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.__________ are populations of people living in organized groups with social institutions and expectations of behavior.
the religions and myths of Australian Aborigines
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of anthropology?
it focuses only on prehistoric societies and fossil species
Which of the following is a key feature that distinguishes anthropology as a separate area of study from other disciplines?
The learned values, beliefs, and rules of conduct shared to some extent by the members of a society that govern their behavior with one another is __________.
Which of the following examples exemplifies a holistic perspective?
Bridewealth is exchanged in Maasi marriages in order to redistribute cattle and wealth within the population.
The__________ in anthropology uses data about the beliefs and behaviors in many societies to document both cultural universals and cultural diversity.
In which subfield of anthropology would a paleoanthropologist work?
Near Eastern populations adopted agriculture over 10,000 years ago.
A group whose members and others think of their way of life as in some significant way different from that of other people in the larger society.
A common form of taboo found in every culture is __________ taboos.
Ideas about how many meals to have, when to have them, and which kinds of food to eat at each meal are examples of__________.
When it is said that __________, most anthropologists mean that culture is the means by which people survive in their particular environment.
culture is adaptive
A common scenario is one in which cultural practices are __________ in the short term but __________ in the long term.
Cultures are __________ is another way to say that cultures are integrated.
All aspects of a given culture are internally consistent and integrated with all the other aspects of the culture.
__________ is a process by which a new cultural product is created by the selective borrowing of elements from other cultures.
The most apt term to describe cultural change over time is __________.
A process in which people develop,define, and direct their own cultural identities.
The principal agent(s) of globalization is/are __________.
Enculturation begins __________.
as soon as a baby is born
Early anthropologists believed in__________, or the idea that all societies advance through improved stages overtime, going from primitive to more advanced forms of society.
does not serve all small-scale farmers equally.
Anthropologists have been studying the impact of globalization over the last decade. The term globalization includes all except
Gillian Tett suggested that what's needed in today's media and much of the wider world is an "anthropological" prism, namely an analytical approach that tries to do all of the following except
increase the rise of electronic forms of communication that reinforce silos and social silences.
the firsthand, personal study of local settings.
allows the inclusion of biological and cultural approaches to comment or solve a particular issue or problem.
Although rap music began in the United States, it is now popular all over the world. Which of the following mechanisms of cultural change is responsible for this?
According to anthropologists,cultures eventually become fixed and stop changing.
Understanding the importance of protecting the diversity of humans and cultures is an element of significance in this class. We frequently hear about the “rights” of people being violated. How do anthropologists regard cultural rights different from human rights?
Cultural rights are vested in groups, not in individuals.
Which of the following statements about cultural relativism is not true?
Cultural relativism argues that some cultures are relatively better than others.
Which of the following is not a distinctive feature of four-field anthropology?
Which of the following is not one of the ways in which individuals learn culture?
Which of the following statements about culture is not true?
Human groups differ in their capacities for culture.
. __________ views are subjective and based on insiders’ views so that they resemble as much as possible the explanations that people have for their own culture.
__________ views are objective and based on outsiders’ views so that they resemble explanations by observers from another culture.
A/An __________ explanation of why Hindus in India do not eat cows is that cows are too important to farm labor to be eaten.
Culture shock, or __________, is a common problem for anthropologists after they first arrive to do fieldwork.
the feeling of being out of place in unfamiliar surroundings
Which of the following is an advantage to obtaining residence in a native household when conducting fieldwork?
Which of the following is an example of qualitative data?
Gathering data through participant observation might mean using which of the following techniques?
Which of the following is classified as an unethical practice?
Staging ethnographic film footage.
With perhaps an exception or two, language is a system of communication unique to humans in part because it is __________.
it is symbolic
__________is the feature of language that makes it possible to talk about the past or hypothetical events.
Currently,researchers believe that speech capability developed in human ancestors by__________ years ago.
Chimpanzees and gorillas apparently have a rudimentary capacity for understanding and manipulating symbols but __________.
seem not to use it in the wild
The study of the articulation and production of human speech sounds is known as__________.
Because subjects precede objects in the vast majority of languages, this pattern probably reflects __________.
A minimal unit of sound that differentiates meaning in a particular language is a__________.
A unit of sound and meaning, either a separate word or a meaningful part of a word is called a __________.
The study of how language use changes according to social context is __________.
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis states that __________.
without a language to speak there is no culture
A/An__________ is a variety of a language spoken by a particular group of people,based on regional differences or social differences such as gender, class,race, or ethnicity.
Until the __________ prevailing attitudes in the United States accepted multilingualism in education and public life.
economic, social, and political factors
Most linguists agree that the sources of African-American Vernacular English are__________ and __________.
rural southern English, African languages
Specialized or technical words are __________, spoken by people who share a particular occupation or interest.
__________is a subsistence strategy that focuses on raising and caring for herds of domesticated animals.
__________is intensive farming which invests great amounts of time, labor, and technology.
The__________ is the number of people who can be sustained by the resources and environment in which they live.
Which of the following subsistence strategies typically results in the highest amount of mobility?
You are an anthropologist observing a new society that no one else has explored.You are trying to determine the subsistence pattern of the group. The group is highly mobile and is constantly moving around their geographic area. They do not rely on domesticated animals like cattle. The size of the group remains small, usually not more than 20 people. When resources are plentiful, a number of different smaller groups join. Based on these observations, what type of subsistence pattern do you think that this group uses?
