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1. List and describe three types of research methods/data collection strategies used by cultural anthropologists.
1. Emic and etic perspectives are research methods. These are best done over long periods of time to improve the data based on the Hawthorne effect (people start to act like themselves). Qualitative and quantitative data is taken.
2. The genealogical method is used for data collection
3. Finding the key informants is used for data collection
When the anthropologist figures out who is related to whom.
3. Choose three of the following anthropological theories. Describe them and their contributions to the field. [Historical Particularism, British Functionalism, Structural Functionalism, Materialism, Political Economy, Symbolic Anthropology, Human Behavioral Ecology, Postmodernism]
Answers the question, how does society perpetuate itself? However, it does not explain cultural change. It assumes equilibrium and does not acknowledge the fact that cultures interact with each other. A.R. Radcliffe-Brown discovered all behaviors function to perpetuate society and that society is a living organisim
Materialism- how humans harness life sustaining energy and materials from the environment has the most important influence on culture. Technology is used for instruments and knowledge. This concentrates on the different ways cultures get resources from their environments.
Emerged in the 1960’s in an environment where authority was being questioned. It looks at people we were learning from (mostly rich, white, men). Discovered that learning can be biased and all knowledge is relative.
1. Acquiring written informed consent prior to the interviews. It made her feel awkward. She felt more upset about this technicality than the women themselves.
2. Deciding which people of the group to align with. There were outsiders of the group that if you became close to, the others would look down on you.
6. What “human-like” capacities have apes demonstrated with American Sign Language? Why is this important?
The ethnic and class diversity of nation-states is mirrored by linguistic diversity. Style shifting, using language different depending on the environment you are in, and diglossia, when there is a standard and a higher form of language. For example, in many societies dialects used by the higher class may differ from the language used by the lower class. This shows how diverse language can be and how it correlates with class and ethnic diversity.
It is significant that the song was passed down because it showed how language is transmitted through groups. Even though the Mende people were removed from their homes, they brought with them their culture. This song may have been more inclined to be passed down because it is a song sung at funerals. Many slaves died either during transport or working. This would cause them to have to sing the song more often.
9. What are some reasons why young Apache couples are silent during early courtship? (“To Give Up on Words”: Silence in Western Apache Culture)
The young couples are silent during early courtship due to intense shyness and feeling of acute self-consciousness, which, they claim, stems from their lack of familiarity with one another. They complain of not knowing what to do in each other’s presence and of the fear that whatever they say, no matter how well thought out in advance, will sound dumb.
10. What do the authors believe that minimal responses such as “yes” and “mm hmm” mean in conversation for men and for women? How do these minimal responses explain complaints in male-female communication? (A Cultural Approach to Male-Female Miscommunication)
11. Explain two reasons why it is problematic to assume that foragers of today accurately represent foragers of the Paleolithic era.
1. Paleolithic foragers lived in nearly every environment in the world. Modern foragers live in areas that no others want to live in, usually the areas that are not good for agriculture. For example, deserts, rainforests, and tundra.
2. Modern foragers are not isolated from other adaptive strategies. They all live in nation-states. There are regional forces, such as war. And they must face national and international policies.
12. What are the four common features of nomadic hunter-gatherers?
1. They have large territories for population size. The camp moves periodically according to key resources. Activities occur around a central base camp. People move between camps.
2. There is sexual division of labor. Women gather and men hunt. However, this there is many instances where men and women contribute to hunting.
12. (Continued) What are the four common features of nomadic hunter-gatherers?
3. There is ethics of reciprocity or exchange between equals. There is great variation of available resources so they have heavy reliance’s on each other. This does not mean they want to share, but that they have to in order to survive.
4. There is a lack of social stratification, so there they have egalitarian lifestyles. Differences in prestige are minor or nonexistent and they have equal access or power over resources.
13. How does horticulture differ from agriculture in terms of labor and production?
Agriculture is for more labor-intensive and capital-intensive than horticulture, but does not necessarily yield more (short term) than horticulture does (under ideal conditions). Agriculture’s long term production (per-area) is far more stable than horticultures.
