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the probability that a command with specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people
the process by which minority groups adopt the patterns of the dominant culture.
o Differential reproductive success; competition over strategic resources in a particular context; requires variety within a population to work; operates based on an organism’s evidence traits
o Directional = context dependent, not based on intrinsic values and can limit variation
When does the Homo genus appear?
wider range of plant/animal life hunted, gathered, collected, caught and fished; focused on animals with quick, prolific reproduction; formed groundwork for emergence of food production/domestication
US Race: physical traits and ancestry
Brazil Race: all physical traits
Japan: all ancestry
Systematic survey and excavation
the two major components of fieldwork in archaeology and paleoanthropology
dominant: one trait that is expressed when two competing traits are present
recessive: trait within an organism that is present but not expressed
Cattarhine (sharp nosed)Platyrrhine (flat nosed)new World Monkeys
o Homo Habilius
o Homo Erectus
o Sapien Sapien
Which hominins lived only in Africa?
Ardipithecus, A. Anamensis, A. Afarensis, A. Africanus, A Robustus, H. habilis
Did Homo overlap with other hominins?
A. boisei and A. robustus
a geologic prehistoric time shorter than shorter than a period in which a rock series of layers are deposited
What basic changes take place in domesticated plants and animals?
o Larger seeds, loss of natural seed dispersal mechanism, tougher connective tissues, brittle husks in wheat to access grain
o Animals became smaller and were selected for useful/manageable traits
culture in new situations and new environments finding new answers new cultural experiences, adapts and is always experiencing
Us and brazil- us had hypo descent, people were considered their lowest race, brazil characterizes all different races CHANGABILITY- US IS BORN INTO RACE
BRAZIL- IT IS MORE FLEXIBLE, HAIRSTYLE, SKIN COLORATION
Japan- everyone is the same race, except the Borakumin (biologically based race, they do not want to mix races) NO PHYSICALLY DIFFERENCE (DIFFERENCE WITH US)
o Promisians: small body size, long snouths, claws on one pedal digit, large ears, arboreal, nocturnal, solitary
o Anthropoids: increased brain size, diurnal, larger body sizes, increasingly complex social systems
Flat nosed = new; sharp nosed = old
What is a hominin, and roughly when does the first appear?
o Member of human lineage after its split from ancestral chimps; includes all human species that have ever existed, including the extinct ones
o 5.8 mya
Ø Features of mosaic evolution in hominins. In other words, what are the defining features of the hominin line?
Bipedalism, Foramen magnum, increasing brain to body ratio, birth canal is bigger, increasing tool use, different teeth patterns, cooperation/planning?
How are brain size, pelvic shape, and bipedalism related when it comes to childbirth?
Increasing brain size, increasing birth canal. Pelvis changes because of stresses of bipedalism
What skull characteristics distinguish the “robust” from “gracile” Autralopithecines
o Gracile = smaller and slighter
o Robustus = more robus, sagittal crest, zygomatic arch
Which hominins had a sagittal crest? A Zygomatic arch? What does this suggest about diet?
A. robustus, cutting and grinding and chewing
Which was the first to migrate out of Africa, and what continents did they inhabit?
Ø What does the geologic epoch of the Pleistocene refer to? What changes took place? Which hominins are associated with the lower, middle, and upper Pleistocene?
o Ice Age
o Lower: everything to homo habilis and a robustus
o Middle/Late: Homo erectus to modern humans
Ø Which hominin species are associated with Oldowan tools? Acheulian? Mousterian?
o Oldowan: Homo habilis
o Acheulian: Homo erectus
o Mousterian: Neandertal
Semi-nomadic hunting and gathering à dry farming and caprine domestication à increased specialization
What role did the Natufian Culture play in that story?
Foragers in Hilly Flanks; adopted sedentism
In what part of the Middle East do we first see evidence for domestication and horticulture?
Marginalized regions around hilly flanks
What is a Vertical Economy, and how may it have contributed to the emergence of agriculture?
Seasonal foraging and trade between close but contrasting environments
How many different areas was agriculture independently invented (don't need to know detailed specifics)?
Middle East, South China, North China, sub-Saharan Africa, Central Mexico, South Central Andes, Eastern US
Why is it possible that the "north south" versus "east west" axis matters in how agricultural technologies spread in the New World versus in the Old World?
o Old World geography eased east/west diffusion of technology
o North-west diffusion is complicated by drastic seasonal variations and day lengths
In general terms, what have the consequences of food production been according to anthropologists?
o More work, lower adult stature, lower quality foods, worse nutrition, less variety, heavier disease burden, territoriality and competition, vulnerable to collapse
What is the relationship between food production and the origins of the state?
