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Scientists continue to debate the relationship between two Homo fossil finds: KNM-ER 1470, named H. rudolfensis by some, and KNM-ER 1813, generally considered to be an exemplar of H. habilis. Is the smaller KNM-ER 1813 a distinct species? Could it be a female version of KNM-ER 1470, both being simply a female and male pair of the highly variable H. habilis? The only sure conclusion is that
several different kinds of hominin lived in Africa before and after the advent of Homo
Which of the following statements about the appearance of Homo habilis is true? H. habilis
A. evolved from A. boisei, the hyperrobust australopithecines.
B. demonstrates the adaptive advantage of sedentism.
C. exhibits a relatively rapid expansion of cranial capacity.
D. shows evidence of a shift from an arboreal to an open-grassland environment.
E. represents a gradual shift away from predation to vegetarianism.
What is so significant about the recent fossil finds of an H. erectus and an H. habilis from Ileret, Kenya, east of Lake Turkana? They
negate the conventional view held since 1960 that habilis and erectus evolved one after the other. Instead, they lived side by side in eastern Africa for perhaps half a million years.
Excavations between Bed I and Bed II at Olduvai suggest that significant changes in technology occurred during a comparatively short 200,000-year period. The tools found illustrate a shift toward functional differentiation, which means that
the tools were being made and used for different jobs, such as smashing bones or digging for tubers.
Which of the following statements about Homo erectus fossils is not true? H. erectus fossils
have hyperrobust chewing muscles and broad, flat molars.
What have researchers learned by looking at the molars and other cranial features of H. erectus, such as a superorbital torus and an occipital bun?
H. erectus was more dependent on hunting—and the lifestyle it demanded—than were earlier hominins.
Biological and cultural changes enabled H. erectus to exploit a new adaptive strategy—gathering and hunting. This in turn was crucial for H. erectus to
push the hominin range beyond Africa, into Asia and Europe.
What is the name of the time period that evolved out of the Oldowan, or pebble tool, tradition and lasted until about 15,000 years ago?
Which of the following statements describes a key difference between Oldowan and Acheulian tools?
Acheulian tools, such as the hand ax, represent a predetermined shape based on a template in the mind of the toolmaker, suggesting a cognitive leap between earlier hominins and H. erectus.
Which of the following is a difference between Homo erectus and the australopithecines?
Homo erectus's cranial capacity was much larger.
The spread of H. erectus from tropical and subtropical climates into temperate zones was facilitated by all of the following except
Which of the following is not associated with H. erectus?
A. cave painting
B. a massive ridge over the eyebrows
C. more sophisticated toolmaking
D. the use of fire
E. the development of Acheulian tools
H. erectus is generally associated with which of the following technologies?
E. Upper Paleolithic
The fossil finds near Beijing, China (including Zhoukoudian) yielded the remains of more than 40 specimens of
A. H. habilis.
B. H. erectus.
C. archaic Homo sapiens.
E. anatomically modern humans.
One fairly complete skull, one large mandible, and two partial skulls were found in the 1990s at the Dmanisi site in the former Soviet Republic of Georgia. Dated to 1.7 to 1.77 m.y.a., these fossils
suggest a rapid spread, by 1.77 m.y.a, of early Homo out of Africa and into Eurasia.
What is the most likely explanation of why early Homo left Africa and spread into Eurasia?
the need to find meat
Which of the following sites is not included in the probable range of H. erectus?
C. South Africa
European fossils and tools have contributed disproportionately to our knowledge and interpretation of early (archaic) H. sapiens. What explains this?
the long history of Paleolithic archaeology in Europe relative to other regions in the world
Archaic H. sapiens (300,000? to 28,000 BP) encompass the earliest members of our species, along with
the Neanderthals of Europe and the Middle East and their Neanderthal-like contemporaries in Africa and Asia.
Traditionally and correctly, the geological epoch known as the __________ has been considered the epoch of early human life.
Worldwide, what were the Middle and Upper Pleistocene characterized by?
