The tendency to judge beliefs and behaviors of other cultures from the perspectives of one's own culture.
The attempt to understand the beliefs and behaviors of other cultures in terms of the culture in which they are found.
The immersion of researchers in the lives and cultures of the people they are trying to understand in order to comprehend the meanings these people ascribe to their existence
Firsthand or direct immersion and observation of the people or cultrue a researcher is trying to understand.
The active participation of a researcher or observer in the lives of those being studied.
A dramatic rendering or social portrayal of meanings shared by a specific body of people in a way that makes them correct and proper.
The idea that there is an explicit link between the grammar of a language and the culture of the people who speak that language
A figure of speech in which linguistic expressions are taken from one area of experience and applied to another
A term coined by Sherry Ortner to identify metaphors that dominate the meanings that people of a specific culture attribute to their experience.
The slow, often unacknowledged shift in someone's manner of interpreting events as he or she becomes involved with a particular activity.
A term suggested by E.E. Evans-Pritchard for people's attempts to explain away inconsistencies or contradictions in their beliefs.
The tendency of people to see and recognize only those things they expect to see or those that confirm their view of the world.
The term suggested by Anthony F.C. Wallace for attempts by a people to construct a more satisfying culture.
Views that people have of their own and other's positions in society. Individuals seek confirmation from others that they occupy the positions on the social landscape that they claim to occupy.
A view of the self the defines each person as a replica of all humanity, the locus of motivations and drives, capable of acting independently from others.
A view of self that is context dependent; there is no intrinsic self that can possess enduring qualities.
The term suggested by Arnold van Gennep for rituals that mark a person's passage from one identity or status to another.
A theory based on the assumption that social hierarchy is necessary for the smooth functioning of society.
A theory base on the assumption that social stratification and hierarchy exist because one group of individuals seeks to take advantage of another group for economic purposes.
Anything we can percieve with our senses that stands for something else (ex. lawn refers to a field of grass plants).
Ritual jouney to a sacred or special site (ex. vietnam veterans trip to Washington D.C. to th war memorial. Muslim trip to Mecca).
Emerge from universal features of human life and include human life's meaning, death, evil, and transcendent values.
Process of learning a particular culture. Mechanisms of transmitting culture can be systematic (ex. training). Changes like culture changes.
Examine how knowledge becomes normalized.
Making the familiar strange; make normal unfamiliar.
Insider’s perspective- multicultural commentary.
Pure observation (impossible because we’re part of the objects we are trying to describe); implies that you can see everything from nowhere.
Accounting how our position as observers in the world affect the type of knowledge we are trying to produce. What limits you also opens doors.
Material and conceptual conditions under which cultural forms and practices to emerge.
When an Amish turns 16 and decides if they want to remain Amish or become English.
What we believe the truth of the world to be. How we think things really are in their actuality.
An arrangement of social positions or identities.
Meanings we assign to sexual organs from birth.
Differences in size, appearance, strength and endurance.
Nearly universal association of women with child rearing, cooking and cleaning; nearly universal association of men with hunting, fishing, herding animals.
Advocacy for the rights of women.
Gender identity and biological sex can conflict. Berdache (Cheyenne); nadle (Navajo); Hijra (South Asia); Transgender.
Systematic unequal organization of gender
Physical- biological, the anatomy of humand an primates.
Archaeology- examines cultures of past by examing material left behind.
Linguistic- treats languages a culture speaks, context, transmissions, ect.
Socio-culture- study human groups in th present, focuson humans as cultural beings.
Interactions between human grups and nature (ecological relations).
Interactions between members of a humangroup (socil organization of production and change).
A rule that prohibits sex of marriage between certain classes of kin.
A rule of relationship that ties people together on the basis of a reputed common ancestry.
Person related to kin through mother only.
Persons related to kin through father only.
Ju/wasi: husband and wife
Trobriand Islander: bother and sister
Traditional China: father an son
Collective ownership over resources, no resources privately owned
Labor determined by kinship obligations
No class divisions, but there is a gender divsion of labor
Labor is a commodity; can be bought and sold
Capitalist vs. wage labor
Profit (private accumulation)
Foraging of wild, naturally occurring food; food collection.
Food production; domestication of animals.
Agriculture in which forests are cleared by burning trees and brush, and crops are planted among the ashes of the cleared ground.
Intensive cultivation of permanent holdings
Intensive, mechanized food production and elaborate distribution networks
Property and labor are based in hierarchical rights and obligations
Lord vs. peasant
Hunter/gatherers had plenty of food and a wel balanced diet; had more leisure time than modern societes.
It was easier, less dangerous, and more productive way to get food; became neccessary as population grew.
Creates enduring relationships. Strings attached. Refusal of gift is a refusal of social relationships.
"third world" countries could become like "first world" if they follow the path to industrialization; blames economic underdevelopment on internal problems (cultural backwardness).
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