Correlations between economy and social life
Bundle of sociocultural features
Band societies (100 or fewer people); nuclear families; Egalitarian (equal) relations between people, though gender-based differences
Society’s main system of economic production
Five types: foraging, horticulture, agriculture, pastoralism and industrialism
Similarities between unrelated societies could be the result of similar ways of producing, distributing, or consuming resources.
profit-oriented principle of exchange that dominates in states, particularly industrial states. Goods and services are bought and sold, and values are determined by supply and demand
“Organizational process of purchase and sale at money price” (Dalton 1967) (Value set by supply and demand)
Major exchange mode of chiefdoms, many archaic states, and some states with managed economies
Operates when goods, services, or their equivalent, move from local level to a center
one of the three principles of exchange; governs exchange between social equals; major exchange mode in band and tribal societies
Dilemmas of the gift
horticulturalsits, village membership based on descent groups. village head leads by example and persuasion
Has big head
kinship continues a central role (social status based on seniority of descent); permanent regulation of a territory; may regulate 1000’s of people. [intermediate between tribe and state]
-concept of office
-Differential access to resources based on kinship and descent
Population control, judiciary, enforcement, fiscal system (taxation)
based on choices, actions, efforts or circumstances
Customary gift from husband and his kin to the wife and her kin such as Lobola in Mozambique
Compensates for wife’s family’s loss of their daughter, solidifies the membership of their daughter’s children in the husband’s descent group. Larger Gift = More Enduring Marriage
Marital exchange in which bride’s family or kin provides gifts when their daughter marries
Perceives women as burdens taken on by the husband’s family
- What is an apical ancestor?
The person who stands at the apex, or top, of the common genealogy
Family in which one is born and grows up
- Feminization of Poverty
Increasing representation of women (and their children) among America' s poorest people Women head over half of the US households with incomes below the poverty line PERCENTAGE OF FEMALE-HEADED HOUSEHOLDS had been increasing wordwide causes: male migration, civil strife, divorce, abandonment, widowhood...
Menstruation as a failed reproduction
Millions of sperm produced each day
Sperm is the hero… it activates the egg
A portrait for the sperm… even though the biggest thing in the picture is the egg
Sperm as decider
Sperm as savior
Religious systems provide functional social integration provide (may respond to anomie of industrial society)
(Belief that spirits are present in all natural objects) - Earliest form of religion - Belief in spiritual beings Belief in souls or doubles - Originates from the Latin, Anima (where else?
- What is a secular ritual?
Routines and rituals of the state; funerals, state dinners, changing of guards, inaugurations
Gender defined as set of relationships based on biological notions of sex (based on biological binaries)
Gender defined as the “cultural construction” how meaning is applied to sexual difference
Gender defined as the “performance” of sexual difference (lending itself to forms of activism or intervention)
Revival of Adam Smith’s classic economic liberalism, the idea that governments should not regulate private enterprise and that free market forces should rule; a currently dominant intervention philosophy
one of Karl Marx’s opposed classes; owners of the means of production (factories, mines, large farms, and other sources of subsistence)
An ideological justification for outsiders to guide native peoples in specific directions
- Uses of Medical anthropology
• Variation in health care systems
• Analyzing Doctor/Patient interactions
• Cross cultural understandings of disease
• Questions of Interpretation and Health
• Fitting Public and Global Health Interventions into Local Cultural Contexts
Efforts to convert nomadic populations to sedentary practices (ex: The Basseri in Southern Iran and the problem of cultural “integration”)
overly uniform approach to development)
Failure to recognize or make use of specific, local social units
Overcome when local populations insert their cultural networks into the program.
A Potential Example of Underdifferentation: Kiva, Microloans
- Cultural Imperialism
Cultural imperialism refers to the spread or advance of one culture at the expense
of others, or its imposition on other cultures, which it modifi es, replaces, or
destroys—usually because of differential economic or political infl uence.
The rapid spread or advance or advance of one culture at the expense of others, or its imposition on other cultures, which it modifies, replaces, or destroys- usually because of differential economic or political influence
The cross cultural and ethnographic study of urbanization and life in cities
When forces from global centers enter new societies
The accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation systems
Polaroid Corporation and Domestic Violence
Cannibal Tours and Reversing the Ethnographic Camera
Essentialism describes the process of viewing an identity as established, real, and frozen, so as to hide the historical processes and politics within which that identity developed.
