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1953 jaw and cranial fragments were not from the same individual
setback of some 40+ years for paleoanthropology ****
deemed the “missing link”
brains before bipedalism
supported a more “local” evolutionary scenario
Bipedalism (the hominid club)
Bipedal posture – perpendicular position – entire body will be perpendicular to the ground
Habitual bipedalism – form of locomotion practiced by hominids
We have stamina not speed. We walk many miles a day without realizing it. Bipedalism made brains to grow by distributing calories.
Primate and bipedal locomotion
bonobos (most bipedal) lemurs, apes,
Israeli zoo, safari park
Natasha, a five year old macaque
She almost died of a sever stomach flu and started walking bipedal
Foramen Magnum Position
- the hole in the bottom of the skull is positioned further forward (anteriorly).
- The spine of hominids has two distinctive curves – indicates bipedalism. "S"-shaped
- Pelvis is also an indicator of bipedalism. Bipedal creatures have short, broad, and basin or bowl shaped pelvis.
- Bipedalism slows us down
Lower Limb Adaptations for bipedalism
- Enlarge head of femur
- Knee angled inward (valgus)
- Short toes
- Long Hindlimbs
- Bipedalids have longer legs and more efficient
- Valgus knee, what is it? (X)
- Human babies have ape legs
- Big toe (hallux) enlarged and non opposable
- Longitudinal arch forms to better support weight - acts as a shock absorber and a spring during walking
Hypotheses of the origin of Bipedalism
- Freeing hands and running after game
- Hunting (looking over tall grass) and efficient for staying cool- Making and Using tools, and sexual display
Why did Bipedalism evolve?
- Lovejoy’s provisioning hypothesis fits best. Obtain more food – higher social status – more mating options – natural selection.
What is a fossil?
The remains of an organism chemically changed into rock.
Fossils are not bone. They have been changed into a different mineral – NOT ORGANIC
Quickly buried by:
- Soil sediments
Soft tissue decays
Teeth and bone buried under layers. Mineral replacement occurs Shale, siltstone, mudstone and sandstone. Mineralized casts, if you will, of the bones.
the remains of once-living organisms that have either partially or fully been chemically converted to stone. This process happens at the molecular level, replacing the calcium and phosphorous in bones and teeth with the minerals found in the surrounding rock, like iron and silica.
Bones are like a sponge absorbing the red water and other hard substances like sugar (minerals). Then the sponge dries and hardens with everything absorbed (fossilizes).
Two kinds of dating:
Relative – estimation of age based on some other information from a site.
Absolute – specific age of an object.
Speculative date based on: location, type, similarity, geology and association
Helps put things in order, but do not know how far apart in time they actual are.
The lower layers of earth or artifacts are older than those which lay on top
team of scientists “crawl” up/down land for research.
Cultural dating exercise (in class example).
– Pictures of an old car, arrowhead, monk with an iPod.
Oldest to newest – arrowhead, old car, monk with an ipod.
Over the 2.6 million-year-old history of material culture made by humans, certain types of tools have been invented at certain times. By finding these tools, shown here, in particular strata, one can infer the relative age of the other fossils in the same layer of rock.
Dating of past events using tree ring growth.
Dates up t 9,000 years
Used to recalibrate C-14 dates.
One of the most accurate dating methods.
Does not work well in humid environments like the Caribbean where wood does not survive. Drier climates are better like a desert.
Used to date organic remains
C-14 Half Life: 5730 years
Up to 50-60,000 years
Professor Sinelli - “Can you drive your car to the moon? You cant take your Toyota to mars, meaning there are other and more accurate methods of dating something/going to mars. “Not the only arrow in the quiver”
Half-life: 1.3 billion years
Finds the date that piece of rock was “reset” by heating
Useful in volcanic regions like East Africa
Measures the age of volcanic rocks.
The Driving Force in Shaping Environment
Temperature drives climate, which is linked to biology and chemistry.
Monkeys appear during the
Oligocene (ice age) because other primates died and they had opportunity.
Early Hominids and Australopithecines Environment (Miocene)
Lake, forest, river, and woodland savanna during the Upper Miocene
Early finds in forested environments
Bipedalism may have developed from migration to savannas
The earliest hominids lived in
forests – large plants and trees. Not savannas!!! They did not evolve because of expanding open space. They climbed trees and walked on the ground. The savannas emerged because of the ice age when the forests died off. Bipedalism is refined because of the new open space not because they evolved from it – new opportunity.
