1. Because our planet's climate is always changing, the key question becomes, howmuch of global warming is caused by human activities versus natural climatevariability? On this issue, most scientists agree that the causes aremainly
2. The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that keeps the earth's surfacewarm. Without greenhouse gases—water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrousoxide, halocarbons, and ozone—life as we know it wouldn't exist. The currentproblem is that
B. the atmospheric concentration ofgreenhouse gases has reached its highest level in 400,000 years, and this risehas upset the balance of radiative forcings working to warm and cool the earth
3. Because of global climate change, arctic landscapes and ecosystems are changingrapidly and perceptibly, as the residents of Newtok, Alaska, can attest. Withthe land upon which they have built their homes slowly melting and sinking, theyhave appealed to the state and federal governments for assistance in helpingthem cover the costs of moving their town to a different location.Ironically,
D. decades ago, the U.S. governmentmandated that they and other Alaskan natives abandon a nomadic life based onhunting and fishing for sedentism.
4. Which is the single greatest obstacle to slowing climate change?
D. meeting energy needs, particularly inenergy-hungry countries such as the United States, China, and India
5. Anthropology has always been concerned with how environmental forces influencehumans, and how human activities affect the biosphere and the earth itself. The1950s through the 1970s witnessed the emergence of an area of study known ascultural ecology or ecological anthropology. This field
A. focused on how cultural beliefs andpractices help human populations adapt to their environment.
6. Today's ecological anthropology, also known as environmental anthropology,attempts not only to understand but also to
A. find solutions toenvironmental problems, acknowledging that ecosystems management involvesmultiple levels.
7. Deforestation is a global concern. Forest loss can lead to increased greenhousegas production, which contributes to global warming. The destruction oftropical forests also is a major factor in the loss of global biodiversity. Theglobal scenarios of deforestation include all of the following except
D. the intensification of foraginglifestyles among communities that have retreated from the chaos of modern life
8. __________ refers to the changes that result when groups come into continuousfirsthand contact.
9. Westernization is a form of what kind of cultural change?
10. Which of the following is not one of the possible consequencesexperienced after the "shock phase" of an encounter betweenindigenous societies and more powerful outsiders?
B. a broad-spectrum revolution
11. The Handsome Lake religion
D. was a revitalizationmovement that helped the Iroquois survive in a drastically modified environment.
12. Although locals may create a new religion, on a global scale religious changeis more commonly the result of
D. missionaries and proselytizersrepresenting the major world religions.
13. In 1989, a military government seized power in the Sudan. This resulted inwhich of the following?
C. The Sudanese government adopted apolicy of cultural imperialism
14. __________ refers to the rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expenseof others, or its imposition on other cultures.
C. Cultural imperialism
15. Cases where local communities use modern technology to preserve and revisetheir traditions
B. are becoming more common.
16. Cultural meaning is
B. locally created.
17. Illustrating how forces from world centers can and are creatively modified tofit the local culture, how did the Native Australians interpret the movie Rambo?They
D. created tribal ties and kin linksbetween Rambo and the prisoners he was rescuing.
18. This chapter describes Americans' belief that U.S. television programsinevitably triumph over local products around the world as
19. To Arjun Appadurai (1990), __________ describes the linkages in the modernworld that have both enlarged and erased old boundaries and distinctions.
20. Which of the following is not true of postmodernism?
.C. has a clear and functional design or structure.
21. __________ refers to the blurring and breakdown of established canons—rules,standards, categories, distinctions, and boundaries.
22. Social movements worldwide have adopted which term as a self-identifying andpolitical label based on past oppression but now legitimizing a search forsocial, cultural, and political rights?
B. indigenous people
23. In Spanish-speaking Latin America, social scientists and politicians favorwhich term over indio (Indian), the colonial term that the Spanish andPortuguese conquerors used to refer to the native inhabitants of theAmericas?
A. indígena (indigenous person
24. The last 30 years have seen a dramatic shift in the conditions of indigenouspeoples in Latin America, where the drive by indigenous peoples forself-identification has emphasized all of the following except
C. their autochthony, with an implicitcall for excluding strangers from their communities.
25. Unlike "indigenous peoples," what term, which highlights theprominence that the exclusion of strangers has assumed in day-to-day politicsworldwide, has been claimed by majority groups in Europe?
26. __________ describes the process of viewing an identity as established, real,and frozen, so as to hide the historical processes and politics within whichthat identity developed.
27. Identities are
C. not fixed; they are fluid and multiple
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