The process of viewing an identity as established, real, and frozen, so as to hide the historical processes and politic within which that identity developed
Dramatic variation in marriage cross-culturally. Regulates social links between sexuality/procreation; serves to socially legitimate children in the social world; builds alliances, establishes connections (often economic) among affines
Plays an important role in regulation descent the transmission of inheritance
Foraging – is the base adaptive strategy. Relies on natural resources rather than controlling plant and animal production.
Agriculture – is labor intensive and property based. Animals are means of production
Pastoralism – Maintenance and cultivation of livestock. Movement oriented, Nomadism; group travels together year round. Transhumance; separate from group on a pastoral journey. Blended some with agriculture.
Horticulture – part time agriculture, not as land intensive as agriculture
Industrialism – Extensive stratification, not as important
They are similarities of adaptive strategies between cultures that do not have contact among them. They are best described by foraging, and within foraging they are band societies (100 or fewer people), structured with nuclear families, and they are Egalitarian (equal) societies where there is not much of a hierarchy (some gender based differences).
- What distinguishes the three "principles of exchange" (market/ redistribution/ reciprocity)?
Market: Dominates today's worlds capitalist economy - Governs the distribution of the means of production - land, labor, natural resources, technology, and capital - Items bought and Sold, using money, with eye to maximize profit Bargaining
Redistribution: - Operates when the goods, services, or their equivalent move from the local level to a center - Production often move through a hierarchy of officials for storage at the center
Reciprocity: - Generalized, Balanced, Negative
What distinguishes the three types of reciprocity along the reciprocity continuum (generalized/ balanced/ negative)?
Generalized- is giving with no specific expectation of exchange. Within own band
Balanced – is exchanges between people who are more distantly related than are members of the same band or household.
Negative – farthest social relationship; dealing with people outside or on the fringes of their social systems, reciprocity is carefully calculated.
- What does the term "potlatch" refer to, according to lecture/ and WOH? Do anthropologists view it as "irrational" economic activity?
People give away food and other things in exchange for prestige. It is a festive event within a regional exchange system among tribes of N Pacific Coast of NA.
- What did the Basseri video clip demonstrate about adaptive strategies?
Pastoralism; small overall group; ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES ARE A WAY OF LIFE;
- Roseberry and the Rise of Yuppie Coffee—basic understanding of what he means by the “shaping of taste,” and what is primary data consists of in the article.
According to Roeberry, one can cultivate and display “taste” and “discrimination.” The expansion of specialty coffees has created a new capitalism and has made coffee the beverage of postmodernism. Consumer culture has transformed coffee production recently due to the different preferences people have. In the past, there weren’t many different varieties of coffee. Coffee was almost always sold in a can and had a very bland taste. Nowadays coffee can be purchased almost everywhere and in different blends/varieties. Coffee has been altered in so many ways. Individuals who may not enjoy the taste of plain coffee are now offered a number of alternatives and flavored coffees.
- How was language connected to politics in lecture?*****
The authority of government determines what language is accepted;
Language is a form of political control
Accepted vs. excluded forms of speech
- What does BEV (Black English Vernacular) tell us about language and politics (see Kottak, especially)
While there does not seem to be any difference in the level of comprehension of the different homonyms, because SE is what is spoken in the mass media, in writing, and in most public and professional context, it has more prestige.
- What are phonemes and minimal pairs?
Words that resemble each other in all but one sound; they have different meanings but they differ in only one sound
- Know the Basic distinguishing characteristics of sociopolitical types: Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States. Are there particularly important "defining" characteristics of each (ie., “office”, “big man,” “village heads” “increased stratification)?
Bands – small groups of fewer than 100 people related by kinship; person in power called “HEAD MAN” who rules informally
Economic type – foraging, egalitarian
Tribes – Economies based on non-intensive food production; live in villages; lack of formal government; BIG MEN or village heads with limited authority.
Economic type – horticulture
Chiefdom – Intermediate form between tribe and state; social relations based on kinship, marriage, decent, age, and gender.
Economic type – Protective horticulture, pastoral nomadism, agriculture
State – formal government structure and socioeconomic stratification; differential access to wealth and resources OFFICE
Economic type- industrialism and agriculture
Bands – lack formal law or figurehead, blood feuds, song battles
Tribes – BIG MEN have ways of promoting social control and well being
Chiefdom – Chiefs have ways of promoting social control
States – Formal laws, codes expected to be followed and judges have trials
Be able to describe three dimensions of stratification: Wealth, Power and Prestige in state systems.