Earliest members of the hominids lineage
- Orrorin tuganensis
Structure, and behavior are reconstructed hypothetically
Oldest possible hominid species
7-6 mya, discovered in Chad (middle of the Sahara) , 2001
Partial cranium recovered
Small brain (350 cc) (smaller than a chimps – 380, humans – 1350-1500)
Hominid like teeth
lower skull projects more forward than the brain case or vice versa.
As teeth become smaller our teeth do not protrude as far.
tugen Hills, Kenya (rift valley)
Teeth and post crania recovered
Leg bones look bipedal (obturator externus!!!)
Human like teeth (canines exhibit honing and thick enamel. Small for apes but large for humans)
curved hand bones - climbed trees - forest environmentNicknamed “Millenium Man” bc found in the new millennium
The femur has a long neck and a groove in the back of the neck called
Both of these features are found on modern human femora and are functionally related to our upright walking. This femur, therefore, belonged to something walking on two legs.
Orrorin tuganensis is nicknamed
The First Consensus Hominids
Both identified in Ethiopia.
Yohannes Haile-Selassie and Tim White
Rift Valley Ethiopia
Earliest Consensus (all agree it is a hominid) human ancestor.
Hand bones are ape like. Still in the trees.
Minimum Number of Individuals*** a measure of sample size used by archeologists examining the remains of animals (what animals ate, number of individual animals they ate, how many bones) Analyze things in lab and identify. Human osteology – People only have 1 left humorous so if have 5 then there are 5 individuals with certainty.
First Discovered in 1992
By Tim White and others
Middle Awash (Ethiopia)
4.4 mya Bipedal Hominid
MNI = 36 (145 teeth)
Announced October 2009
4 feet tall, 120 pounds
Long arms, short legs, flat feet
Teeth suggest an omnivorous diet
Opposable big toe
Woodland (forested environment)
Fossil animals (can tell by other animals what lived where)
Seeds (found pollen – crystalizes well)
Suggests that bipedalism did NOT develop in the savanna as previously thought as a response to shrinking grasslands. Bipedalism emerged as a response to expanding grassland?
Skull resembles Sahelanthropus
Suggests that the last human/ape ancestor DID NOT look like any modern ape. Indicates much occurred between Ardi (4.4) and Lucy (3.2), and that chimpanzees have undergone considerable evolutionary change since they branched from the last common ancestor they shared with us. What lucy and ardi tell us is that a lot of evolution took place and the savannah grasslands was the driver of evolution? Did not happen overnight.
First identified by Meave Leakey in Kenya (East Africa), 1994
Also ID’d in Ethiopia .2-3.9 Mya
First Australopith, ancestral to all others. – the oldest
U-shaped tooth row
Thick molar enamel – fruit and foliage
Tibia displays adaptations for bipedalism
U-shape – ape-like primitive characteristic
C-shaped - human derived characteristic.
“flat-faced man of Kenya”
Found my Maeve Leakey and colleagues at Lake Turkana
Flat face with some primitive characteristics
May have coexisted with Au. afarensis.
Hadar A.L. 288-1”Lucy” 1974
Ca. 40% complete (47 out of 206 bones)
All one individual, a mature adult, About 1 meter tall,
Ate tough fibrous plants
Valgus knee – femur angle inward so that feet are under the body and not the hips. Stable upright position. No opposable big toe.
Hadar A.L. 333 The “First Family”
200+ hominid fossils
13+ individuals – MNI (9 adults, 4 juveniles)
life history data
ca. 3.2 mya
Skull, fingers, legs, feet, and a complete torso!
Gorilla-like shoulders – she’s a climber
leader of the Dikika Research project
Thought to be Australopithecus afarensis
Pronounced sexual dimorphism
Brain size 430 cc
Diet of fruit and other plant foods. Teeth suggest an opportunistic omnivore
Non-opposable big toe. Legs have gotten longer, essentially bipedal but brain size is still small.
Retained slightly curved hand bones for climbing trees.
