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is acquired by humans as members of society through the process of enculturation.
Which of the following statements about enculturation is not true? Enculturation
is the exchange of cultural features that results when two or more groups come into consistent firsthand contact.
Anthropologists agree that cultural learning is uniquely elaborated among humans and that all humans have culture. They also accept a doctrine designated in the 19th century as the "psychic unity of man." What does this doctrine mean?
Although individuals differ in their emotional and intellectual capacities, all human populations have equivalent capacities for culture.
Anthropologist Clifford Geertz defined culture as ideas based on cultural learning and symbols. For anthropologist Leslie White, culture originated when our ancestors acquired the ability to use symbols. What is a symbol? It is
something verbal or nonverbal, within a particular language or culture, that comes to stand for something else.
What is the term for a sign that has no necessary or natural connection to the thing for which it stands?
What do anthropologists mean when they say culture is shared?
Culture is an attribute of individuals as members of groups.
People in the United States sometimes have trouble understanding the power of culture because of the value that American culture places on the idea of the individual. Yet in American culture
individualism is a distinctive shared value, a feature of culture.
People have to eat, but culture teaches us what, when, and how to do so. This is an example of how
culture takes the natural biological urges we share with other animals and teaches us how to express them in particular ways
Since the 1970s, many anthropologists have done research among the Ariaal, a nomadic community of northern Kenya. Just as anthropologists have studied many aspects of this community's culture, the Ariaal have formed opinions based on observation of their visitors. For example, they note how anthropologists
slather white liquid on their very white skin to protect them from the sun, and often favor short pants that show off their legs and boots.
Culture can be adaptive or maladaptive. It is maladaptive when
cultural traits, patterns, and inventions threaten the group's continued survival and reproduction and thus its very existence.
The human capacity for culture has an evolutionary basis that extends back at least 2.5 million years. This date corresponds to
early toolmakers whose products survive in the archaeological record.
Why does this chapter on culture include a section that describes similarities and differences between humans and apes, our closest relatives?
To emphasize culture's evolutionary basis
Many human traits reflect the fact that our primate ancestors lived in trees. These traits include all of the following except
echolocation made possible by overlapping visual fields.
The incest taboo is a cultural universal, but
the definition of what constitutes incest varies widely across cultures.
What are exogamy and the incest taboo examples of?
Which of the following is a cultural generality?
The nuclear family
Which of the following least explains the existence of cultural generalities?
The arbitrariness of the sign
What are cultural particulars?
Traits unique to a given culture, not shared with others
All of the following are evidence of the tendency to view culture as a process except
analysis that attempts to establish boundaries between cultures
What process is most responsible for the existence of international culture?
Cultural borrowing or diffusion, whether direct, indirect, or by force
Which statement about subcultures is not true? Subcultures
are mutually exclusive; individuals may not participate in more than one subculture.
Which of the following statements about culture is not true?
It is transmitted genetically.
The Makah, a tribe that lives near the mouth of the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the Olympic Peninsula, see themselves as whalers and continue to identify themselves spiritually with whales. Their ongoing struggle to maintain their traditional way of life, which involves whale hunting, demonstrates how
contemporary indigenous groups have to grapple with multiple levels of culture, contestation, and political regulation.
The tendency to view one's own culture as superior and to use one's own standards and values in judging others is called
In anthropology, cultural relativism is not a moral position but a methodological one. It states that
in order to understand another culture fully, we must try to understand how the people in that culture see things.
How are cultural rights different from human rights?
Cultural rights are vested in groups, not in individuals.
Human rights are seen as inalienable. This means that
nations cannot abridge or terminate them.
Although rap music originated in the United States, it is now popular all over the world. Which of the following mechanisms of cultural change is responsible for this?
What is the term for the kind of cultural change that results when two or more cultures have consistent firsthand contact?
Which of the following is an example of independent invention, the process by which people in different societies have innovated and changed in similar but independent ways? The invention of
Culture helps us define the world in which we live, to express feelings and ideas and to guide our behavior and perceptions.
Culture is transmitted by both formal and informal instruction, but not by observation
Culture is transmitted in society.
According to Leslie White, culture is dependent upon the ability to create and use symbols
Anthropologists accept a doctrine designated in the 19th century as "the psychic unity of man." This means that although individuals differ in their emotional and intellectual tendencies and capacities, all human populations have equivalent capacities for culture.
Cultures are integrated, patterned systems in which a change in one part often leads to changes in other parts
Once an individual has been enculturated, that person must adhere to the cultural rules that govern that culture
Although culture is one of the principal means humans use to adapt to their environment, some cultural traits can be harmful to a group's survival.
While cultural abilities have a biological basis, they do not have an evolutionary basis.
Although humans do employ tools much more than any other animal does, tool use also turns up among several nonhuman species, including birds, beavers, sea otters, and apes.
Hunting is a distinctive human activity not shared with the apes.
Practice theory recognizes that the study of anthropology takes a lot of practice before resulting in accurate descriptions of a culture.
Although there are many different levels of culture, an individual can participate in only one level at a time.
Only people living in the industrialized, capitalist countries of Europe and the United States are ethnocentric.
Cultural relativists believe that a culture should be judged only according to the standards and traditions of that culture and not according to the standards of other cultural traditions.
Anthropology is characterized by a methodological rather than moral relativism; in order to understand another culture fully, anthropologists try to understand its members' beliefs and motivations.
Methodological relativism does not preclude making moral judgments or taking action.
The idea of universal and inalienable human rights that are superior to the laws and ethics of any culture can conflict with some of the ideas central to cultural relativism.
Diffusion plays an important role in spreading cultural traits around the world.
In many countries, use of the English language reflects a colonial history and is thus a consequence of forced diffusion.
Independent invention occurs when two or more cultures independently come up with similar solutions to a common problem.
Acculturation is the process by which people lose the culture that they learned as children.
Indigenous cultures are at the mercy of the forces of globalization, as they can do nothing to stop threats to their cultural identity, autonomy, and livelihood.
Modern means of transportation and communication have facilitated the process of globalization.
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