ANTHROPOLOGY CH. 1 Anthropology: the study of human species and its immediate ancestors Holistic, comparative, biocultural, values local knowledge, diverse world views, alternative philosophies, rejects ethnocentrism, scientific Holistic: encompassing past, present, and future; biology, society, language, and culture -not viewed in isolation from other sciences; views things in the broadest possible context; provides a total or composite view 4 Fields: cultural anthropology: largest of subfields; studies human society and culture; investigates variation in beliefs and behaviors of different cultural groups; explains cultural similarities and differences; produces ethnography-account of community, culture, society and its beliefs, behaviors, customs, social life, economic activities, politics, arts, religion; carried out through fieldwork with qualitative methods like participant, systematic, mapping, census, surveys, interviews archaeology: studies material remains in order to reconstruct, describe, and explain human behavior and cultural patterns; often applied to extinct cultures; carried out by finding, mapping, reconstructing past from material remains physical/biological anthropology: human evolution; human genetics; human growth and development; human plasticity; biology, evolution, behavior, and social life of monkeys, apes and other nonhuman primates paleoanthropology: fossil record linguistic anthropology: language uniquely human; study of language in its social and cultural context over space and time; language change over time; language and social position; understand how people perceive world ethnography: fieldwork in a particular cultural setting CH. 2 Culture: distinctly human; transmitted through learning; traditions and customs that govern behavior and beliefs Enculturation: the process by which a child learns his/her culture while growing up in it. Adaptive or maladaptive Humands have biological and cultural ways of coping with environmental stress What?s good for the individual isn?t necessarily good for the group Adaptive behavior that offers short-term benefits to particular individuals may harm the environment and threaten group?s long-term survival Ethnocentrism: tendency to view one?s own culture as superior and to use one?s own standards and values in judging outsiders cultural relativism: inappropriate to use outside standards to judge behavior in a given society; should be evaluated in the context of the culture in which it occurs human rights: rights vested in individuals to speak freely, hold religious beliefs without persecution, not be murdered, injured, enslaved, or imprisoned without charge culture change: acculturation: exchange resulting when groups come into continuous firsthand contact (latin/anglo in SW, Puerto Rican/African American in NE) diffusion: borrowing of traits between cultures- direct/indirect, forced/unforced (marriage, trade, war, colonization) independent invention: innovate, creatively finding solutions to problems (farming, medication, transportation) local culture: different cultural traditions associated with dubgroups in the same nation?bocci, barbeque national culture: cultural features shared by citizens of the same nation?monster truck rallies, apple pie international culture: cultural traditions that extend beyong national boundaries?soccer basketball pizza CH. 3 applied anthropology: using anthropology to solve contemporary problems cultural- development anthropology archaeological- cultural resource management biological- forensic anthropology linguistic- study of linguistic diversity in classrooms CH. 4 Paleoanthropology: study of human evolution through the fossil records; physical anthropologitsl archaeologists; similar to paleontology -the study of hominid, hominin, and human life though the fossil record sampling and surveying: review maps and collected background data; noninvasive techniques (pedestrian or electrical resistivity) and invasive techniques (close interval core sampling, shovel testpits excavation: destroys a site; removal of soil strata one layer at a time; soil is screened by dry screening or water screening -detailed and extensive records must be kept to document the locations and information about everything that is found -context! Stratigraphy: study of earth sediments deposited in demarcated layers relative dating: dating that indicates the age of one item in comparison to another like ceramic types and fluorine analysis absolute dating: that gives a specific age, year, or range of years for an object site radiocarbon, potassium/argon used with volcanoes, uranium, thermoluminescence, electron spin resonance CH. 5 natural selection: process by which nature selects the forms most suited to survive and reproduce in a given environment; operates through competition for strategic resources and natural variety within the population mendelian genetics: how chromosomes transmit genes across generations (sexual reproduction) mendels peas, britains peppered moths, sickle cell, ABO blood biochemical or molecular genetics: structure and function of genes and how DNA changes (cell division errors, mutation) population genetics: natural selection and other causes of variation, stability and change in breeding populations genetic change: genetic drift: genetic change due to chance founder effect-isolated cut off from variation gene flow: exchange of genetic material through interbreeding preventing speciation mutation: change in DNA molecules copy mistakes modern synthesis: currently accepted view of evolution-combination of natural selection and Mendel?s genetic discoveries micoevolution: small-scale changes in allele frequencies over generations without speciation macroevolution: large-scale changes in allele frequencies in a population over a longer time period that result in speciation punctuated equilibrium: long periods of stasis may be interrupted by evolutionary leaps -sudden environmental change offers