Sand dirt inside of a skull turns to rock and creates a natural cast of the inside of a skull -give shape and size of the brain.
Natural occurring cast inside of the skull.
The Laetoli Footprints (in Tanziania)
Prints of 3 hominids
Lots of footprints and animal activity
Volcanic tuft hardens like concrete.
Left footprint deeper bc mom picked up the child.
Asfaw, White and colleagues in 1999
2.5 mya, in Middle Awash, Ethiopia
garhi = “surprise” (southern ape)
Cranium: 450 cc brain, woodland
prognathic face - large anterior and posterior teeth
Post-cranium: Long legs – striding gait, Long forearms
Probable link between Australopithicus and Homo
Associated with mammal bones with cutmarks
Did A. gahri make Oldowon tools? Was it the earliest stone tool user? Tools associated with meat consumption/ digging
The “Black Skull”
1985 – Alan Walker and Richard Leakey
W. Turkana (Kenya), and Ethiopia
Brain – 410 cc mean
Huge cheek Teeth
2.5 Mya, woodland and grassland
Oldest and most robust hominid
Bipedal, small canines, Sagittal crest
Molars 6 times larger than ours, Prognathic, Huge teeth huge jaw huge muscles
Both of these features are found on modern human femora and are functionally related to our upright walking.
the study of what happens to an organisms’ remains after death
Extreme facial prognathism
Flaring zygomatic arches
At 2.7 to 2.3 Mya it is the earliest “robust” hominid
Prototype for the robust adaptation.
Evolved to eat a different diet than others. They adapted to eat hard starchy fibrous vegetation. Big teeth – face protrudes
Big zygomatic arch
ridge of bone from behind the yes to behind the ear. Mastor muscles and temporal muscles (attach to the zygomatic arch and the sagittal crest)Inch of solid muscle on the skull. Big cheek bones for big muscles (A. aethipoicus)
Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania
Mary Leakey 1959
Originally Zinjanthropus boisei
Orignally boisei Zinj Man
Now known as “boisei’s southern ape”
Massive cheek teeth and small anterior teeth
U-shaped tooth-row, Tall broad dished face
Brain size – 510 cc mean
Dates – 2.3-1.3 Mya
The Australopithecines in South Africa
Mostly found in cave environments. South Africa has a lot of limestone, bc was once underwater. Many caves form. No evidence hominids were intentionally living in caves.
First African hominid discoveries
Preserved breccia (a sedimentary rock) – conglomeration of sand, pebbles, and soil in a cement-like matrix.
from a town in South Africa, Limestone cave
In 1924 a Box of fossils came into Raymond Dart’s lab
Australopithecus africanus (southern ape of Africa)
(he was cool about Piltdown after proven to be a hoax and he was correct)
Juvenile – 3 to 4 years old
Foramen magnum anterior gracile build
Brain size: 405 cc
(est. 450 cc in adult)
small canines - non-honing
Biggest supporter of Raymond Dart
Adult Australopithecus africanus
female - Mrs. Ples – Sts 5 – Sterkfontein
Moved bipedally on the ground but retained adaptations for climbing
Dates 2.5-2.0 Mya
small, non-honing canines, large premolars and molars, bipedal
scavenging and hunting activities of
Big cats can drag hominids into caves.
Porcupines eat anything – scavengers
Fossilized footprints by human ancestors 3.6 million years ago in Tanzania. These prints are the best direct evidence that our ancestors were walking on two legs this long ago. The anatomy of fossil leg and foot bones from these creatures help us understand how they moved. Fossil footprints leave little doubt that these creatures moved on two legs. Prints formed when these hominids walked across a bed of wet volcanic ash which hardened like a cement.
is based on the observation that sedimentary rock strata contain fossilized flora and fauna, and that these fossils succeed each other vertically in a specific, reliable order that can be identified over wide horizontal distances.
The evolutionary relationships of a group of organisms. Placement of fos- sils in their environmental contexts helps us understand the factors that shaped the evolution of the organisms the fossils represent.
The great diversity of multicellular, complex life present on Earth today is a relatively recent evolutionary event, unfolding over the course of the last _____ years.
