1859 wrote On the Origins of Species where he posed the Theory of Natural Selection or Descent by Modification that explained the process by which biological organisms evolve
Race is a classification of people into groups on the basis of supposedly homogenous and largely superficial biological traits such as skin color or hair characteristics. Because race is largely a social construct one could argue that it does not actually exist in biological reality. Terms such as ethnicity or ancestry better serve to describe biological traits apparent in humans.
There is variation within a species.
That variation is inheritable.
There is a competition for resources creating a struggle for existence.
In a particular environment, some variations may provide a benefit in the struggle for existence.
Such benefits will be demonstrated through differential reproduction or mortality.
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