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had an emic point of view, asked the tribe in Mexico insider’s information, and focused on local explanations. He had a more positive perspective as opposed to a later study by Oscar Lewis.
had an etic point of view regarding the same tribe in Mexico. He used outsiders interpretation, emphasizing the ethnographer's explanations and categories
wrote “Eating Christmas in Kalahari”, had feast of Ox for “Ju Hoansi”, and “boasted” about it, demonstrated participant observation
she studied the same tribe as Malinowski in the Trobriand Islands. she picked up on missed details such as the women’s economical value
studied the Trobriand Islanders and had a bias. Missed important information.
Classification by similarities and differences in physical characteristics. Ex: Put humans with primates. But wasn’t applying that they were from a similar ancestor.
Pea crossing, figured out about recessive and dominant traits
inheritance of acquired characteristics, individuals who change during their lifetime can pas along those acquired changes through inheritance to their offspring. Giraffe guy, orthodontist example.
survival of the fittest. Human and apes share a common ancestry. He didn’t know about the sources of variation and the mechanisms of heredity.
worked with Yanomamo, different concepts in what naked is. He was accused of starting a measles epidemic and giving expired vaccine in the book Darkness in El Dorado.
racism was main cause of hypertension, most common in Africans and African- American descent.
“personal space” different cultures have different views of how close you should talk
traditions and customs transmitted through learning, that form and guide beliefs and behavior of people exposed to them
embraces all human conditions and cultures are integrated systems.
ethnographic field methods
observation, conversation, interviews, genealogical methods, and key cultural consultants “informants”
does what the people they are studying do, take part in social events
key cultural consultants
expert on a particular aspect of cultural life, “informant”
four fields of anthropology
cultural, archaeology, linguistic, biological
using anthropology to solve contemporary problems
emic and etic perspectives
etic is research strategy emphasizing ethnographer's explanations and categories. Emic is the research strategy focusing on local explanations and meanings.
the study of sociocultural differences and similarities
field work in particular cultural setting
using diagrams and symbols to record kin connections
something verbal or nonverbal that stands for something else
nine basic features of culture
culture is all encompassing, culture is learned, cultural is symbolic, culture organizes nature, culture is shared, culture is integrated, culture can both be adaptive and maladaptive, Culture is used actively, culture has levels
behavior in one culture should not be judged by the standard of another
belief in biblical creation
catastrophic event wiped out some species of plants and animals, which led God to create new ones
change caused by natural processes
judging other cultures using one’s own cultural standards
an exchange of cultural features between group’s “first hand contact”
the process of learning culture. Learn from experience, learn from members of a group, cultural learning
borrowing of cultural traits between societies, does not have to be first hand
accelerating interdependence of nations in world system today
cultural patterns of time, space, perception
ex: cell phones and soft time, Apartments in India
relative and absolute frames of spatial
ex: left, right, front back; north, west, east, south
a child potentially a member of two groups will be assigned to minority group
Principle of Independent Assortment
traits are inherited independently from one another
longer appendages are adaptive in warm climates, and shorter appendages are adaptive in cold climates
body size is larger in colder climates
Thomson’s Nose Rule
noses are longer in colder and drier climates
the strongest traits survive and reproduce
change in DNA molecules
the exchange of genes between populations through mating
genetic change due to chance
one segment of population founding a new population
the sum of all the genetic material in a breeding population
expression of genetic potential
having dissimilar alleles of a given gene
having identical alleles of a given gene
allele that masks another allele in a heterozygote
genetic trait masked by a dominant trait
protection against UV radiation
a variant of a particular gene
gradual changes across geographical space
discredited biological concept, but powerful social category
identification with an ethic group and exclusion from certain alter groups because of this affliction; often oppositional
Great Chain of Being
hierarchy of race established by God, fixed way of classifying humans, used before Charles Darwin
people with sickle-cell are less susceptible to malaria
social status based on little or no choice
social status based on choices or accomplishments
pronounced anatomical and behavioral differences between males and females
1. Grasping ability (five fingers)
apes and humans, all members of human lineage, after diverging from ancestral apes