Croatian paleontologist Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger
demonstrate that Neandertal fossils found in Krapina, Croatia, lived at the same time as the bones of extinct rhinoceros and cave bears. He also laid the foundation for biostratigraphic, or faunal, dating. Found different strata contained different kinds of fossils. Because of the law of superposition, he realized these index fossils could be used to assess the relative age of particular strata. Pig fossils used to determine the age of other animal fossils.
The radiometric dating method in which the ratio of 14C to 12C is measured to provide an absolute date for a material younger than 50,000 years. (half-life of 5730 years)
Two or more forms of a chemical element that vary in the number of neutrons in the nucleus and by the atomic mass.
Rock formed from the crystallization of molten magma, which contains the radioisotope 40K; used in potassium-argon dating.
As uranium decays, fragments of the decay fission and leave a discernible track on the rock crystal. The greater number of these lines can be used to infer the age of the rock
These methods can be used to check the accuracy of dates using radioisotopes, or can be used when the conditions are not right for radiometric dating (no volcanic rock, for instance). Amino acid dating,
Used in relatively recent contexts, and is predicated on how proteins decay after the death of an organism. The process of amino acid transformation (called racemization) is temperature dependent, meaning that regions with a higher annual temperature will decay more quickly than colder regions, thus potentially introducing error into this technique
This technique takes advantage of the fact that the earth’s magnetic poles have reversed many times over the course of Earth’s history. There are dark bands (normal polarity) and light bands (reversed polarity) that are documented in rocks over the course of the last 25 million years. This pattern can be used to infer the age of rocks in a region and the fossils those rocks contain.
Can be used to date materials up to about a million years old.
Concentrations of radioisotopes; trapped energy
These little small-shelled marine microorganisms incorporate two forms of oxygen into their shelled bodies: oxygen-16 and the isotope oxygen-18. By tracking this over time, scientists have been able to reconstruct the global temperature over the course of the last 60 million years or so.
bipedalism would have evolved as a means by which the hands could be freed for carrying tools and carcasses. Would require a larger brain to make tools. Darwin is wrong because of the timing shown in fossils.
Around the time hominids evolved in the Late Miocene, Africa was experiencing a cooling and drying period that was causing the forests to become quite patchy, separated by expanses of grasslands. Bipedalism may be more energetically efficient than quadrupedalism in moving between these food-rich forest patches, and that this would have led to selection for upright walking.
The early South African hominids are from Au. africanus.
South African Au. africanus, may eventually evolved into a robust form: Au. robust us. East Africa - Australopithecus garhi, despite large molars, had human-like features of longer legs and stone tools. East Africa - the robusts. Au. aethiopicus and after Au. boisei. South Africa - new species, Au. sediba - small teeth, a small brain, a human-like hand and pelvis, but primitive foot. Potential bridge between Australopithecus and Homo, or descendent of Australopithecus africanus and a dead-end.
2 Mya, most Australopithecus species gone extinct and are represented only by the large-toothed robust forms in East and South Africa. Fossils of a new kind of creature - slightly larger brain than Australopithecus, a smaller face, and smaller teeth. More evidence of stone tool construction and processing of carcasses for meat. Soon after its evolution, this new creature expands its territory beyond the African continent and begins to inhabit new ecosystems in Asia and eventually Europe.