14. Describe 3 factors what could cause a shift to a new subsistence method.
1. Population growth. There is a pressure to increase carrying capacity of the environment.
2. Resource stress. There is increased productivity and reliability of food supply
3. Instability. Climatic change may force a shift
This is not a superior adaptation.
15. Why do the !Kung behave as they do in their system of reciprocity? (What are they trying to avoid at the individual level and what is the implication of this for wider social relationships?) (Eating Christmas in the Kalahari)
The !Kung behave as they do in their system of reciprocity in order to avoid arrogance at the individual level. When a man gets a big kill, he can come to think of himself as a chief or a big man, and all others as inferiors. They do not accept that. Someday his pride could make him kill somebody.
16. How do the leaders of bands and tribes differ from those of chiefdoms and states? Include a discussion of how these positions are acquired and maintained.
Leaders of bands and tribes
Leaders of chiefdoms and states
leaders are born into their role and do not have to work hard to get there. They also do not have to do labor due to subsistence strategies and surplus of food. There are also offices, where if the chief dies, someone else will fill his place, or his “office”. In order to maintain their place, they must monopolize the right to use force and physical coercion and maintain authority by means of ideology.
17. Describe 3 institutions that states have in place to perpetuate the social order. Why are these important?
States have Bureaucrats, legal systems, and fiscal systems in order to perpetuate itself and social order.
18. On what two factors does state authority depend? Name two outcomes of this system.
State authority depends on:
1. Monopolization of the right to use force and physical coercion
2.Maintenance of authority by means of ideology -we all have an institution that we believe in, often religious, that becomes a part of identity. This gives states a right to exist and a reason why it is important that they do.
18. (countinued) On what two factors does state authority depend? Name two outcomes of this system.
Outcomes of this system:
· Highly centralized decision making
· Reliance on the usurpation of others resources (need a lot of resources to support a state, so a lot of states take resources from other places)
19. What is required for a successful moot? (Describe 3) (The Kpelle Moot)
In order for a moot to be successful, both parties must have a genuine willingness to cooperate and a real concern about their discord. Each party must be willing to list his grievances, to admit his guilt, and make an open apology. It is unsuccessful without well-motivated clients.
20. Describe three psychological ramifications of being enslaved. (The Social Psychology of Modern Slavery)
There are beatings and other physical torture and the effects of physical labor, but also, it brings about a psychological degradation.
·Victim cannot function in the outside world
·They come to perceive their situation not as a deliberate action taken to harm them in particular but as part of the normal, if regrettable, scheme of things
· They begin to see their enslavement from the point of view of the slaveholder and have a diminished self image and feel worthless.
21. Define sex and define gender. How are they different? Why are the definitions controversial?
21. (continued) Define sex and define gender. How are they different? Why are the definitions controversial?
22. What are some of the factors in gender stratification? Name four, and then describe in detail one example of modern gender stratification.
23. From the movie “Tough Guise,” what is the crisis in masculinity? What are the effects? How does the way that we talk about a phenomenon impact that phenomenon? Be specific.
From the movie “Tough Guise” the crisis in masculinity is that widespread violence in American society and images in popular culture are encouraging the violent social construction of male identities. There is lots of pressure to conform to the role of masculinity, being strong, physical, independent, powerful, etc. The effects are that now being violent can be linked to being masculine.
24. What are four common traits of Berdaches? (“Strange Country This”: An Introduction to North American Gender Diversity)
·Specialized work roles- described in terms of their preference and achievements in the work of the opposite sex or unique activities specific to their identities.
·Gender difference- distinguished from men and women in terms of temperament, dress, lifestyle, and social roles.
24. (continued) What are four common traits of Berdaches? (“Strange Country This”: An Introduction to North American Gender Diversity)
·Spiritual sanction- identity result of supernatural intervention in the form of visions and dreams or is sanctioned by tribal mythology.
·Same-sex relationships- most often form sexual and emotional relationships with non-berdache members of their own sex.
