A set of social relations through which labor is deployed to extract energy from nature by means of tools, skills, organization, and knowledge.
A hunting and gathering economy, usually of small, migratory populations. There is a division of labor by sex and age. Cooperation is theme, conflict is kept to a minimum. Decision making is by consensus and the entire group is the economic unit of production.
A way of life in which technology is devoted to gaingin a liveligood from the care of large herds of domestic animals. All by-products of an animal are used. Populations in the 100s are migratory; they have a concept of private ownership, mainly with animals. Division of labor by sex.
It is the first cultivating economy and includes technology where people plant seeds, roots, and tubers. There is the use of tools, like the hoe or digging stick. Land ownership was decided by extended kin groups. Kin-based social systems. Division of labor by sex, women sometimes had prestige. Household was economic unit of production.
slash and burn technique of farming used in horticulture economies
moving to other areas of land in horticulture economies
Uses technology of plows, domesticated animals, irrigation systems, and terracing. Concept of private property established. Much larger populations, usually in the thousands. There is a greater labor demand. Had centralized authority to manage land and labor. Economic unit was the household. Ranked society is developed based on occupation and a money economy is born.
Occupying a particular piece of land continuously generation after generation
The production of subsistence goods through the intensive use of fuel-powered machinery. Mobile society is created. Division of labor is now by function not by sex. Economic unit of production is now by individual because of competition for jobs. There is class-based social structure.
Goods used to produce other goods. In foraging and horticulture societies everybody has access to capital. In complex societies access falls into the hands of the ruling class.
there are three types: Reciprocity Redistribution Market Exchange
Is the systematic sharing of food or gifts and is key to social bonds. There are three types: Generalized Balanced Negative
is informal gift-giving, no accounts are kept and no immediate or specific returns are expected. It is gift-giving for the sake of gift-giving. Normally between friends and relatives.
is gift giving that carries the obligation of a roughly equal return. What is given must be balanced by the return of something comparable. This usually occurs between distant friends of equal social status
the idea is to get something for nothing or as little as possible. Each side is trying to get the better end of a bargain. Usually occurs between enemies or strangers during impersonal transactions.
the process by which goods and services flow through a centralized authority. They are sorted, counted and reallocated. An example would be taxes
Is simply the exchange of goods by buyers and sellers. It can be either directly, like by barter, or indirectly, with money and pricing.
The ability to exercise one's will over others
socially approved use of power. It is used to regulate behavior
shared value and beliefs that legitimize power
Includes the main themes: Political Structure Leadership Social control or order Warfare
Levels of Political Organization
there are different levels of political organization based on the type of society. Some are: Bands Tribes Chiefdoms States
Political Structure: politically autonomous, rare to have institutional authority Leadership: no formal leaders (headman), little differential authority, consensus decision making. Leadership is based on talents and respects. Social Control: informal, consensus judgment, banishment of repeated violators. Warfare: conflict resolved informally, fighting consists of family feuds and personal problems. Not continual fighting and no formal organization of war. Cooperation is theme
Inuit Headman (example of Band Leadership): Usually male, women consultations, most proficient hunter, most accomplished in rituals, could be one or several persons, influential - not power. Inuit Dueling Songs (example of Band Social Order): used to resolve disputes. Would perform songs to express their side of the story. Used to vent anger and lay issues to rest. Winner is chosen by applause
Political Structure: Kin-based social system, organized by village life and descent group Leadership: No formal government, more effective regulatory mechanisms than bands, nominal leaders. Social Control: informal means that is based on public sentiment. Held "ordeals" which are trials with the headman or council acting as mediators in settling disputes. Warfare" raiding other villages, linked to kin-groups, war is grounded in material or ecological conditions.
Yanomamo Village Headman (example of Tribe Leadership: authority is limited, leads by example and persuasion, serves as mediator, leads by generosity and hard work.
Melanesian "Big Man" (example of Tribe Leadership): highly influential, no formal authority, skilled persuasion and wisdom, never secure in position.
Political Systems: Ranked societies based on concept of hereditary inequality, Used redistribution exchange patterns Leadership: Centralized, formal office of chief Social Control: chief has authority to make judgments, to punish, and to solve disputes. His word is law. Warfare: chiefs recruit armies, systematic warfare, dominates surrounding communities.
Potlach Redistribution System (example of Chiefdom Economic Exchange): process by which goods and services flow through a centralized authority. Its sorted, counted, and reallocated. Balances consumption.
Political System: a hierarchical, centralized form of political organization. Involves a central government that has legal monopoly over the use of force.
Based on codified LAW. Has class-based social systems. Incorporation of a variety of political administrative bureaucracies. Maintains armies. Social control is maintained through government, concept of nationality, citezenship.
Warfare: global economic rivalries, costly, leads to increased centralized control
A kind of kinship group in which membership requires being a direct lineal descendant of a real or mythical ancestor. Evolve from the extended family organization.
Descent through male or female line
Descent through both male and female lines
Different sex parent link. Mother's Brother's child marries Father's Sister's child
Same Sex Parent Link Mother's Sister's child marries Father's Brother's child
Types of Kin
Fictive: Arbitrarily assigned; adoption Consanguineal: Blood kin - biological Affinal: Kin by marriage
Descent traded through the male's line or group./Descent traced through the female's line or group. The mother's brother is the dominant male figure.
