Anthropology 1006 Chapter 6 Book Notes February 6, 2010 Human Variation and Adaptation Race: A Discredited Concept in Biology Racial Classifications ? Assigning organisms to catagories (purportedly) based on common ancestry. Cline- Gradual shift in gene (allele) frequencies between neighboring populations. Races Are Not Biologically Distinct Explaining Skin Color Melanin ? ?Natural sunscreen? produced by skin cells responsible for pigmentation. Tropics ? Zone between 23 degrees north (Tropic of Cancer) and 23 degrees south (Tropic of Capricorn) of the equator. Rickets ? Vitamin D deficiency marked by bone deformation. Human Biological Adaptation Genes and Disease Facial Features Thomson?s Nose Rule ? Average nose length increases in cold areas. Size and Body Build Bergmann?s Rule ? Larger bodies are found in colder areas and smaller bodies are found in warmer areas. Allen?s Rule ? Protruding body parts are bigger in warmer areas. Lactose Tolerance Phenotypical Adaptation ? Adaptive biological changes during an individual?s lifetime.
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