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the study of the relationships between language, culture, and thought
the smallest unit of sound of a word; dogs=4; redone=6
smallest unit of meaning; dogs=2;redone=3
the rules we use to put words together into sentences
believed in innate human ability, every human is born with; developed by a Linguist Noam Chomsky
non self-identification, not having a gender, not being constrained to a category even if other people identify you with one, being ungendered, not identified
one gender but possess the roles of the other gender; these people occupy space that is neither male or female, very wide category
interested in human diversity and how culture changed; argues religion evolves in unilinear fashion
belief in spirits, the soul, and that inanimate objects can host spirits..ALL START THIS WAY.
belief in multiple Gods
belief in one God
magic for selfish gain (but tends to be unconscious)
arrangements of people, socially cohesive arrangements of people with benefits
Generate new expressions by combining other expressions; creating a combination of words to create one meaning; "drinkfruit"=watermelon(Lucy); "waterbird"=Swan(Washoe)
believes human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language, so that all languages have a common structural base; competence and performance
Uni-lineal progression; believes each individual goes through stages; resemblance to early cultural evolutionists like Tylor
practicing or advocating monogamy; an individual having one partner during their lifetime or at any one time
personal, antisocial, morally dubious, use of supernatural
Boas. Sapir & Whorf: Colors are learned, cultural categories; infinite variety
Berlin&Kay(1969):Test:compare 21 terms
challenges Freud; that female adolescence is accompanied by repression; that the definition of female feminity is universal
has the capacity to speak of things and events that are not present
the study of the way plants and animals are treated or used by different human cultures
study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society; Noam Chomsky
humans have generalized intelligence; you aren't born with structure in brain; born with a blank slate; culturally structured
humans have a specialized intelligence; specialized In the way we come out in the world with a series of boxes/pre-developed stimuli
there are multiple intellegencs; music is a type of intelligence, verbal also
Chomsky would be considered an innatist because...
he says we all have the capacity to learn grammar;there is some underlying fundamental structure to all languages
cultural categories such as gender and race are...
your thoughts and how you perceive the world around you
all languages have the same _____colors but not the same color categories
focal; the focal color is red
according to Berlin and Kay languages have ___ to ____ basic color terms
similarity due to the universal biology of the eye/brain(human nature component)
variation due to learning/culture (Nurture component)
Do all languages name the same no. species?
2 Avenues of marriage: rituals-men ceremony to seek women's approval, arranged marriages; looks first, lover second
Non-kin based corporate groups
religion, economic groups, political groups, cross cutting institutions
nation state, cultural; I.e. southerners
cross cutting institutions
used to integrate society (I.e. cult-group)-katchina; very common; I.e. sororities/fraternities; ex: chambers of commerce. European union
used to integrate society; emphasis on lineages,lineages are ranked, anyone can be a member of the cult, cult holds how the ceremony happens and they have no record
kin based corporate groups
one husband multiple wives
one wife, multiple husbands
family lives with parents
the story when brothers share a wife is an example of?
Washoe and Lucy case studies...
chimps, american sign language, limited number of basic gesture units; could use over 100 signs; sign language more effective
most productive work with ape(gorilla); has used over 400 ASL signs; has used over 700 signs atleast once; Standford university Penny Patterson;
Allows fine tongue and lip movement (you couldn't manipulate your tongue or say complicated words)
half of the members had severe speech deficit(could understand but speaking was not clear-could not produce the sounds that the average English speaker can produce)
argues that different languages produce different ways of thinking; your language influences your culture and culture affects language; they're interchangeable
Future Tenses:excerpt of Native American Languages that didn't have future tenses
native thought that time was reciprocal, yeah this is present but you'll revisit the present again, saw time as circular instead of linear; had a different perception of time
knowledge of grammatical rules necessary to understanding and producing language; understanding rules that govern a particular language will allow you to understand and respond back
language use in context; you can be competent and understand a language but not necessarily be able to get every word there saying that
knowledge necessary to use language in a social context; when do you say what and why?; ex: idiom-sane..raining cats and dogs=raining a lot
sex:biological categories(based on chromosomes) has how many categories?
2; male(XY) and female(XX)
gender:cultural category(series of categories created by people in order to define gender specifics) has how many categories?