Wealth – includes property such as buildings, lands, farms, houses, factories as well as other assets
Prestige – the respect with which others regard a person or status position
Power – the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others
- What are the consequences of state administration (see slides especially here).
Displace the place of kinship; foster geographic mobility and resettlement; assign differential rights/distinctions
-How are achieved/ ascribed status relevant to political systems according to WOH?
Because the status is achieved through successful endeavors (not given), as well as sharing these successes with others in the tribe/state in order to generate support and gather a following, it is a political action.
- How are governance and power defined (lecture for governance, WOH for power)?
Power is defined by the ability to exercise one’s will over other- to do what one wants. Governance is the conduct of conduct. *******!!!!!
- How is power related to the concept of authority according to WOH and lecture?
Authority is the legitimate or socially approved use of power. Power is the abilitiy to exert ones will over others, while authority is the socially approved use of power
-What do the notions of Weapons of the Weak and Hegemony refer to? Refer especially to WOH here if you are unsure.
Hegemony – a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with domination by internalizing its values and accepting its “naturalness”
-What was the surveillance camera players video clip about?
how how some forms of language/ performance are acceptable within public space, but others, harmless though they may be, are seen as threatening a group of "actors" performed an Orwellian scene in front of a surveillance camera in a subway, and then video taped the monitor where it was being shown upstairs, a monitor placed in public to alert those passing by that they were being watched. I think of the play staged in front of the surveillance camera as a commentary on whether the things we think of as public space are indeed very public.
Performed art pieces in front of the camera
Protest against privacy
-In what way does kinship “organize personhood”? (see slides for this)
Defines Obligations; Sense of Belonging; Structures relationships; defines who you can and cannot marry
-What are some of the main points of marriage (see slides for this)?
Dramatic variation in marriage cross-culturally; regulates social links between sexuality/ procreation; serves to socially legitimate children in the social world; Builds alliances establishes connections; plays an important role in regulating descent the transmission of inheritance.
- Bridewealth/ Dowry
Substantial gifts transferred to the husband’s family from the wife’s family after marriage
- Descent Groups: Patrilineal, Matrilineal
Patrilineal - People automatically have a lifetime membership in the father’s group; the children of the all the group’s men join the group, but the children of the female members are excluded.Matrilineal – People join the mother’s family automatically at birth and stay members throughout life; descent groups include only the children of the group’s women.
- Endogamy vs. Exogamy
Endogamy – Seeking a husband or wife within one’s own group
Exogamy – The practice of seeking a husband or wife outside one’s own group (links people into a wider social network)
- Family of Orientation/ Family of Procreation
Family of Orientation- Nuclear family in which one is born and grows up
Family of procreation – Nuclear family established when one marries and has children
- Neolocal, Patrilocal, Matrilocal, residence patterns
Neolocal – Postmarital residence pattern in which a couple establishes a new place of residence rather than living with or near either set of parents
Patrilocal – Customary residence with the husband’s relatives after marriage, so that children grow up in their father’s community
Matrilocal – Customary residence with the wife’s relatives after marriage, so t hat children grow up in their mother’s community
Cross and parallel cousins (lecture slides only)
Cross Cousins – Dad’s sister’s kids; Mom’s brother’s kids
Parallel Cousins – Dad’s brother’s kids; Mom’s sister’s kids
- Plural Marriages: Polygyny/ Polyandry/ Serial Monogamy
Polygyny – Man has more than one wife
Polyandry – A woman has more than one husband
Serial Monogamy – Multiple marriages at one time
-Kinship terminology from lecture slides (also see reference guide on Ctools): What distinguishes lineal, bifurcate merging, generational, and bifurcate collateral kinship?
-Be able to read a basic kinship chart!
Lineal – US system; found in societies in which the nuclear family is the most important group based on kinship; people you can draw a direct connection to; Mother, father, uncle, aunt, etc.; diff. terms for mother’s brother and father’s sister
Generational – Uses the same term for parents and their siblings, but the lump is more complete; does not distinguish between the mother’s and father’s side
Bifurcate Merging – Splits the mother’s side and the fathers side, but merges same sex siblings of each parent; mom and mom’s sisters called by the same name dad and dad’s brothers called by the same name; diff. terms for mother’s brother and father’s sister
Bifurcate Collateral – MOST SPECIFIC; has separate terms for each of the 6 kin types of the parental generation
What is it?