25. In what ways are voices controlled? How is this gendered? How is this relevant to adult gendered behavior? (Becoming a Gendered Body: Practices of Preschools)
25. (continued) In what ways are voices controlled? How is this gendered? How is this relevant to adult gendered behavior? (Becoming a Gendered Body: Practices of Preschools)
Also, when boys were told to quiet down, they were told in large groups, girls are told as individuals in groups. These things can be relevant to adult gendered behavior. Women are reluctant to use their voices to protect themselves, it increases whispering which leads to gossiping, and girls learn that their bodies are supposed to be quiet, small and physically constrained.
Ethnicity is defined by the belief in common ancestry that is self- ascribed and can change over time. Ethnicity concerns things such as language, religion, food, dress, and customs. Race is defined by presumed biology and is given at birth. This is how they are different. Ethnicity concerns cultural heritage, not physical or biological characteristics. Yes, American is an ethnicity. As a group of people we have our own language, customs, food, and dress.
27. Compare racial classification in Brazil with that of the United States. How and why do they differ?
27. (Continued) Compare racial classification in Brazil with that of the United States. How and why do they differ?
On the other hand, in the United States race is an ascribed status given at birth. Similarly to Brazil, racial categories are not applied consistently. However, the difference is that the race that you define with is tied to power and resources. In America, it divides society into groups with unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige.
28. What are two roots of ethnic conflict? Define ethnic cleansing, ethnocide and cultural colonialism and discuss these in your answer.
Understanding the material relationships between ethnicity, race, and class presents the greatest challenge to contemporary archaeologists. When they begin to analyze even the most commonplace artifacts in terms of race and class, they enter a fluid world where meanings, being temporally and even situationally alterable, defy easy interpretation.
30. A nuclear family is seen as the American ideal, but as of 2006 only 23% of households in the U.S. were actually nuclear families (children and their biological mother and father). What are three factors that this demographic shift is attributed to?
· extended family household where nuclear families are not independent or the important unit. Each house hold includes a number of nuclear families where the possessions are shared, they are segregated by gender and age, and the children are treated equally as part of the household.
33. What are the four ways of classifying the kin of the parents’ generation in different kinship systems? List them, and describe one in detail including kin group, residence rule, and economy.
·Lineal- found in societies where the nuclear family is the most important kinship group. It distinguishes the lineal relatives (ancestor or decent) from collateral relatives (all other kin) where affinals are relatives by marriage. The important kin terms are mother, father, fathers brother=mothers brother (Uncle), and mothers sister=fathers sister (Aunt).
found in societies where the nuclear family is the most important kinship group. It distinguishes the lineal relatives (ancestor or decent) from collateral relatives (all other kin) where affinals are relatives by marriage. The important kin terms are mother, father, fathers brother=mothers brother (Uncle), and mothers sister=fathers sister (Aunt).
34.Who are allomothers? What is their significance? (Mothers and Others)
Allomothers protect and provision children. They also hold them and carry them about. They all care for every baby. By three weeks, infants spend 40% of their time with allomothers. By eighteen weeks they spend more time with them than with their real mothers.
35. Describe two benefits of having more than one father for a child. (How Many Fathers Are Best For the Child?)
In the Bari system, when a man is named as a secondary father him and the first father are placed under an obligation to the mother and the child (like a law). Also, the secondary father is expected to give gifts of fish and game. These are benefits of having more than one father because they are obligated to take care of the child and have to provide for them also.
36. What adaptive problem does marriage solve? Give two alternate explanations.
Gender division of labor
the marriage system can provision women following childbirth during the long period of infant dependency. Humans have the longest period of infant dependency of all primates. Prolonged care generally places the biggest burden on the mom. After the baby is born it is hard for the women to get adequate resources for herself and for the baby. This could be an adaptive issue of marriage.
Gender division of labor
Marriage allows for males and females to specialize in different economic activities and then share the products of their labor. However, the question may be asked if marriage is really necessary to solve these issues. There are foragers and other types of sharing systems that are done without relying on marriage bonds also.
37. Describe the differences between bride wealth, bride service, and dowry. What kinds of societies are associated with each? How are they correlated with women’s status?