4; 2-4...male, female and what is called the 2 spirits(males that take on female characteristics, then females who take on the male characteristics, I.e. types of work)
typical behavior of a particular gender
how many ways can you construct what it means to be one of these genders?
ways to construct genders..
sexuality(partners, expected behavior), work roles(divison of labor), ritual roles, symbolic significance, gender segregation(always, oppressive), gender stratification(status, power, right)
varies across space and throughout time; unheard of that women could run for president 50 years ago
oral,anal, phallic, latency, genital; created by Sigmund Freud who says everyone goes through stages of development
begins infancy; ex-putting stuff in your mouth
potty training; anal respective a being uptight comes from not completing stage 2
suppression of feelings
based off of your own cultures perspective, getting information from moderately middle aged women in austria
women specifically are hit w/ a wave of oppression because of the standards society places on women; ewomen can't fulfill their desires to "do it" because society says they can't do as they please
coming of age in samoa
adolescence easy time for girls; release of responsibility of taking care of young children; can have multiple partners, have sex in spontaneous places; hasn't attain household duties yet
Mead explains that the causes at the social level are...
Samoan life is easygoing;little turmoil, disagreements settles quickly and quietly; no one punished for slow development and those who do mature early are encourages to wait for those who are slower ex: be the best speller u can be
Samoan society lacks...
"specialization of feeling", w/a total annulment of feeling about sex; sex isn't associated w/love unless married; parents open to discuss sex
Sex and Temperament in Arapesh
mild manner, responsive men and women; neither was the dominant figure in the marriage relationship
sex and temperament in Mundugumor
not mild mannered, unresponsive men and women; both men and women in marriage were violently aggressive
sex and temperament in Tchambuli
represented a reversal of our own society; the woman is the "dominant, impersonal, managing partner" in the relationship and the man is emotionally dependent-defintion to being a man; "woman runs the show, tells the man what to do"
not called men or women, people move in and out of gender categories
which gender can be associated w/ a particular job function(sometimes switches where women hunt&men gather&spend a lot of time w/kids; ex: agta, phillipines, mikes, Madagascar's
Peasant communities in Brazil motherly love
mothers didn't name children when born, didn't cry of child died(self protection), guaranteed to have atleast 1 child die due to lack of access to clean water/health care; told to treat children distant
Na culture of Tibet
people don't get married; no institution of marriage; father not responsible for children they bear, its considered manly
na culture household consists of..
brothers and sisters and all of sisters children, men responsible for sisters children not biological uncles;
belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers and forces
sacred vs profane (mundane)
every society has a sacred, but the set varies (I.e. it is culturally constructed)
boas believed religion was based on tradition/location. no religion is better or worse. why is he wrong?
doesn't capture religion today on earth like Buddhism; categorically different, science and religion are 2 different views
argues that empirical observation is better than faith based understanding; will eventually replace all religion
magical objects (charms, portions, medicines) for selfish gain-conscious
uses power to info spells
Azande of the Sudan
suggests that witchcraft actually serves a function, provides explanation, relief/closure, people know why the things that are happening to them are happening, physiological benefits, easy way to avoid conflict, organizes how people live
witches get stronger as they get...
steps to witchery..
misfortune occurs, divination, accusation, poison oracle, repentance
witchcraft as an idiom of causation,.
promiate vs ultimate causation, no such thing as "random chance", concept of "limited good", jealousy, social control
proximate vs ultimate causation
proximate-termites ate branch
ultimatw- the branch chose the moment, that day to cause the branch to fall on you
can regulate relationships between other people, serves a variety of functions as an institution
use of symbols to convey ideas; sounds (how we speak to each other), writing (different languages on a body, emoji's, body language)
most language is arbitrary but not all; things can mean different things to different people, can be interpreted in different ways
3 characteristics that make a human language
displacement, productivity, cultural transmission
all humans have capacity, but each group has a different language
chimp;1950s raised by a couple; systemically tried to teach language-unsuccessful but was able to learn 4 words: mama, papa,up, cup
what does Chomsky and Foucault agree on?
neither agree with the way society is constructed today
faults of foucault
hates classes;says there's no such thing as human nature, everything is culturally constructed even the term human nature; offers nothing as an alternative to replace the structure we have, we have an oppression of institutions
things like school are oppressive cause it limits
chomsky's evidence that all languages have a common structural base...
all children learn grammar, people can learn foreign languages, pidgin languages; languages that form I'm situations of acculturation (ex: Creole Languages)
"bridge language"-systems systematically used to make communication easier between groups of people who speak different languages; English, Nahuatl, chinese characters
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