The gathering together and then reallocation of food and resources to ensure everyone’s survival is called __________.
.__________ are cultural practices designed to equalize access to food,resources, and social prestige through a community so that no one individual can amass greater wealth or greater prestige than other people.
Although situations vary, studies of foragers show they __________ compared to people in farming or industrial societies.
provides the permanent large land base
In pastoral societies, __________ tend to be individually owned while __________is communally owned by family members.
Individual ownership of animals tends to promote acquisition of differential wealth in pastoral societies which is mitigated by __________.
Which of the following tools would you NOT expect to find frequently in an agricultural society?
Which of the following is a chain of consequences of food production?
Early agricultural populations __________, based on archaeological studies of bones and teeth.
To understand culture, interpretive anthropologists pay close attention to people’s expressions of values, attitudes, meanings, intentions, and
the felt importance to people’s actions.
“Man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun.” What does Geertz mean by the web?
__________ are people who are related through marriage.
The notion of kinship is essentially __________, not based on universal, objective criteria.
Principle of descent in which people define themselves in relation to only one side, either their mother’s side or their father’s side.
Such groups make it possible to loosen obligations to kin.
Which of the following is NOT an important difference between patrilineal and matrilineal societies?.
Members of a lineage are linked directly by birth in patrilineal systems while in matrilineal systems they are not.
A social system in which men occupy positions of social,economic, and political power from which women are excluded.
What is the definition of a household?
A __________ is a married couple or other group of adult kinfolk who cooperate economically and in the upbringing of children, and all or most of whom share a common dwelling.
A/An __________ is a family formed with three or more generations, for example, parents, children, and grandparents.
Which of the following statements about polygyny is false?
Polygyny tends to develop in different societies for the same reasons.
Which of the following descriptions of brideservice is false?
A groom performs brideservice for the bride’s family only before marriage.
Which of the following statements about band societies is false?
Their leaders are selected on the basis of personal wealth and property ownership.
Many of the traits of band societies are the result of__________.
the economic need to be nomadic
Tribal societies tend to differ from band societies in which of the following ways?
distribution of resources
Which of the following is NOT a mechanism of force that state societies use to control an unruly populace?
Evolutionary perspectives on intergroup conflict and conflict resolution emphasize the role of __________ in primate groups.
Which of the following is NOT an example of post-conflict reconciliation expressed among primates?
Among the Western Apache in Arizona, accusations of witchcraft are often shaken off by what tactic?
is conducted by professional specialists
The term “supernatural” may not be the most fitting term to describe religion, as some societies __________.
Anthropologists analyze religious beliefs and rituals using__________ and __________ perspectives, reviewing objective conditions and subjective experiences.
Ranked pantheons of deities are most usually found in__________ societies.
Which of the following has NOT been suggested as a reason for the origins of religion in anthropology?
Belief in the existence of numerous deities that have specific attributes, powers, and functions is called __________.
What is the term for belief systems that hold to the existence of one supreme deity who has powers and knowledge that affect all aspects of life?
Arnold van Gennep classified rites of passage as a three-step process. The correct order of this process is which of the following?
__________ tell of a primordial world that existed before this one and of the events that led to the formation of our present world.
Secular stories that relate events that teach moral lessons or entertain listeners are__________.
The phrase “once upon a time” is a __________ of English tales.
Which of the following was one of the most important advantages that made European colonialism so successful?
the ability to travel long distances
Which of the following is an example of imperialism?
The Spanish created religious settlements in the New World and required native populations to live and work at these religious centers.
they are maintained as colonies only until they are ready for independence
pre-existing indigenous forms of slavery in West Africa
conflict and warfare over land
By the end of the nineteenth century, the Native American population of the United
States was approximately __________.
the spread of diseases of North American origin
An 1887 order issued by the U.S.Bureau of Indian Affairs stated, “The instruction of the Indians in the vernacular is not only of no use to them, but is detrimental to the cause of their education and civilization,
and no school will be permitted on the reservation in which the English language is not exclusively taught”(Commissioner of Indian Affairs 1887, xxii). This quote illustrates which of the following?
European culture was considered superior to Native American traditions, knowledge, and language.
Which of the following was a negative result of the creation of cash economies in colonies?
The British claimed lands based on their principle __________, which allowed them to take the lands of many indigenous communities who were not farmers.
Which of the following is the best example of xenophobia?
Throughout its history, the United States has shifted the borders of Native American reservations to exploit locally available resources.
Rural to urban migration has tended to be __________.
__________ are cultural or ethnic groups who have become minorities in their native lands due to migrations of other peoples into their territories or due to the historical configuration of a nation-state made up of diverse groups.
The processes by which immigrants maintain social, economic, religious, and political ties to both their immigrant communities and their communities back home.
One feature of transnationalism that is quite distinct from older patterns of migration and immigration is __________.
the ability to maintain close contacts with home countries
Global capitalism has created transnationalism by __________.
the creation of a fictive past
the ethnic groups do not attempt to amass significant political power
The United Nations predicts that __________ million people worldwide will lose their homes due to the effects of climate change.
Between 1990 and 2005, about how much of the world’s total forest area was lost?
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