All places have an incest taboo, however they define kin differently so incest is defined differently. There are many theories to explain incest such as instinctive horror, the inbreeding theory, and the westermarck effect.
39. In the film Saheri’s Choice, how do her husband’s family members explain the need for child marriage? What does this explanation illustrate about how child marriage fits into the economic system of this community?
In the film, Saheri's Choice, the husband's family members explain that child marriage is basically their way of getting free labor from their daughter-in-law. They explain that since they are sending their own daughters away, getting a daughter-in-law earlier would replace them to do household chores
39. (continuted) In the film Saheri’s Choice, how do her husband’s family members explain the need for child marriage? What does this explanation illustrate about how child marriage fits into the economic system of this community?
In an economic standpoint, it makes sense for the bride's family to give their daughter away earlier for marriage in a patrilineal society. By giving their daughter away, the family does not have to keep providing for her and spending money on her when they are already going to pay her future groom's family for their marriage.
40. Describe 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of Tibetan fraternal polyandry. (When Brothers Share a Wife)
· Good: Can be materialistic/economic. The family does not have to break up their farm which equals a higher standard of living.
· Good: Reduces population growth, and therefore reduces the pressure on resources.
· Good: A brother who leaves the family will only receive a small plot of land.
· Bad: Younger sons may think of wife as ancient or old and get sick of them
· Bad: The female could pick favorites
41. Describe three functions of religion. Be specific and give examples.
of the uncontrollable… humans, nature, non-humans/supernatural
42. Identify the three phases of a Rite of Passage and discuss why each is important.
43. The aspects of ritual are: space, objects, time, sounds, language, and action/actors. Describe how three of these elements operate in either a marriage ceremony, funeral, or graduation. (Pick one ritual)
Space- church, building, sacred place
Objects- rings, candles, dress
Time- any time of the year, when they are old enough to get married
Sounds- singing, music, reception music, vows, prayer
Language- singing, vows
Actions/actors- husband, wife, priest, family, bridesmaids…
44. According to Sosis, what adaptive problem does ritual behavior solve? (Adaptive Value of Religious Ritual)
Religion and ritual behavior is a mechanism to solve the problem of cooperation. Religion gives groups the ability to facilitate cooperation with in a group. It is a form of communication between the same species and also other species.
45. According to author, why do Muslim women wear the burqa, chador, or hijab? (Do Muslim Women Need Saving?)
According to the author bulling the black head cloth over the face in front of older respected men is considered a voluntary act by women who are deeply committed to being moral and have a sense of honor tied to family. One of the ways they show their standing is by covering their faces in certain contexts. In Afghanistan, under the Taliban, covering or veiling was associated with a certain respectable but not elite class, so it was imposed on everyone as religiously appropriate.
46. When are languages at risk? (Describe 3 risk factors) (Chapter 1)
Languages are at risk when they are no longer transmitted naturally to children in the home by parents or caretakers. Even languages which older, but not younger, children in a community have acquired are at risk.
47. Why doesn't conferring status on the language of a non-powerful group ensure the reproduction of a language? (Chapter 2)
Conferring status on the language of a group relatively lacking in power doesn’t necessarily ensure the reproduction of a language, unless other measures are in place to ensure intergenerational transmission at home. Conferring power on the people would be much more likely to do the trick. It is political, geographical, and economic factors which support the maintenance of linguistic and cultural diversity.
48. How are languages "agents of cultural transmission?" (Chapter 3)
Languages are agents of cultural transmission because over the generations younger speakers sometimes speak differently and adopt different patterns than the elders. The most complex parts of the language which take the longest to acquire are usually the first to go.
49. List the three ways in which languages die. Describe one of those ways in detail. (Chapter 4)
When the people who speak it cease to exist. This is language loss by population loss and it is very common. When Europeans came to America they released diseases which killed many Native Americans. Languages were lost as whole groups of people died.
Shift from one language to another by force
Voluntary shift from one language to another
In many cases, the native people died from the diseases brought by the Europeans which causes languages to die out, them to lose their lands and traditions, and European traditions replace the old ones.
