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How does the molecular clock theory work?
It is based on examining the number of genetic mutations that have occurred since
divergence of two species
It proposes that species divergence is based on a constant rate of genetic drift and isolation
It is based on the notion that the Earth is one hour old, and it calculates events on a 60-
It is based on examining molecules and how chemical reactions occur over time
It argues that evolution occurs at steady rates and cannot make any changes over time that
are not programmed
The radiocarbon method can be used to date materials up to approximately how many years old? a. Less than 10,000
40,000 to 50,000
more than 100,00
radiocarbon dating works to date only what kinds of materials
heated material containing quartz
none of the above
The standardized, teardrop-shaped hand axe made by soft hammer percussion was characteristic of which tool tradition?
In hominins, the size of the hypoglossal canal may indicate the ability to
chew food thoroughly.
communicate through a series of grunts.
make tongue movements necessary for human speech.
stand upright and fully bipedal.
digest food completely.
Sites in Europe and Africa that date roughly between 400,000 and 200,000 years ago usually contain only parts of one or a very few individuals. The one exception is in the Atapuerca region of northern Spain, where the remains of at least 28 individuals of both sexes—juveniles as well as adults—who were deliberately dumped by their contemporaries into a deep cave shaft know today as a. El Valle de las Lagrimas.
Sima de los Huesos.
Cueva de Zhoukoudian.
Cueva de las Manos.
Which technique of making tools was used by Neanderthals to make flake tools and involved the preparation of a striking platform at one end of a specially prepared core,?
You are a paleoanthropologist excavating a site in southwestern Asia. You come across several bodies buried in graves. Their brains are at least the size of modern humans. Their front teeth are large and worn down from use, the facial projection of their noses and teeth form a kind of prow, and both sexes are muscular and robust. At the back of the skull is a bony mass for the attachment of powerful neck muscles. None have chins or foreheads. You decide that they are
Made first in Africa, and later in Europe and Siberia, anatomically modern humans of the Upper Paleolithic used this specially prepared flake, more than twice as long as wide, to make other tools from bone, antler, wood, and hide?
What type of genetic evidence supports the recent African origins or out of Africa hypothesis for origins of modern humans?
Mitochondrial DNA comparison
Nuclear DNA comparison
Both a and c
Which of the following was an Upper Paleolithic tradition associated with the earliest anatomically modern humans in Europe?
The remains of a partially blind amputee discovered in Shanidar Cave in Iraq, suggest that
had more accidents than modern peoples.
were genetically inferior.
were the discarded wanderers of more developed peoples.
were productive enough to support handicapped individuals.
ate foods that were too rich for them.
The tool that allowed Upper Paleolithic individuals to throw spears at animals from a safe distance with speed and accuracy is also known as a(n)
Atlatl or spear-thrower,
The combined landmass of the contemporary islands of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and Bali that was continuous with mainland Southeast Asia at times of low sea levels is known as a. Sahul.
Watercraft are suggested 60,000-40,000 years ago, perhaps as people manage to get to Australia and
New Guinea, which were then connected to one another in a single land mass called a. Sunda.
the Philippine archipelago.
the Malay Peninsula.
In what modern-day country do we find Willandra Lakes/ and the Lake Mungo site and burial?
Up until about 1.8 million years ago, the only home of bipedal primates was Africa. However, after that time, humans began to spread into China, Western Europe, Georgia, India, and Java. Which species was the first to migrate out of Africa?
All of the following statements are true of cooking food except:
It makes certain vitamins, minerals, and proteins more digestible.
It kills parasites and makes food safer.
It makes starches more digestible.
It increased the food resources available to early humans.
It led to an increase in the size of the human stomach.
did not increase the size of stomach
1. Finely-made fluted spear points called Clovis are attributed to
1. Early Modern Humans in North America.
2. Denisovans of Siberia.
3. Neanderthals of Europe.
4. Peking Man of China.
5. aborigines of Australia.
Taking place around 200,000 years ago in Africa and Europe, a technological breakthrough called _____ required the affixing of small stone bifaces and flakes in handles of wood to make improved spears and knives.
