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CarlLinneaus is the father of modern taxonomy. He popularized thebinominal system and developed hierarchical taxonomy. Some specieshad same genus but were different species.
Four fields of anthropology
a. examines, interprets, and analyzes the results of ethnography – the data gathered in different societies
b. compare and contrast to make generalizations about society and culture
using diagrams and symbols to record kin connections (ethnographic technique), need in order to reconstruct history and understand current social relations
the belief that natural forces at work today also explain past events (the present is the key to the past)
a. building block for evolution – the Earth’s form has been transformed gradually through natural forces operating for millions of years
1. borrowing of cultural traits between societies
a. Direct – when cultures trade, intermarry, wage war
b. Forced – impose own culture on the dominated group
c. Indirect – trade but not directly, no first hand contact
the accelerating interdependence of nations in a world system linked economically and through mass media and modern transportation
-Noses are longer in colder and drier climates
o Create more moisture
-Those most fit to survive and reproduce in a given environment do so more successfully than others in the same population
One segment of a population founding a new population
· Sum of all the genetic material in a breeding population
o Change does occur and genes evolve
An allele that masks another allele in a heterozygote
Genetic trait masked by a dominant trait
A biochemical variant of a particular gene
o Ex: AA, aa, Aa are all alleles
Gradual changes in gene frequencies across geographical space
o Normally with neighboring populations
An ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
Changes in the expression and function of genes without alterations in the DNA
o Epigenetic marks tell genes to switch on and off
o Some epigenetic changes are heritable and affect the future
Process of adapting to the same environmental forces in similar ways. (ex. Wings, light bones)
Catarrhines, arboreal and terrestrial, sexual dimorphism, ischial callosities (calluses on the buttocks for sitting), sharp nose
Reliance on Learning
Use of Natural Pharmaceuticals (Use of Leaves as medicine)
· Enhances mating
· Jane Goodall- Gombe Reserve Tanzania (East Africa) Found that primates use tools as well.
o Ex: Use of leaves as sponges to get water
· Predation and Hunting (Humans used to do this)
· New World Monkeys, Arboreal, Have tails (grasping)
Sharing and cooperation are at the core of human society and human interactions.
Mating and Kinship
Language and Communication
Identification with, and feeling a part of, an ethnic group and exclusion from other groups b/c of this affiliation.Based on cultural similarities/differences in a society or nation.
Applied anthropology. Work with the police, medical examiners, courts, and int'l orgs to identify victims of crimes, accidents, wars, and terrorism.
Pronounced anatomical and behavioral differences b/n males and females. Tend to be more marked in terrestrial species.
Branch swinging. Hand-over-hand movement through trees. More in arboreal monkeys.
1. Grasping ability (five fingers)
1) Grasping ability: opposable thumbs, bipedal (two-footed) locomotion
2) Smell to Sight
3) Nose to Hand (touch)
4) Increased brain complexity: memory, thought, association
5) Parental investment
all members of human lineage, after diverging from ancestral apes.
Two-footed locomotion, walking upright, lower spine more curved, foramen magnum more centered.
“big hole” through which the spinal cord joins the brain.
1) Homo habilis: 1.9-1.4 MYA. Oldowan pebble tools: oldest formally recognized stone tools.
2) Homo erectus: 1.9 MYA – 300,000 BP. Larger brain, higher mental functions. Hunted, gathered, and made sophisticated tools. (Acheulian tools: hand ax)
3) Homo Sapiens: Middle Paleolithic. Mousterian tools
4) Homo sapiens sapiens: Upper Paleolithic, tool making and art
Broad face, huge front teeth, large brow ridge, and ruggedness of the skeleton and musculature. Chewed animal hides to make clothing, over time robust features scaled down due to toll invention. Middle Paleolithic, adapted to cold weather, Mousterian tools.
Accumulation of layers of sediment (relative dating)
Fossils are the exception, not the rule
Environmental bias – past environment, present day climate
Geological bias – temporal bias, blank time period
same piece of land cultivated permanently. Plowing, domesticated animals, irrigation, or terracing. Requires more labor and capital.
Maximizing material gain; supply and demand. Organizational process of purchase and sale at money price.
altruistic, no expectation of return, close ties
attempt to get something for nothing. Better of a bargain. Between outsiders, most social distance. Expect immediate return.
Goods flow to center for disbursal. Goods/services move from local level to a center and eventually reverses direction.
-Potlatch: competitive feast on North Pacific coast
Wealthy. Position depends on personal attributes and achievements. Has supporters in several villages. Regulator of regional political orgs.