Metropolitan languages are associated with a dominant economic or social class, such as the English in industrializing Britain. They are also associated with economically leading central places. Peripheral languages are restricted to economically less developed areas, and also to a smaller range of economic roles and functions.
52. Why is linguistic diversity often limited to border regions? Give one example of where this has occurred. (Chapter 7)
Linguistic diversity in Europe has tended to be limited to the border regions. In the carving out of national boundaries and subsequent resifting as a result of war, some people ended up on the wrong side of the borders or found themselves shipped across a number of nation states. In these areas, they were forced only used one language and many became monolingual.
53. What is one way minority groups have maintained their languages? (Chapter 8)
Minority groups who have retained control over their schooling have shown greater language maintenance than those who have not. Studies of language shift have shown time and gain that schools are a major agent of cultural and linguistic assimilation because formal education is often the first point of contact children have with the world outside their own community.
54. Describe three ways that the Americans were depopulated as a result of colonialism.
55. Explain why diseases tend to move from Old World populations to New World populations.
Diseases were transmitted from old world to new world populations because Europeans had build up immunities to certain diseases due to constant contact. However, the native people had never had contact with them. When they came to colonize, they transmitted the diseases to the indigenous. Sometimes the diseases were even transmitted through the live stock and passed on to the people
56. Describe 3 of the lasting legacies of colonialism.
· Acculturation and deculturation
· Loss of economic independence
Acculturation and deculturation
Loss of economic independence
they lost their land and wealth, when the colonist left it was not necessarily given back to the indigenous people. They began to produce items intended for foreign markets, used monoculture. They depended on food and necessities from foreign produces that was lasting.
57. Explain two reasons why the Industrial Revolution happened in England and not France.
Protestantism vs. Catholicism- Europeans were mostly protestants who were profit seeking and favored hard work for individual levels of success. This also caused a favor of capitalist drives to grow in England and seek more colonies. On the other hand, French people were mostly catholic and focused on the family unit.
58. What does it mean to say that underdevelopment is a process? Give two examples.
Before colonialism, most societies were self-sufficient, or at least economically independent. Once colonialism took hold, it underdeveloped societies by expropriating wealth, extracting resources and labor, undermining native institutions, and implicating local societies in colonial and global trade networks. This international trade caused an interlocking global and political economy. International trade also led to the development of core, periphery and semi periphery nations.
59. How did industrial stratification lead to the development of labor movements?
Initially, industrialization raised the overall standard of living, until the bosses began to recruit cheapest labor. Marx believed that the proletariat (working class) will eventually destroy the bourgeoisie (bosses). This is what happened. Once the proletariat became conscious of their class, they realized the bourgeoisie were the ones that need them. So they united, and began labor movements. This is what started things such as unions, and the workers got certain rights.
The triumph of modernity was questioned whether we can actually become a rational species or if a homogenous society could even be possible. Once modernity was questioned, postmodernism began. Postmodernism was dominated by the irrational and emotional unconsciousness. Also, postmodernism saw a limit to progress and optimism; it sometimes emphasized fear and despair. Also the loss of faith in absolute universal truths and questioned if objective sciences could actually exist.
61. What’s wrong with the idea of a standard of living? What is a better question to ask? (The Price of Progress)
61. (Continued) What’s wrong with the idea of a standard of living? What is a better question to ask? (The Price of Progress)
According to these less ethnocentric criteria, the important question to ask is: Does progress or economic development increase or decrease a given culture’s ability to satisfy the physical and psychological needs of its population, or its stability? This question is a far more direct measure of quality of live than are the standard economic correlates of development and it is universally relevant.
62. Summarize how economic condition, political disruption, and (lack of) medical treatment have contributed to the spread of HIV. (Culture, Poverty, and HIV Transmission: The Case of Rural Haiti)
Political unrest has undermined preventive efforts and may have helped spread HIV. Periods of increased strife are associated with increased public dialogue about the new sickness, however even though the commentary has increased, nothing has been done
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