An explanatory statement that fits the evidence. Each of these theories is an explanation that has been confirmed to such a degree, by observation and experiment, that knowledgeable experts accept it as fact.
"closley allied" species occur near by because they have descended from similar species.
-SOuth America occupied 2 similar flightless birds.
-Stages of development
- why does larval form of flies, beetles, and moths all look alike.
- Embryo is the animal in its less modified state"
All living organisms contain DNA& RNA which makes them have the samw coding but it is the SHAPE and DESIGN that make them different.
investigates extinct life forms. this article gives an example of the evolution of a horse.
Anthropology is the study of _____
the study of human kind
Focuses on humans as biological organisms
First scientist to categorize human races. Looked at physical variation, and rejected racist views of other Europeans.
AKA- father of anthropology
aka- 1st anthropologist
what are the "3 cultural ages"
Lewis Henry Morgan
1st famous anthropologist- advocated the study of native americans
Father of American anthropology
Expedition to Baffin island and stayed for a long time making maps and collecting local map data (inuit culture aka Eskimos)
questioned assumptions about "primative" cultures.
understanding a culture through stages.
- how parts of culture fit together
Franz Boas & the "four fields"
made anthropology more scientific
-Coined Species and
-created categories to organize
-hierarchical classification system for living organisms (Kingdoms)
-based on shared physical characteristics
- expanded Rays system
Ex: homo sapiens
Advocate of Intelligent design in nature.
Someone supernatural must have put it together.
Species were designed for their adaptation.
1st theory of evolution
adapt to changing environment.
inheritance of acquired characteristics.
Why does a giraffe have a long neck?
giraffe needed to reach high to survive & offspring inherited change.
Lyells views of- age of earth and gradual process
Lamarks- adaptation & change
Malthus'- observ. of population, growth & food supply.
Natural Selection (fitness)
Nature produces random variation
some traits produce greater advantage for survival
the view that species evolve, not individuals is whos?
An example of a distortion of Darwins ideas
did Darwin invent the idea of evolution?
Deals with how we know and theories of knowledge itself.
generalizations that lead to hypothesizes
predictions that lead to testing
it is validated by testing.
Facts need _____ to explain them.
theories explain them.
Theories _____ facts.
What is the highest form of scientific explanation?
What is a scientific law
generalizations about nature.
- describes but does not explain.
what is Conformation Bias
The tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them.
should be possible to specify ahead of time what sort of data, if observed, would make the hypothesis false
- must state what evidence would invalidate explanation.
Data is meaningless without ____?
what can limit scientific progress?
A lack of creativity
What is good science?
fits within pattern of investigation
- follows the evidence
- requires a disciplined imagination
Science that uses the wrong methods.
Fake science that has no tests for its validity.
a system of knowledge that can NOT be tested by the scientific method.
Does untested mean unscientific?
no, as long as it has testable implications.
"convergence of evidence"
- multiple lines of evidence point to the same conclusion.
- Makes STRONGER explanation
- Historian of Science.
- Created concept of paradigms. -
- Paradigm continues until existing paradigm is replaced by another
-- Paradigm Shift
Replacement of one paradigm by another.
Biology & anthropology changed from s___ to C_____ O_ T_____
Biology & anthropology changed from stasis to Change Over Time.
Modern views came with:
- New observations (empiricism)
- better generalizations (induction)
- New explanations ( paradigm shifts)
Early Anthropology made their focus the study of cultures that WERE or were NOT their own?
That were NOT their own.
Cosmographia: early cataloug of human diversity
- 1st to include Americans
- COMBINED old and new reports
kinda showed "who else is out there"
- 1st to make LINGUESTIC seperations.
Anthropology studies "Culture"
- learned behaviors
- shows stages of cultural evolution
idea that histories are not comparable; diverse paths can lead to the same cultural result
said earth had a "long history"
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