Like a big man except exempt from ordinary work and has rights and privileges unavailable to the masses. Regulates distribution and consumption.
foragers, least complex form of sociopolitical organization, small, nuclear families, egalitarian, reciprocity, no formal leadership
horticulturalists and pastoralists, no overall central authority (gov’t), kinship, usually egalitarian, village head or big man, have economies based on non-intensive food production
transitional (between a tribe and a state), ranked societies, permanent political regulation, formal authority, punishment, redistribution, surplus of goods, less internal violence
socioeconomic stratification, subordinate and elite, wealth, power, prestige
Festive event within a regional exchange system among tribes on the North Pacific coast. Enhances one’s reputation. Linked local groups into a regional alliance
(Nuer) alliances that can be activated during conflict.
men move with herds; women grow crops in villages (pastoralism)
children of siblings of same sex (sister/sister or brother/brother)
Social institution that reflects local, social, and cultural realities. Creates kinship ties. Marriage sets rules: 1) duration 2) # of partners 3) eligible partners 4) age
related in a direct line to and from ego. (mom, dad, grandparents, children)
Immediate family. Normally, nuclear family relations take precedence. Some cultures include extended family.
Yourself. It’s who you are in the kin charts
one woman has several husbands.
A group’s il-rah is its customary path in time and space. It is the schedule of when specific areas can be used in the annual trek. Common to all Iranian nomads.
Non-kin groups. Based on common age and gender.
-Pantribal Sodalities: groups that extend across the whole tribe, span several villages. More likely in times of warfare.
Big teeth to Small teeth along with usage of fire and cutting tools. Decrease in molar size, thinner enamel.
-Bigger brain (interrelationship of
skull and pelvis)
-Fire: smaller teeth
1) magic or ritual 2) historical record 3) attempt to control animal reproduction “ceremonies of increase”4) response to animal scarcity
relies on food naturally available.
Gathering: provides majority of food, more reliable.
Correlates of foraging: 1) mobility (flexible boundaries) 2) division of labor by gender 3) social distinctions based on age 4) egalitarianism (social equality) 5) food sharing and cooperation 6) bands
1) Ardipithecus Kadabba: oldest hominin to date. 5.8 MYA. Bipedal. Ethiopia.2) Ardipithecus Ramidus: hominin. 4.4 MYA. Ancestral to Australopithecus. Bipedal. Ethiopia.
3) Australopithecus Anamensis: 4.2-3.9 MYA. Bipedal hominin. Reported by Maeve Leakey and Alan Walker. thick enamel, large canines
4) A. afarensis: 3.8-3 MYA. Bipedal. Hominin, with some apelike features. Pelvis, spine, foramen magnum.
5) A. africanus: 3-2 MYA. Gracile (smaller, more slender), smaller cranial size
6) A. Robustus: 2-1 MYA. Larger, heavier, massive face, sagittal crest, large upper teeth
7) A. Boisei: 2.6-1.2 MYA. Larger, heavier, massive face, sagittal crest, large upper teeth
(Horticulturalists) cut and burn down forest/bush and use ashes to fertilize soil.
Speaker’s shift from one language or dialect to another
Specialized set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (farmer’s vocab, businessman’s vocab etc) Changes in culture produce changes in language and thought
Terms of respect used with people, often by being added to their names. May show status difference between people.
Using the wrong word or form because it seems more correct or prestigious. Some native speakers omit certain letter sounds because it sounds better to them, regional differences (NYC speech drops R sound)
Study of communication through body movements, facial expressions, stances, and gestures. Non-verbal communication
Vocabulary. Influences perception. Distinct words in different cultures. All morphemes in a language and their meanings
Words that resemble each other in all but one sound. Words have totally diff meanings. (Pit and Bit phonemes)
Teach + er
Teach + er + s
the study of speech sounds, distinctive to sounds present and significant in a given language.
Grammatical categories of different languages produce different patterns of thought. (gender distinction: he/she/him/her)
Language’s meaning system. Linguistic terms and contrasts encode differences in meaning that people perceive.
Varying speech in different contexts. Diglossia is a form of style shifting.
Basic set of principles and rules that underlie all languages. (Chomsky) (people's ability to learn foreign languages)
(William Labov) relatively uniform dialect spoken by the majority of black youth in most parts of the US, especially in the inner city areas. Complex linguistic system with its own rules. Similar to southern dialects.
Differences in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary and body stances and movements that accompany speech when comparing men and women. (Women more likely to use words like cute, adorable, lovely etc.)
The political, social, economic, and cultural domination of a territory and its people by a foreign power for an extended time.
An ideological justification for outsiders to guide/rule native peoples in specific directions. (Ex. by colonialists, missionaries)
idea that an identifiable social system, based on wealth and power differentials, extends beyond individual countries. Formed by a set of economic and political relations.
Art that tells a message. Political art can express or challenge community sentiment and standards. (Hmong needlework, graffiti)