The name given to a group of archaic H. sapiens from southern Siberia identified by recovery of their
DNA from a small sample of fossil bone is
European remains of anatomically modern humans after about 40,000 years ago are usually classified as
Upper Paleolithic peoples.
Archaic H. sapiens.
The hypothesis that modern humans originated through a process of simultaneous local transition from
H. erectus to H. sapiens throughout the inhabited world is called
recent African origins hypothesis.
out of African hypothesis.
What is the source of an individual’s mitochondrial DNA?
Which pigment source was commonly used about 130,000 years ago and is considered indicative of ritual activity according to many archaeologists?
Securely dated remains from _____, a site in south central Chile, indicate that modern human populations had spread as far as the southern part of South America by 14,500 years ago, if not earlier.
Thus far, what do the postcranial remains of the Dmanisi hominins indicate?
They are indistinguishable from Homo sapiens.
They are significantly more robust than other Homo erectus.
They are much more similar to modern humans than to Homo erectus.
The first hominins to leave Africa were possibly a very early form of H. erectus. e. They are not bipeds.
The Nariokotome Homo erectus specimen
was discovered at Olduvai Gorge
is estimated to have been about 65 years old at death
is a young female
would have reached an adult height of around 6 feet, when estimated by modern human standards
was destroyed in dating analysis
The ________ epoch has been called the “Ice Age.”
Some assumptions about the hunting capabilities of premodern humans have been challenged by an interesting archaeological find at Schöningen in Germany. What did they find?
a bow and arrow
4000 nodules from which spear points were struck
Use of fire
large flakes struck using the Levallois technique
Neandertal brain size
was smaller, on average, than that of modern humans
was larger, on average, than that of modern humans
was smaller, on average, than that of Homo erectus
averaged about 2,500 cm3
averaged about 1,100 cm3
The unique physical characteristics of Neanderthals may have arisen as adaptations to a ______ environment.
The sum of genetic, fossil, and archaeological evidence suggests that Neandertals
are closely related to and interbred with modern humans
are a fully separate biological species
were probably incapable of fertilely interbreeding with modern humans
represent several points in the dynamic process of speciation
were not successful hominins
According to the Recent African Origins model, the transition from premodern to modern Homo sapiens
occurred in several regions of the Old World simultaneously
occurred first in Europe
only occurred once, in Africa
began about 10,000 years ago in Indonesia
began about 100,000 years ago in Asia
Anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils from Africa like Herto have been dated to about _____ years ago.
Current evidence indicates that the earliest anatomically modern Homo sapiens fossils are from which geographical location?
Early anatomically modern Homo sapiens remains from the Near East Mt Carmel include
The skeletal remains of Homo floresiensis are notable for each of the following characteristics or assumptions except
the short stature.
the small cranial capacity
they were living 13,000 years ago.
their predecessors were perhaps H. erectus populations
did not come on rafts
Of the Upper Paleolithic culture periods of Europe, one appears to have been produced by the last Neanderthals interacting with anatomically modern humans.
Lascaux, Chauvet, and Altamira
are well known Neandertal sites
are 20,000 year-old campsites
contain evidence of butchered mammoths
are famous for their numerous cave bear skulls
are famous for their elaborate cave paintings
The dry land connection between Asia and America that was the entrance of people to the New World?
North Atlantic Ice-Edge Corridor
Pacific Coastal Route
Siberian Transit Corridor
Which theory for the settlement of the New World relies on a passage using canoes, rafts, or forms of water transport?
North Atlantic Ice-Edge Corridor
Pacific Coastal Route
Bering Land Bridge
Asian Land-Sea Bridge
The earliest Americans are known to have arrived in the Americas no later than:
a. 50,000 ya.
Which of the following sites is NOT one of the earliest sites of the New World?
a. Paisley Caves
all of these are
Clovis is defined by what cultural feature?
intensive nut processing
canoe and raft technology
Which of the following is best describes the current position on the role of humans in megafaunal extinctions?
Humans likely played only a small role in this event, which was largely driven by climate change.
Humans and disease played an equal role in this event.