pelvis and spine modify
human spine is curved, so they can stand more properly
hole at base of skull, through which spinal cord enters
bipedalism changes the position
teeth became smaller, smoother, straighter
interrelationship between culture and biology
located in France and Spain (12,000- 14,000 years old)
tool traditions and associated hominins
Homohabilus tool: Oldowan “Pebble” Tools- not from the area, brought them
Olduvai Gorge- TanzaniaH. Erectus: Acheulian tools: hand axe
Neandertals: Mousterian tools
application to methods and theory of physical anthropology and archaeology to legal matters
Primary applications: species identification, evaluation of trauma, search and recovery
relies on food which is naturally available (oldest): concentrated in marginal areas, no contemporary foragers are not isolated, gathering provides majority (80%): more reliable
production of plants without technology: land gets used up, use slash and burn cultivation, raise domesticated animals
fossils are exception, not the rule. Fossils occur in swamps, caves... Environmental bias: past environment, present day climate; Geological activity: temporal bias, blank time periods; Limited access: very rare
cut down trees and set on fire
same piece of land cultivated permanently: plowing, domesticated animals, irrigation, hard work, higher costs
no permanent settlement
correlates of adaptive strategies
goods flow to center for disbursal
social equality, limits status difference, work out conflicts peacefully and process what is “fair”
wealthy; position depends on personal attributes and achievements, can yell and argue to get people to agree with him or have elegant speech (or “mad dance”)
(office) permanent political position
series of groups that can be activated when in conflicts
Cross cousins are children of siblings of opposite sex
parallel cousins are children of siblings of same sex
Bridewealth is gifts from husband’s family to wife’s family.
Dowry is gifts from wife’s family to husband’s family.
Nuclear family in which one is born and grows up
Nuclear family established when one marries and has children
a social institution that reflects local social and cultural realities
Linear kin is related in a direct line
collateral kin are non linear relatives (through linking relative)
prohibits sexual relations between close relatives: instinctive horror, biological degeneration, attempt and contempt, forge wider alliances “Marry out or die out”
exogamy is marrying outside of the group
Endogamy is marrying inside of group.
Polygamy is plural marriage
polygyny is several wives
polyandry is several husbands
in Oman, neither male or female, born males but do women’s work, mosque with men, but interact with women
Navajo-> spiritual being, born with both gender parts, honored status
Dominican Republic, diminished testosterone , at 12 puberty changes everything, raised as separate gender until 12 then boys
arboreal tails (prehensile- grasping tails)
Arboreal and terrestrial
(4.4 MYA) “Ardi”
(4.2- 3.9 MYA)
date relative to something else: stratigraphy
age of something in and of itself: Carbon 14 dating and molecular dating
depends on herds of domesticated animals: adaption through lack of other productivity means
Generalized: no expectation of return; Balanced: return goods of equal value, within a specific time, more social distance ex: hole in one in Japan; Negative: attempt to give something for nothing, better of the bargain, outsiders, more social distance
non kin associations ex: people coming of age at same time
relationship through marriage
Unilineal descent rule in which people join the mother’s group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life
Customary residence with the wife’s relatives after marriage. so that children grow up in their mother’s community
Unilineal descent rule in which people join the father’s group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life
Customary residence with the husband’s relatives after marriage, so that children grow up in their father’s community
Socialization, transmission of property (inheritance), transfer of social position (succession), provide aid
in India, usually men who dress up as women, affiliation with goddess
Native American, alternative gender role
“ Shakespeare in the Bush” Thought that Hamlet was a universal story, and told it to the Tiv (powerful story telling). They took Hamlet and applied it to their own culture, which caused the good guys to be bad guys and the bad guys to be good guys.
Went into department stores looking for knowledge of /r/. He asked where a certain department was, after they had answered “fourth floor”, Labov repeated “Where?” in order to get a second response. /r/ pronunciation was clearly associated with prestige.
Lévi-Strauss, Claude /structuralism
Universal pattern to structure of myths, derived from the shared structure of the mind. Universal characteristics: need to classify, impose order; opposite categories; bridge between opposites
focused on the stratification systems associated with industrialization. He saw socioeconomic stratification as a sharp and simple division between two oppose classes: the bourgeoisie (capitalists, own the means of labor) and the proletariat (working, propertyless workers). Wealthy commercial class.
