Cultural Anthropology Wednesday, September 9th, 2009 Five disciplines in Anthropology Physical Anthropology ? the study of the evolution of the human body throughout the world Through skeletal remains, genetics, etc. Through the study of primates (sub-human) Their research involves field work (is called) sites Archaeology ? study of the history of society through the excavation of its material remains There are two types: prehistorical and historical Prehistoric: the study of pre-writing societies(had no written records- oral) (They found wooden house poles in bottom of ocean ? yet could reconstruct Tyno? Village) Historical: study of ancient societies with written remains and material artifacts Goes on now in cities ? find remains of Brothels Linguistic Anthropology ? study of languages Descriptive ? try to figure out and understand the sounds, phonetics, and grammar of an oral language. Historical ? study the development of languages - origination, ancestors, etc. Social - study of how and where a language is used, why kinds of speech patterns Relationship of a society to language Cultural Anthropologist ? study living societies around the world (comparative) Similar to sociology, but better Historically study in western/Latin America and sociologists study US/Europe Now ? specialize in the study of small scale communities, sociologists in large societies Study ?face to face? communities, everyone knows everyone, 15 ? 1,000 people Focus on single idea called culture Culture is every aspect of life which makes it possible for people to live together What two things allow us to live together? Language Power Religion The State ? education, laws, money Not a comprehensive list, just an overview Applied Anthropology ? use the findings of other four areas to solve social problems Examples: hospital, forensics, education, medical, etc. Anthropology very wide and diverse field Study of people from all four points of view Two things me or my family own which were hand made 50 years ago ? a quilt -> my great aunt gave it to my father 8 years ago ? a scarf -> my friend made me a scarf 2 years ago ? an entertainment center -> my brother built an entertainment center and still has it The Rise of the World System The rise of the world system The age of discovery The industrial revolution The modern world system Use and Exchange Values Use Value ? the benefit it brings to the creator/manufacturer The use value of corn would be measure in tasted, calories, etc when it is consumed Exchange Value ? how much money it is worth at market What it is sold for minus the cost of production Societies that make all things they need are called Independent They live by their own labor No such societies anymore Everyone is caught up in the world of exchange value Use Values Boats are made to use, so are the paddles Use value of a canoe in the Murik Lake if measured in practical ways; provides transportation to work, to visit others, etc. Provides independence from ?the world system? Cars are made to sell; their value is equal to the sales price minus the cost of production Items are not given by kin, but bought from strangers History of the World System Three historical phases The Age of Discovery Exploration Discovery historical phase begins in 1492 with Columbus going to North America Things finally invented and available to travel, explore and conquer and being making the world system British, Dutch, Portuguese, take over By 1790, age of exploration ends Hawaiian ?s killed James Cook Europe?s conquer and exploration of the west concluded Europeans develop taste for sugar, tobacco, and rum First three initial exchange values Results in monocrop agriculture develop -> plantations In order to export to Europe Cotton becomes the number four exchange value Slavery fallows mass production of cotton People sell land to companies that are run by colonies overseas, entering into world of exchange value Capitalism The full time pursuit of profit (what you sell, good ? production) Currency begins to circulate at this age Currency is state based Good not produced seasonally/leisure 0 for capital wealth That wealth is put into making more wealth Capitalism requires a way to measure the amount of capital wealth which the owner has ->number measurement Based on the state YOU HAVE TO HAVE A STATE TO HAVE CAPITALISM Waller World System 1790-1989 (when the Berlin wall came down) World System Model Peripheral Semi peripheral Core economy Core Economy ? have most wealth, advanced technology and the most powerful militaries Ex. The US, UK, Germany, Japan, France, Russia Semi periphery ? weaker militaries, less wealth, less advanced technology, Ex. China, India, Australia, Brazil, Israel Peripheral ? weakest militaries, least wealth, least advanced technology Ex. In Pacific, Africa, all over the world They have unequal exchange relations, which is what causes 3 different Peripheral exports labor, minerals, goods, energy, etc. to semi and core In return, the core exports technology and commodities to the other two The number one technology exported: weapons and software etc. Leading export is military technology , The world system is not state based Multinational Corporation Development of World System develops on back of large empires and mega states Wealth comes from resources extracted from colonies Mega states begin to shrink after WW11 Period of post colonial independence, empires shrink, states go through devolution 1989 ? USSR collapses, last empire Sate of Globalization Many states, center of power fewer and further between Class Topic: How cultures exist in this period of Globalization 1920-> New Guinea overtaken for cheap labor Everyone left when they thought gold was gone A few stayed on 1930 one of great unexplored regions Mountain range in center so rugged, though uninhabited 1930 ? Michael lay -> 1stto enter, looking for gold Brought camera - documentary Mick ? born prospector, very good leader Confident he?d find the El Dorado Had to walk 90 miles to crossing, climb 10,000 feet When go high and see valleys, obvious someone is living there ? can see huge garden patches Thought wives were in the rucksack and the red lap lap was to cover huge penis Hid to watch go to bathroom, and looked at it Skin is different, but shit smells the same Gave Native?s guns and instruction on who to fight Began using airplanes to fly over before entering Flew over valley and walked in -> GOLD Set up base camp
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