Human overhunting was the primary cause.
none of these
Anatomically modern humans are currently identified in the fossil record, in part, through
a prominent occipital torus
a prognathic face
a distinct chin
a more robust bone structure than archaic Homo
none of the above
When Neanderthal DNA was compared to that of modern human beings, it was determined that
the two populations are genetically indistinguishable
is different from modern human DNA suggesting that the two populations underwent perhaps half a million years of evolutionary divergence since their last common ancestor
shows minor (< 5%) overlap with modern, non-African DNA suggesting some interbreeding between the AMH and Neanderthals
Neanderthal DNA is more primitive than modern and shows that Neanderthals are ancestral to modern humans.
b and c above
The discovery of a Neanderthal hyoid bone and the FoxP2 gene in Neanderthal remains
suggests that they were capable of the same speaking abilities as modern humans.
shows that they were quite accomplished hunters.
leads to the conclusion that their vision was not as good as modern humans.
indicates that they were making art.
provides evidence that they were cannibals.
Which of the following was found in the 14,000 year old deposits of Paisley Cave in Oregon
evidence of domesticated corn
fluted projectile points
fossils of an extinct giant kangaroo
The appearance of bone needles made with blade tools in the Upper Paleolithic of northern Eurasia, demonstrates that anatomically modern people were capable of
Hunting big game
Although hominins lived in southern Siberia and central Asia for hundreds of thousands of years, the presence of anatomically modern humans at Yana RHS demonstrate the ability.
survive above the arctic circle
Although hominins lived on the Sunda continental plate for more than a million years, anatomically modern humans appear to be the earliest hominid to appear on the Sahul plate (Australia and New Guinea). Most archaeologists believe that this reflects the ability to use _____ technology by anatomically modern humans.
blade and biface
Which of the following appear earliest in Africa
Paint made from ochre
Pressure flaked bifaces
Blade and microblade tools
All of the above
Radiocarbon dating cannot reliably date anything much older than about:
all of the above
Coprolites from the Paysley Caves that are 14,000 or more calendar years old:
Are some of the earliest evidence of a human presence in North America.
Are extremely common.
Suggest that the earliest peoples of the Americas were related to people from northeastern Asia.
Are too poorly preserved to provide bioarchaeologists with any meaningful data.
a and c above
High values of Nitrogen 15 to Nitrogen 14 in Neanderthal bone suggests that Neanderthals were
Top level carnivores who consumed mostly meat in their diet.
Herbivores who consumed lots of seeds
About 40,000 years old
Incable of speaking
100. Although archaeologists have often emphasized the importance of hunting by men and carnivory in human evoloution based on the study of faunal remains, ethnoarchaeological studies of the Hadza and the occurrence of menopause in modern human populations suggest that gathering by _________ played a critical role. a. men
The element Carbon exists in nature in the form of three isotopes; the different isotopes have different
Which of the following is a potential advantage of using fire by early hominins?
Fire makes meat and roots more digestible and kills bacteria.
Fire protects against animals and the elements.
Fire produces light.
Fire can be used to modify the environment in beneficial ways
All the above.
A glacial is:
a massive body of ice that can expand and move under pressure.
a period of ice advance during the ice age.
a period when ice melts and temperatures rise.
a gently sloping bank.
none of the above
1. Ethnoarchaeological studies of contemporary Hadza hunter-gatherers of Tanzania are informative about the foraging ecology of Homo erectus, because the Hadza
a. the Hadza are “living fossils”, trapped in the same prehistoric world as Homo erectus
b. although fully anatomically and behaviorally modern, contemporary Hadze forage for many of the same foods as Homo erectus
c. the Hadza have the same technology as Homo erectus
d. ecological analysis of anatomically and behaviorally modern Hadza can reveal what was possible for premodern Homo erectus foragers
e. b and c above
1. What is the most significant statement about the “Nariokotome (Turkana) Boy” fossil?
a. It is the only specimen of H. sapiens found in Asia.
b. It is one of the most complete H. erectus skeletons ever found.
c. It is the most complete H. ergaster skeleton ever found in China.
d. It is a transitional skeleton that shows characteristics of both H. habilis and H. erectus.
e. It is the first H. erectus fossil ever found.