A. expansion in the number of hominin species
B. massive extinctions of hominin populations
C. widespread tropical rain forests
D. successive glacial advances and retreats
E. a climate much warmer than at present
. H. antecessor, a 780,000-year-old hominin found in Spain's Atapuerca Mountains,
is the possible common ancestor of the Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans.
Spain's Atapuerca Mountains hold one of the richest hominin fossil sites in the world. All of the following have been found in Atapuerca except
the first definitive evidence of human control of fire by 500,000 BP.
At the site of Terra Amata, in southern France, archaeologists have documented human activity dating back some 300,000 years. What do findings there indicate?
The site's inhabitants led an essentially human lifestyle.
What archaic H. sapiens group has a pronounced brow ridge, stocky build, and massive nasal cavities—characteristics that resulted as adaptations to cold weather?
Which of the following cold-weather adaptations predates the appearance of Neanderthals?
A. a stocky anatomy
B. the use of fire
C. wearing clothes probably made from animal skins
D. massive nasal cavities and brow ridges
E. a facial projection
Which of the following traits does not characterize a Neanderthal skull?
A. a broad face
B. a large brow ridge
C. huge front teeth
D. huge molars
E. an average cranial capacity larger than that of modern humans
What is the name of the stone-tool tradition associated with Neanderthals?
Although the Neanderthals are remembered more for their physiques than for their manufacturing abilities, their tool kits were sophisticated. In fact, the Mousterian technology, which Neanderthals are associated with,
included at least 14 categories of tools designed for different jobs.
Generations of scientists have debated whether the Neandertals were ancestral to modern Europeans. The current prevailing view, which denies the ancestry, proposes that
modern humans evolved in Africa and eventually colonized Europe, displacing the Neandertals there.
Until the recent—and surprising—discovery of H. floresiensis, few scientists
imagined that a different human species had survived through 12,000 BP, and possibly even later.
One of the most surprising aspects of the recent discovery of H. floresiensis is
the suggestion of sophisticated cultural abilities typically associated with anatomically modern humans, not with a hominin with a chimplike brain and extremities.
Several different kinds of hominin lived in Africa before and after the advent of Homo.
The recent hominin fossil finds from Ileret, Kenya, negate the conventional view held since 1960 that habilis and erectus evolved one after the other. Instead, they lived side by side in eastern Africa for perhaps half a million years.
The Paleolithic tool tradition associated with H. erectus is the Acheulian
With the movement of H. erectus out of Africa, H. erectus eventually colonized Europe and Asia.
The Acheulian tradition is characterized by cobble choppers that were made by removing flakes from one end of a cobble.
Biological and cultural changes enabled H. erectus to exploit a new adaptive strategy—gathering and hunting
The Acheulian hand ax, shaped like a teardrop, represents a predetermined shape based on a template in the mind of the toolmaker. Evidence for such a mental template in the archaeological record suggests a cognitive lead between earlier hominins and H. erectus
Given the potential for language-based communications in activities such as cooperative hunting and the manufacture of complicated tools, and given brain size within the low H. sapiens range, it seems plausible to assume that A. boisei had rudimentary speech.
The recent Dmanisi fossil finds suggest a rapid spread, by 1.77 m.y.a., of early Homo out of Africa into Eurasia.
Recently, a team uncovered a 1.2-million-year-old jawbone fragment from a species known as Homo antecessor in the Sierra de Atapuerca of Spain. The oldest hominid fossil ever found in western Europe, it provides conclusive evidence that Neanderthals interbred with archaic modern humans.
In addition to their stocky bodies, which were adapted to conserve heat, Neanderthals made clothes, developed elaborate tools, and hunted reindeer, mammoths, and woolly rhinos in order to adapt to the cold climate in Europe during the Würm glaciation.
The stone-tool tradition associated with Neanderthals is called the Mousterian
Compared to anatomically modern humans, Neanderthals exhibit a greater degree of sexual dimorphism.
One of the most surprising aspects of the recent discovery of H. floresiensis, a species of tiny people who lived, gathered, and hunted on the Indonesian island of Flores from about 95,000 BP until at least 13,000 BP, is the specimens' very large skulls, yet they lack behaviors associated with anatomically modern humans.
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