-foramen magnum directly under base of the skull
- shorter pelvis
o Modern biology, behavior, and culture originate from Africa
o Spread after 50k ybp
o Modern humans replaced all populations once arriving in Europe
o Significant gene flow on borders of population
o Continuity of morphology in all regions of globe
@Iraq, Kurrdistan region
Wide nasal aperture
Constant traveling mountainous terrain
Worn out front teeth from grasping and holding objects
Right arm amputated or severed
· Projecting nose placed more distance between cold external environment and the brain
· Kebara neandertal skeleton has hyoid bone that produced speech
· 45k – 30k ybp
· First anatomically modern humans in Europe
· 30k – 20k ybp
· The Perigordian in France
· Earliest art, carved figurines
· 21k – 17k ybp
· France and Spain during the last glacial peak
· Made very first stone points
· 17k – 12k ybp
· Successful hunters of reindeer and horses
· Spread out across Europe as conditions improved at end of Ice Age
· Spectacular paintings and carvings
· Partial skulls of two adults and one child
· 1450cc – close to average for modern humans
· Tall cranium
· Vertical forehead
· Smaller brow ridge
· Nonprojecting, long face
· Earliest modern people in East Africa
· 195k ybp
· Oldest evidence of anatomically modern humans
· 90k years old
· Distinctively modern characterisitics
· Several male skulls – Skhul 5 most complete (dates back to before Amud)
· 41k ybp
· Mandible and partial skeleton
· 29k – 24k ybp
· 3 skulls - more robust than modern Asian
· Facial flatness characteristic of modern East Asians
· 35k ybp
· Distinctively modern, contrast with NeandertalsOase 2 – reduced brow ridge, gracile appearance
· @Czech Republic
· Mladec (35k ybp)
o Half dozen skulls
o Remarkable variability – mix of neandertal and modern traits
o Occipital bun, low skull, large brow ridges, large front teeth, thick bone, nonprojecting face, narrow nasal opening
· Predmosti, Vestonice – retain few neandertal characteristics, clearly more modern
· 24k ybp
· 5 year old child
· @Dordogne, France
· 30k – 25k ybp
· People varied considerably
· Distinct modern features
o Vertical forehead
o Narrow nasal aperture
o Small brow ridge
o Long tibias
o Narrow body trunk
· Lived in cold climates of late Pleistocene
· Adapt to warmer climate
· Modern behaviors and practices began biologically and culturally in Africa
o 75k ybp – Fishing and use of aquatic resources to exploit catfish
o More specialized kinds of hunting, wider employment of raw materials for producing tools (bones), advanced blade technology, and trade
· Land route connecting Siberia to Alaska – migrations to the Americas occurred via this land route along the deglaciated Pacific coastline
· Created when sea levels reached a low point during the later Pleistocene, exposing areas of land that are now submerged
· Earliest Native American culture of North America
· Large, fluted, bifacial projectile points used as spear points for big game hunting
· 9300 ybp
· Skull is long and narrow, face and jaws are robust
· Looks like Patrick Stewart
· Considerably lower sea levels, as much as 90m (300ft)
· Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania one single landmass
· Called “Greater Australia”
· @western New South Wales
· 40k ybp
· Two skulls, an adult man and adult woman
· Skulls are high, rounded forheads, small brow ridges
· Resemble Kow Swamp skulls
· Suggest a common genetic origin
· @Victoria’s Murray River Valley
· 13k – 9k ybp
· Skulls more robust, larger brow ridges, larger and more robust faces, lower forheads
· Suggest a common genetic origin
· AKA “Hobbit”
· @Flores, Indonesia
· Extremely tiny brain 400cc
· 1m (3.5 ft)
· Small or absent chin, rotated pre-molars
· Newfound species of Homo
· Isolated early in human evolution led to unique pattern of biological variation
· Suffered from microcephaly or other genetic/developmental abnormality
the late Pleistocene/early Holocene culture, during which humans domesticated plants and animals
· China 8k ybp – millet and rice
· Mexico – bottle gourds (10k ybp) and corn (9k ybp)
· New Guinea – taro and banana trees (7k ybp)
· Eastern N. America – squash, sunflowers, and goosefoot (6k ybp)
· S. America – potatoes, sweet potatoes, and manioc (5250 ybp)
· Africa, south of the Sahara – sorghum and yams (4500 ybp)
· Spread from primary centers to other areas
· Corn spread from Mexico into N. America’s Atlantic coast through carrying and word-of-mouth by 1000 ybp
· Wheat and barley spread from SW Asia to Greece by 8k ypb
· Idea of agriculture spread through cultural contact and spread of knowledge
Neandertals buried their dead.
b. Neandertals were cold-adapted people.
c. Both are true
According to the out-of-Africa model, the transition from archaic to modern Homo sapiens
Modern human features include
Omo and Klasies River Mouth Cave are Early Modern Homo sapiens sites of
Lake Mungo has remains of the oldest hominids in
The region that contains archaeological sites documenting the development of early farming villages in the Middle East (in Southwest Asia) is called
It is characterized by small, settled villages where the domestication of plants and/or animals took place.
Based on the archaeological record from various areas, what was the initial effect of agriculture
Which is the wetter, warmer, and more recent geological time period (epoch)?
agriculture has led to increased diversity in food.
burning fossil fuels
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