"liminal” He updated Durkheim’s notion, using the term communitas, an intense community spirit, a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness. Invented “liminality”.
Also focused on the stratification systems associated with industrialization. He faulted Marx for overly simple and exclusively economic view of stratification. He defined three dimensions of social stratification: wealth, power, and prestige. (Tend to be correlated) He also believed that social identities based on ethnicity, religion, race, nationality, and other attributes could take priority over class. The modern world system is cross-cut by collective identities.
speakers swift from one language or dialect to another
spoken in several Caribbean societies. Gullah, which is spoken by African Americans on coastal islands in South Carolina and Georgia, is also a Creole language. Creole is based on universal grammar, share similar features.
language with “high” (formal) and “low” (informal, familiar) dialects.
substitution of an inoffensive word for a more unpleasant one Ex: Restroom, “passed away”, in some cultures saying a dead one’s name is calling forth an evil spirit
specialized set of words Ex: medical terminology, tennis terminology
system of rules of language specifically pertaining to syntax and morphology
A term such as “Mr.” or “Lord”, used with people, often by being added to their names, to “honor” them.
correcting a mistake that isn’t there Ex: sewerside = suicide
study of communication through body movements and facial expressions
vocabulary, differences across cultures Ex: Allsana: 27 words for mustache, French try to keep language pure
words that resemble each other in all but one sound. The words have totally different meanings, but they differ in just one sound.
words and their meaningful parts
(linguistic) study of morphemes and word construction
Smallest sound contrast that distinguishes meaning
Study of sound contrasts (phonemes) in a language
Study of speech sounds- what people actually say
Study of a language’s phonemics and phonetics
different languages produce different patterns of thought
a language’s meaning system
varying one’s speech in different social contexts
rules of word order
basic set of principles and allies that underlie all languages
owners of the means of production
people who must sell their labor to survive
long term foreign control of territory and its people
Art by appropriation
things placed in that category by others
Art by intention
art is meant as art ex: typewriter
Art as subversive
vehicles for persuasion , art having a hidden meaning? Political vehicle (Ex: Hmong example with women their needlework(used codes about Chinese oppression, rap music)
comparative study of music as an aspect of culture and society
belief in souls or doubles
in Melansia, People in Melanesia thought if they acted like Europeans they would have their prestige and cargo.
an intense community spirit, a feeling of great social solidarity, equality, and togetherness (Turner)
Functions of religion
Core functions: intellectual/cognitive function, search for order and meaning; make sense of something, religion is closed (more secure), emotional functions: explanation for misfortune, provide comfort, reduce anxiety, exercise control
speakers must say how they know what they are saying: directed, inferred information- how they got information
The in-between phase of a passage rite. Examples: chief undergoing a rite of passage before taking office, boys being circumcised, fraternity or sorority initiates, men at military boot camps, football players in summer training camps, women becoming nuns.
supernatural techniques used to accomplish specific goals employed most in situations of greatest uncertainty
objects have sacred impersonal force: bolster our confidence and belief that it is working is greater
traditional, often sacred, narratives
reaction to oppression or rapid culture change
Rites of passage
rituals associated with change in status or stage of life
blending of cultural influences emerging from ongoing contact Ex: cargo cults in Melansia
sacred and forbidden; prohibition backed by supernatural sanctions
Social construction of illness
Various ethnic groups and cultures recognize different illnesses, symptoms, and causes and have developed different health-systems and treatment strategies (Ex: disease from witchcraft, cures from herbs or magic or chemotherapy, boys will be boys ---> ADHD, alcoholism, homosexuality---> used to be a disease)
Historical influences in the development of medical anthropology
-bio-cultural perspective: biological and ecological aspects of health in their social settings
2. Early ethnographic fieldwork
3. Culture and personality school (1950’s)
- taught to boil water but put it in dirty container
Economic positions in the World System
According to Wallerstein, countries within the world system occupy three different positions of economic and political power: core, periphery, and semiperiphery.
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