possibility for pace of evolution to speed up -although species can survive radical environmental shifts, extinction is more common CH. 6 Cline: gradual shift in gene (allele) frequencies between neighboring populations race: geographically isolated subdivision of a species gene flow maintains our species -not biologically distinct skin color: melanin confers selective advantage on darker-skinned people living in the tropics (explanation of adaptation) -protects against UV hazards -provides adequate supply of vitamin D dark skin- melanin is natural sunscreen, suffer from Rickets because lack of vitamin D and osteoporosis light skin- no sunscreen so get skin cancer/folate acid problems malaria: sickle cell are immuned to malaria ABO: ABO blood groups vary in resistance to disease ( A, AB> susceptible to smallpox, O, B resistant thomson?s nose rule: average nose length increases in cold areas size and body build: different climates have selected for different body shapes; human populations use different but equally effective, biological means of adapting to environmental stresses associated with high altitudes bergman?s rule: larger bodies found in colder areas and smaller bodies in warmer ones allen?s rule: protruding body parts are bigger in warmer areas phenotypical plasticity: changes that occur during individual?s lifetimes that enhance reproductive fitness lactose tolerance CH. 7 Primate family tree: hominoids close to gorilla and chimps (orangs/ gibbons) primate tendencies: similarities between humand and apes are evident in anatomy, brain structure, genetics, and biochemistry share homologies reflecting their common arboreal heritage -many trends in primate evolution are best exemplified by anthropoids (monkeys, apes, and humans) -grasping, smell to sight, nose to hand, brain complexity, parental investment, and sociality new world monkeys: platyrrhines (flat nosed) -prehensile tail -arboreal -central and south America spider, wooly, howley old world monkeys: catarrhines (sharp nosed) -arboreal, smaller agile -terrestrial, larger, sexual dimorphism -africa, asia Diana guenon, Japanese macagues, baboon sexual dimorphism Apes Great apes: orangutans, gorillas, chimps Lesser apes: gibbons, siamangs Humans -live in forest and woodlands -light and agile gibbons completely arboreal -heavier gorillas, chimps, and adult male orangutans spend considerable time on the ground -ape behavior and anatomy reveal past and present adaptation to arboreal life relative to other primates ape characteristics -larger body size -longer lifespan -longer interbirth interval -upright posture -larger brain -shorter muzzle -no tail chimps maintain dominance by attacking and displacement bonobos use sex to avoid conflict arboreal legacy- used to climb trees reflected from our anatomy CH. 8 Early Hominin: 5-2 MYA Traits that Make us Human -bipedalism (pelvis, femur, foramen magnum) -larger brains (chimp 390 cc, gorilla 500cc, us 1350 cc) -prolonged child dependency -tool use -dentition pattern u shape vs. parabola thick vs thin enamel changes in canine and diastema overall reduction in size of teeth Australopithecines -small bodied -small brain case -some gracile and some robust -smaller canines, thick tooth enamel -larger molars -long arms compared to legs -pelvis more smiliar to homo than ape -lumbar curve to spine -curved phalanges -bipedal but still climbing -funnel shaped thorax -covered long time period (5-1mya) -A. afarensis: (3.8-3.0 mya) hadar, Ethiopia and laetoli, Tanzania -Lucy, 1974 Ethiopia Johanson and Taieb 40% complete 3.6 mya small, 3 ft small brain 450cc bipedal very long arms compared to legs sexual dimorphism small body size -Selam, Lucy?s baby, 2006 Ethiopia 3.3 mya z. alemseged 3 yr old complete skull, teeth, fingers, torso, foot, kneecap smooth brow short canines -footprints in volcanic ash, bipedal -A. robustus: (2.0-1.0 mya *1930?s South Africa -from neck down, look like Lucy -skull very different, hyper robust ? sagittal crest and heavy mandible and cheek bones ? powerful musculature for chewing and grinding -dentition for chewing and grinding ? mainly vegetarian ?large teeth -appear early, 2.5 mya South African savannah -lasted until 1.2 mya *flat faces, thick jaws, extinct by 1.2 mya *not alone, coexisted with homo habilis Oldowan: earliest, 2.5-2mya stone pebble tools Core, hammer stone, flake CH. 9 home erectus: hunting of larger animals, massive eye brow, smaller back teeth but large front ones, doubled brain size, better tools, enculturation and learning, cooperative hunting, spread to Asia and Europe, fire allowed them to live in cooler areas to cook and live in caves 1.8mya h. neandertalensis: inhabited western Europe and middle East (AMHS-anatomically modern humans- and neandertals were contemporaries thather than ancestor and descendant -robust, limbs and musculate -arctic body, heat rentetion -no chin -low, sloping cranium -massive brow ridges -more barrel chested -more flared pelvis -longer pubic bone -adapted to bitter cold, tool kits were complex, teeth were largest, manufactured Mousterain flake tools, (AMH?S MADE BLADE TOOLS) 130,000-28000 BP AMH-anatomically modern humans Cro-magnon Skhul (100,000) Qafzeh (92,000) Herto (160,000-154,000) archaic H. sapiens: early H. sapiens (300,000-28,000 BP) includes Neandertals, similar brain size H. floescriensis: tiny humans lived in isolated island of Flores in Indonesia, possible descendant of erectus, unusual small size of body and chimp sized head, smart enough to make tools? 95,000-13,000 bp AMH OUT OF AFRICA II: evolved from h. sapiens, arose in Africa, then spread out to Europe, middle east, asia, new guinea, and Australia, focus on mitochondrial DNA 130,000 to present Mousterian: middle paeloithic tool tradition associated with neandertals (tools assumed burden by anatomy, tools take over job by teeth) Auchelian: lower Paleolithic tool tradition associated with h. erectus
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