Non-corporate descent groups based on a common ancestor. Lacks residential unity and is based on symbols
Descriptive Kinship Terminological Systems
terms refer to one specific relative. ex: father, husband
Classificatory Kinship Terminological Systems
terms refer to a group of relatives in the same relation. ex: cousins, uncles
Inuit or Eskimo Kinship System
Distinguishes the nuclear family. All cousins are lumped together under the same term. All Aunts are lumped together under the same term by mother. Same for uncles. Neolocal residence patterns.
Iroquois Kinship System
Unilineal Descent. Father and father's brother given single term. Same for mother. Parallel cousins are labeled brother and sister. Cross-cousins are not. Different terms for relatives on the fathers and mothers side.
Functions of the Family
1) Provides socially approved sexual relationships between men and women 2) provides basic education and care of offspring 3) Establishes a social identity for the individual 4) Provides a fundamental economic unit
process by which rules and values of a specific culture are learned through social interaction.
Independent Nuclear Family
Monogamous, domestic group consisting of married couple and their children, highly mobile, support system. Expected to provide all the social interaction and emotion gratification. Neolocal residence patterns.
Polygamous or Plural Family
One person married to more than one spouse.
One man, several wives
One woman, several husbands.
created when newly married couple moves in with bride's or groom's family and dwell in the same household. Roles and Chores to more individuals. Love is a minor concern, cooperation is the theme.
Couple moves in with Groom's family. Cooperative labor of men. Inheritance in Male Line.
Living with Bride's family, Cooperative labor of women.
couple spends time in the households of either set of parents and later moves in with the other. changing on a regular basis.
Socially Sanctioned sexual and economic union between men and women. Marriage as a form of alliances.
to marry out
To marry in
Bridewealth (Bride's Price)
Husband's group compensates family of the bride with goods/money to give groom the right to marry bride. no social stratification.
woman's inheritance that she takes into marriage. Family wealth is held common. Neolocal residence pattern.
Requires groom to work for bride's family, varies in duration and may substitute for bridewealth
Culture of Paradoxes
Ideals vs. Actual Behavior Peace-loving People vs. Violent Crimes, Wars Rugged Individualism vs. Conformity Human Equality vs. Pre-occupation with class, race, and sex Humanitarianism vs. Hostility to welfare, nat. health insurance and guarantee incomes.
Margaret mead = co-figurative prevailing model for members of our society is the behavior of their contemporaries. Mass-production makes conformity easier. We all get the same messages, wear the same clothes.
American Conformity- concerned with people of our social position and age-set. Don't want to be different. Have, Think, or Do.
Democratic Beliefs: if majority adopt an opinion you set yourself up as being better or different from the majority if you question it.
Common Man Cult
associated with conformity. you can admit you are more fortunate than others, but not that you are better than others. "get ahead" but don't make a big deal about it. Identify with common people.
Difficult to exercise in America. We are not comfortable with authority. Rejection of authority.
Concepts of Youth
Valued, yet distrusted. Keeping up with new trends, idea is to be young (Middle aged crisis). America is a future oriented society. Each generation is confronted with a new set of technology, and changing social conditions which leads to rapid culture change.
Youth and Progress
Progress = new things, new developments. Result = lack of confidence in the methods of the past. However the new generation has no dependable solution to problems. Conformity = wanting new things that others may have
Self - Reliance and Hard work ethic
individualism and hard work is stressed. Failure becomes person. Great fear of failure. There is a paradox: individualism vs. responnsibility for individual actions. we want credit, but not blame.
consists of a belief in the existence of the supernatural and of ways of dealing with it. It is one way of explaining and responding to the unknown.
Functions of Religion
Explanation: answers questions for which there are no other answers Validation: supports the basic institutions, values, goals of a culture Integration: pulls the members of a group together.
humans see themselves as the center of the universe. symbolic expression of human life.
Environment as conceived by the individual. Includes animate and inanimate elements. the individual does not necessarily react to the physical environment but to the behavioral environment that the culture has constructed. Thoughts and Behaviors should be adaptive. Often no distinction between the natural and the supernatural.
Culturally shaped way one sees and interprets the world
Belief that spirits reside within all organic and inorganic substances. present among foragers and horticulturalists.
Belief in many gods who all have varying degrees of power. Common in agriculturists.
Belief in one god. Also common in agriculturalists
behavior that is repetitive, sequential, non-ordinary, and powerful.
Authority conferred by office. Power is public and formal. Maintains relationship with god. Responsible for ritual.
Ability to control spirits. Healing powers
psychic ability of some people to harm others
magical strategy; manipulate objects to bring harmful or beneficial effects.
improvement in the quality of human life. Developing social, political, and economic systems which allow individual potentiality, feelings of self-esteem, and adequate health and well-being.
have sever shortage of land and capital. Are owned by a small, elite group. Have cash crops as opposed to subsistence farming. Is a new kind of poverty. Denied access to resources and material wealth available in the modern world system.
Conquered by Spain. Economy went from self-sufficiency to producing specifically for Spain. Spanish conquistadors were the "elites." Native Peoples were deprived of their land, forced to work on farms and mines, barely able to meet subsistence needs. Elites increased the production of cash crops, seized land, passed laws for minimal wage and the poor became reliant on the elites.
Global adaptive business strategies, hold corporate headquarters in one country and divisions in many others. Relocates resources to maximize profits on a global basis.
Deliberate and systematic destruction of a political or cultural group
deliberate and systematic destruction of a people's culture. Ethnocentric beliefs of inferiority (indigenous culture must be replaced with a superior culture.)
Deliberate and systematic destruction of the environment. Environmental degradation of tribal areas. Creates dependency on outside powers because eliminates traditional means of economic production, distribution, and consumption.
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