The view that anatomically modern Homo sapiens evolved from premodern humans in several regions simultaneously is called _____________; the view that the first anatomically modern human beings spread out from Africa and extinct forms of human beings have contributed nothing to the evolution of modern humanity is called _______________.
a. the Out of Africa model; the multiregional model.
b. the multiregional model; the Out of Africa model.
c. the middle-ground model; the Out of Africa model.
d. the Out of Africa model; the middle-ground modelPleistocene overkill/ Out of Asia
According to the multiregional model, what allowed Homo erects to remain a single, variable species and evolve to AMH? a. extinction
c. gene flow
e. All the above
75. A continuous, projecting ridge of bone above and across the eye orbits in Homo erectus is called the
a. supraorbital torus.
b. sagittal crest.
d. occipital bone
e. occipital bun
Which of the following statements is correct?
a. The mtDNA of ancient, anatomically modern human beings is more similar to Neanderthals than to modern human beings.
b. The mtDNA of Neanderthals is more similar to modern human beings than is the mtDNA of ancient, anatomically modern human beings.
c. The mtDNA of ancient, anatomically modern human beings is more similar to modern human beings than it is to Neanderthals.
d. None of the above.
e. All of the above.
Recent genomic analyses of Neanderthals and modern human populations indicate that:
a. between 1% and 4% of the genome of modern humans with Eurasian ancestry originated from Neanderthal populations, most likely through interbreeding.
b. Neanderthal populations were entirely distinct and separate from anatomically modern humans, with no evidence of interbreeding.
c. anatomically modern humans throughout the world uniformly share approximately 16% of their genome with Neanderthal populations.
d. modern Africans share more than 4% of their genome with Neanderthals, far greater than modern European and Asian populations, indicating a lengthier time of successful interbreeding. e. None of the above
75. The first proven use of fire by hominins is associated with
a. Australopithecus afarensis
b. Homo habilis
c. Homo erectus
d. Homo sapiensCro-Magnons
About 1.6-1.9 million years ago the planet entered the:
86. Which of the following is associated with cold periods of the Pleistocene
a. large areas of Euarasia and North America were covered by glacial ice
b. sea levels were dramatically lower than today
c. land masses like Sunda, Sahul, Doggerland, and Berengia were exposed
d. Parts of Africa and Australia were exceptionally dry
e. all of the above
Homo erectus was
a. a stable, long-lived species.
b. an unstable, short-lived species.
c. the first species to control fire.
d. the fist species to paint and wear jewelry
e. Both A and C.
93. The _____ are the most ancient undisputed hominin fossils outside Africa, dated to around 1.7 m.y.a.
a. "Java Man" fossils
b. OH9 fossils from Olduvai
c. Dmanisi fossils
d. Zhoukoudian fossils
e. Gran Dolina fossils
Based on the latest research, which is the most probable relation between anatomically modern humans and Neanderthals?
a. AMHs descended from Neaderthals who interbred with anatomically modern Homo erectus.
b. The Neanderthals are anatomically modern humans.
c. The Neanderthals (130,000-28,000 B.P.) were a less successful subspecies of anatomically modern humans that eventually died off because of their inability to adapt to fast changing environmental and climatic conditions.
d. Neanderthals descended from a Homo habilis and so are considered archaic AMHs.
e. The Neanderthals (130,000-28,000 B.P.) and AMHs were contemporaries who interbred, rather than ancestor and descendant.
93. Which of the following characterize the skulls of anatomically modern humans, relative to other hominins?
a. their brain cases are larger and longer, with marked brows
b. their brain cases are thicker, the result of an adaptation to increased interspecies violence
c. their brain cases are rounder and heavier, with a less marked chin
d. their brain cases are the largest of all hominins, even beyond modern dimensions
e. their brain cases are higher, shorter, and rounder, with a more filled-out forehead region, flat face and a marked chin
75. Which theory suggests that modern humans evolved in various parts of the Old World after Homo erectus spread out of Africa almost 2 mya?
