local environment with broad-spectrum foraging made it possible for them to
A. live in year-round villages prior to the emergence of domestication
In the Middle East, early cultivation began as an attempt to copy, in a less favorable environment, the dense stands of wheat and barley that grew wild in the hilly flanks. All of the following either motivated or facilitated this attempt except
human inventiveness and experimentation that occurred in the optimal zones, such as the hilly flanks.
What is a vertical economy?
a system that exploits environmental zones that contrast with one another in altitude, rainfall, overall climate, and vegetation
Which of the following conditions did not contribute to the development of food production in the Middle East?
the diffusion of domesticated animal species from southern Europe
With domestication, what happened to the husk, which encloses the edible portion of wild cereals? It became
D. more brittle.
E. unaffected; wild cereals do not have husks.
Which of the following statements about sheep is not true?
Wild sheep produce purer wool than domesticated sheep.
The foundations of the state—a social and political unit featuring a central government, extreme contrasts of wealth, and social classes—emerged
in the alluvial desert plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, where a new economy based on irrigation and trade fueled the growth of this entirely new form of society.