ethnobotany: the interaction between humans and plants the study of how members in a given culture perceive, categorize, utilize, or otherwise manage their plantanical resources Mexico lexicon: the vocabulary Flor de Manita: flower of a small hand Macpalxochitl: hand flower been used as medical plant that treats CPI Cardiac-pulmanary Insufficiency: not getting enough oxygen to the fingertips, toes, and lips Badianus manuscript: book about plants, listing of Aztec plantanical knowledge Robert Carneria lived with and studied the Kuikuru Kuikuru: a tribal group in Brazil diuresis: a term that pertains to the use of medicine that eliminates excessive fluids from the body Maguey: common name Agave: plantanical name contains leutiolin and quercitin secrets aguamiel pulque: an alcoholic beverage made from the agave plant tinacal: brewery where pulque is made tlaxiqueros: individuals that specialize in the production of pulque datura: a source of honey; collected by bees, humans extract the honey and make a beverage called Balche or Toloache Toloache: beverage consumed when males reach adulthood Chumash: Scopolamine: Domains of Human Cognition and Values cognition has to do with meaning values emotionally charged preferences or aversions Cognition light spectrum all humans can detect variation how we categorize various wavelengths is different monolexemic color terms cannot be placed in a broader color term red is a monolexemic term white and black are the universal monolexemic terms 3 terms: white, black, red 4 terms: white, black, red, yellow or green 5 terms: white, black, red, yellow, green 6 terms: white, black, red, yellow, green, blue brown, gray, pink, purple, orange 11 is the maximum number of terms Mayans associate the color white with death had to use the Spanish word for orange Taxonomy a system based on hierarchical inclusion (animal, dog, huskey) Unique Beginner: plant Life Form: tree, vine, grass, etc. Generic: Oak, Hickory, Elm, Maple, Pine Specific: Red Oak, White Oak, Chestnut Oak Varietal: Scrub Red Oak in some cultures, unique beginner and life form terms do not exist as the importance decreases, the lexico becomes smaller from the bottom up ciquatera: poisoning from toxic fish Caribbean names of the fish change with the season of the catch Red Tide: seasonal event, poisons fish Values children?s books in Japan and England Magic and Religion similarities similar in their belief in supernatural entities, beyond ordinary human experience ultimately based on faith they are explanatory serve to control individual behavior differences magic is secret; religion is public magic has demands placed on supernatural forces; religion is a process of giving thanks Protective Magic Mayans braided garlic is hung in the doorway Mal Aire airs that are dangerously cold in nature can penetrate the house and enter the body of a child and cause the child to become sick or even die Mexico Ojo de Venado, ?deer?s eye? children wear them around their necks foreigners, those who are drunk, or prostitutes can impart sickness on children just by looking at them Mal de Ojo Vision quest male of the group goes into the mountains alone and fasts and smokes tobacco visited by the guardian spirit that provides protection shirt with dozens of holes made men invisible fought for years, but was never wounded Black Magic Indians in Brazil believe that small, human-like spirits reside in the forests Heckura ingested a hallucinogenic snuff known as Ebene believe that they can control the Ebene Sympathetic Magic ?like produces like? witch doctor through rituals, a doll is man in the likeness of a man pins are run through the body and it is placed in a casket animism: everything has some sort of supernatural energy Religion role of animals in some cultures, animals are seen as creators in others, they are simply there for our use creation myths Eskimo rely on aquatic life where did they come from? Sedna fell in love with a man (seagull) she followed him to his home and her father followed she falls into the water and the father cuts her into pieces the pieces transformed into the sea life religious heroes birth is miraculous confronted by evil in early years of life know very little about their adolescence return as adults, fight evil, avoid temptation, promote goodness meet their own fate death of religions heroes is typically on a hill resurrection Isis ?woman? gives birth to Horus ?son? Set ?the devil? over powers and kills Osiris ?man? Subsistence same basic needs, different solutions food and nutrition ?goober? came from the African word for peanut insects, dogs, cow?s blood, etc. consume about 2000 calories daily if this number is not met, marasmus occurs consumes all fat, then muscles one gram of protein is needed for every kilogram of body weight if not, kwashiorkor occurs swelling of the stomach, reddening of the hair and hair loss usually occurs with marasmus Vitamins Xerophthalmia vitamin A deficiency (in Africa) which leads to (blindness) Beriberi lack of thiamin Scrrvy lack of vitamin C Rickets lack of vitamin D Minerals iron, sodium, zinc water dehydration can be terminal for infants Foraging and Hunting depended on the women had a very large and diverse food index the number of different sources of food in the diet and their relative contribution 110 different species of edible plants malnutrition very rare dental health was very good Transhumance Tibet and Nepal as the weather turns warmer, groups go into higher elevation the animals graze on grasslands spend the winter months and the lowest level of land Farming domestication genetic change affecting the traits in plants that humans value example: corn, the size of the corn between hundreds of years ago and today Agriculture most of the world today is feed off of various forms of intensified agriculture American Culture obesity is the number one health problem food is cheap for Americans consumption of soda little activity leads to diabetes gangrene in the extremities can lead to amputation Modes of Economic Exchange Reciprocity statement of social relationship balanced exchanging Christmas gifts Redistribution Goodwill redistribute donation to those who need it Potlatch sponsored by an individual may be held to celebrate his status, or the marriage of someone in his family, or to acknowledge the passing of a leader abundance of food other forms of gift giving outlawed in Canada began showing their wealth by killing slaves, homes, and boats Market Exchange economic specialization (cash crops), international relations, international debt, long distance transportation, universal medium of exchange Guatemala ?The Banana Republic? ?Ghost Acres? territories controlled or influenced by powerful, wealthy nations can even refer to territories in the oceans Japan over fished most resources than any other country drag nets frozen on the ship boats return to port and the fish are flown to final destination Evolution of Ethnic Markers If ethnic groups compete over limited resources within a continuous territory, the smallest of these groups will come to develop the most extreme ethnic markers. language material culture art Applique the dominant technique used by women in the Blackfoot tribe as well as the Crow tribe results in a flat, smooth appearance Blackfoot use Lane Stitch for their dresses very wide Lane Stitching alternating colors belts, pipe bags, etc. are in applique checkerboard pattern alternating block of color Crow wide range of colors preference for light blue elongated rectangle of geometric motifs outlining in a single row of white beads cradles had three tabs for the closure system Lane Stitch bead worker pokes small tunnel into hide and passes the thread through slightly raised beads if a dress is solid beaded and the color is other than white (typically blue), it?s probably Lakota Lakota mortal enemies to the Crow even number of triangles no triangle over the big toe Cheyenne stairs, central door prominent red bar alternating colors, stripes hexagon Kiewa open hide extensive fringe
Want to see the other 6 page(s) in Anthropology Exam 3.doc?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!