a. a. multiregional theory
b. replacement theory
c. single-origin theory
d. transitional theory
e. overkill theory
75. Mitochondrial (mt)DNA evidence points to ____ as the origin of today's human races.
d. North AmericaMitochondrial DNA evidence is inconclusive
75. Java man and Peking man belonged to the hominin species:
a. Homo sapiens
b. Homo habilis
c. Homo erectus
d. Australopithecus africanus
e. Australopithecus boisei
75. When did hominins first cross Berengia to reach North and South America?
a. at least 2 million years ago
b. at least 500,000 years ago
c. at least 150,000 years ago
d. at least 50,000 years ago
e. at least 14,000 years ago
75. Which of the following hominins is most modern in its anatomical characteristics?
d. Homo erectus
e. they are all the same
Homo floriensis or the "hobbit" from the island of Flores may be a relative of erectus. It has been dated as recently as:
a. 1 million years ago.
b. 200,000 years ago.
c. 55,000 years ago.
d. 18,000 years ago.
e. 1,000 year ago
86. Scientists understand today that climatic fluctuations of the Pleistocene were predominantly caused by a. volcanoes
b. global warming
c. variations in the earth’s orbit and tilt relative to the sun
d. ocean cooling
e. none of the above
The first migration of humans into the Americas may date back more than 14,000 years. Which of the following provides evidence of this?
a. the Monte Verde archaeological site in south central Chile, which dates to at least 1,500 years before Clovis
b. the Blombos Cave archaeological site in Tierra del Fuego
c. the Pinnacle Point Cave archaeological site in Paraguay, which dates to at least 2,000 years before Clovis
d. the Upper Paleolithic blade tools found in Monte Albán, Mexico
e. the butchered bones found in a hearth in southern Uruguay, dating to at least 3,000 years before Clovis.
93. Humans crossed the narrow straits separating Asia and the then continent of Sahul (Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania), perhaps in primitive watercraft, sometime around
a. a. 40,000 B.P.
b. 14,000 B.P.
c. 120,000 B.P.
d. 1,000,000 B.P.
e. 3,000 B.P.
1. One method of tool manufacture practiced by anatomically modern humans produced Solutrean laurel leaf bifaces in the Upper Paleolithic of Europe, but was developed much earlier in Africa.
a. Burins used to carve bone, horn, antler, and ivory.
b. used for the tips of arrows.
c. made from the pressure-flaking technique.
d. instrumental in causing a more robust body.
e. Ground stone
1. Upper Pleistocene premodern Homo sapiens that have their evolutionary roots in western Europe include
a. Homo sapiens sapiens
b. anatomically modern humans
d. Homo ergaster
e. late Homo erec
93. Which of the following provides accumulating evidence to support the African origin of anatomically modern humans?
a. Neanderthal skulls dating to 200,000 years ago from Nigeria
b. the Herto skulls (160,000-154,000 B.P.) from Ethiopia
c. the recent and surprising Homo floresiensis fossils from South Africa
d. evidence of manipulation of fire in Pinnacle Point Cave, South Africa
e. the Natufian fossils (10,000 B.P.) found in Israel
93. During major glacials, with so much water frozen in ice, sea levels dropped aiding human colonization of new areas, such as
a. Melanesia by 30,000 B.P. and Sahul by 4,000 B.P.
b. Europe by 200,000 B.P. and the Americas by perhaps 5,000 B.P.
c. the Americas perhaps by 14,000 B.P. and Sahul by 5,000 B.P.
d. Sahul by 40,000 B.P. and the Americas perhaps by 14,000 B.P.
e. the Americas perhaps by 18,000 B.P. and Antarctica by 3,000 B.P.
Although the Pleistocene Overkill theory is no longer widely accepted today, it initially received strong support from
a. The appearance of handstones and milling stones
b. The common occurrence of megafauna kill and butchery sites made by Clovis hunters.
c. The presence of mammoth proteins in Paisley Caves coprolites
d. Severe climatic conditions of the Younger Dryas
e. All of the above
According to which theory did Neanderthals not evolve into modern humans?
a. multiregional theory
b. Out of Africa theory
c. transitional theory
d. single-origin theory
Between 1.4 million and 400,000 years ago, Achulean handaxe technology a. changed only slightly, if at all
b. steadily worsened
c. steadily improved
d. was rare, if not absent from East Asia
e. a and d above
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