Anthro Notes 3/30/09 Laetolie (place) Laetoli footprints (hominid footprints in as) Upright posture?bipedal No divergent big toe (opposable) 2-3 individuals Kenyaanthropus- platyops (platyops)- 3.2 ? 3.5 ma ? found in north Kenya Small brain Small teeth vs. austs. Flat face Later homo (looks like) except for a smaller brain Adaptive radiation Lived at the same time as afarensis Kenyanthropus- platyops (Gracile- More small and ?delicate? compared to others) 3.2-3.5 ma Lomekuvi- West of Lake Turkana, Kenya Small brain Flat face Smaller vs austs? Looks like later Homo except fro brain Adaptive radiators ______ Australopitaecus africanus- Southern Ape from Africa (Gracile) 3 smajor S. African Sites 3.2-2.5 ma T. Taung- cild skull- endocast 1st Aust found by Raymond Dart 1924 Thought ancestral- wasn?t believed because of Piltdown Foramen magnum biped Human like teeth Sterkfontain- Broom Makapansgat- Human like teeth Ape-like limb proportions 420-500 c.c. Postorbital constriction Prognathic Robust: Australopithicus robustus 2.0-1 millions of years ago Swartkrans- Found by Broom Kromdraii- Broom 500 cc Large, wide cheeks Masseter muscle- used for chewing Sagittal Crest- chewing Australiopithicus boisei E. African rift valley Olduvai Gorge (O.G.), Tanzania- Leakeys 1959 2-1 ma Huge molars Massive cresting Small font teeth Post orbital bar Heart shaped foramen magnum Postorbital constriction A morph Increase in powerful chewing complex Teeth, jaws, face, skull No strong evidence of tools Black skull- A. aethiopicus Found in 1986 2.5 ma Mixture of features 400 cc (afarensis) Sagittal crest (robust) 2 different lines of evolution Afareness 2 Africanus Robust aethiopicus Aethiopicus robust Africanus robust Some people say gracile : Australipithecus Robusts Paranthropus Piltdown- Section in Book Homo- Extant (living at the same time) with Australopitheches for 1 million years Homo habilis- handy man 1.85 ma (poss until 1.4 ma) Louis leakey O.G. Jaw and cranial fragments Tool maker In association with tools Same time as A. boisei Oldawan Tools Significant larger brain 650-750 cc Morphology Larger brain size average brain size is 50% larger than A?s Dentition Molars are smaller Front teeth are bigger Most similar to africanus Postercrania- aust like Arboreal adaptations Hugely controversial- lots of variation Polytypic species Sexual dimorphism More than 1 species KNM- ER 1470 750 cc Robust face, large molar teeth KNM-ER 1813 500 cc- more A like (smaller brain) Relatively robust face, retain larger molar teeth ( human like) Can look at these two and see sexual dimorphism- males technically have a bigger brain on average In comparison with living apes- wider range- indicating it may be two species Skull shape reversed trends for male and female Australopithecines Body size, shape Mode of locomotion Jaws and teeth Brain size All more similar to australopithecines
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