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includes sacs found inside the holes
like the skeletal muscle how it contracts.
fibrous sacs that are lined with synovial membranes and contain synovial fluid
the endochondral method
use to produce the bone below the skull. starts with hyaline cart. framework
regulation of bone growth
controlled by hormones. growth hormone is the major hormone and it leads to somatomedin
shaft of bone
ct around bones that supplies nutrients
membrane inside the medullary cavity
found at the end of bones. left over hyaline cart
connections bt the osteons
new matrix being laid done
performed by the osteoclasts. helped by ruffled border that the osteoclasts have
depress calcium levels in the blood. triggered by high calcium levels
ends are in normal position or not
complete or incomplete
broken through or not
broke into 3 pieces or more
seperates ends from the diaphysis
vessels broken. causes hemorrhaging
granulation tisses is formed
osteoblasts and cytes move inwards and change the fib. callus to bony callus
takes away material and lays down compact bone
bone of the skull
ligaments and interosseus membranes
use in teeth. peridontal ligaments
bone placed next to another bone and it causes widening of the bone.
growth accomplished by means of the pepiphyseal plate, left over cartilage
epiphyseal lone plate disc
between the epiphysis and diaphysis. cartliage is plate. bone is line or disc
hematopoietic tissuse red bone morrow blood forming tisse
hipbone and sternum can turn to yellow marrow and revert back to red marrow
structural unit of the bone
important part of bone remodeling. bones respond to the stress put on them
releases of calcium by activating the osteoclasts when calcium is to low
broke broke through skin or not
joints are known as
fibrous cartilaginous synovial
sutures syndesmoses gomphoses
ex epiphyseal plate. synarthroses become synostoses
seperated by fluid containing joint cavity
how well bones fit together
hold bone to bone. prevent unwanted movement
nonaxial movement. flat bones moving over each other
decrease of angle of a joint
flexion of ankle, lifting foot
extension of ankle, pointing toes
increasing the angle of a joint
movement away from the midline
movement towards the midline
all 4 types involved. drawing a cone in space
turning movement along the axis of a bone
sole turned medially
sole turned laterally
thumb touches fingers
hinge joints & pivot joints
condyliod, circumducrion & saddle
ball n socket joints
contains the glenoid cavity of the scapula and head of the humerus. ball n socket joint.
stabilizing factor is the meeting of the articular surfaces. hinge joint.
hip. made up of the femur and acetabulum. ball n socket joint.
knee. 3 joints in 1. where the patella meets the femur, the femoral condyles meet the semilunar menisci of the tibia.
refers to soft bones. osteoid material is laid down but not calcified.
excessive and abnormal bone reabsorption and formation.
most common form of arthitis. caused by normal ware and tear on the joints
autoimmune disease. the body attacks itself. cause by virus or bacteria
caused by excessive uric acid build up because of a rich diet, excessive production or slow clearing of uric acids.
keeps muscles ready when called upon. major factor in keeping the joint stabilized
movement around joints is accomplished by
bc muscles are attached at 2 places, but not on the same bone
the intramembranous method
bone formation is used to create the bone of the skull & clavicles. starts with mesenchymal cells.
brain and spinal cord
intergrating and command center for the body
everything outside the cns
spinal nerves and cranial nerves
sends signals from the body and environment to the cns
includes all neural structure outside of the brain and spinal cord, sensory receptors, peripheral nerves and associated ganglia and efferent motor endings.
takes info from the body to the cns.
comes from skin, muscles and joints, somatic branch or the organs. the viscereal branch
unipolar and bipolar
from the cns to the organs
somatic or voluntary nerve system
impulses go to the skeletal muscles
autonomatic nerve system
branch that goes to the glands and smooth muscles and cardiac muscles.
these anchor and link neurons to capillaries and allow for exchange of material bt the 2.
aid in guiding neurons, making synapses and help control the environment around the ionic environment around the neurons.
are macrophages that engulf invaders and damaged neurons.
produces cerebrospinal fluid, their cilia helps to circulate it around the brain and spinal cord
produce myelin sheath around cells in the cns.
highly specialized cells.
features of neurons
cant undergo mitosis
highly metabolic rate
short thick extensions of the cell body
receive impulses and transmit them to the cells body.
conducts signals away from the cell body
only 1 axon but it may branch into collaterals and at the end it will develop terminal branches
insulates the fibers and increases the speed of conduction of neural impulese
node if ranvier and saltatory action
most common type
lots of dendrites and 1 axon
used in special senses as sight and smell
1 axon and dendrites extending from the body
short extensions that divides into a peripheral process, which is sensory a d a central process that enters the cns
bt the motor and sensory neurons found in the cns. multipolar
states that i=v/r
once we get into this we get a response
all or none
either a stimulus is strong enough or it isnt
applies to single neurons.
the faster the signal comes along, the steonger the stimulus
absolute refractory period
period when the cell will not be able to respond to any stimulus. gates are already open
relative refractory period
time when you need a super maximal stimulus during repolarization of a cell
the are where 2 or more neurons meet
axon meeting a dendrite
conducts impulses to the synapse
carries impulses away from the synapse
provide a very low resistance pathway and allow for easy communication bc the cells
important in synchronization
separated by aynaptic cleft abs use neurotransmitters to communicate. cross the cleft and bind to receptors on the postsynapses to open the ion channels and continue the signal.
produce excitatory postsynaptic potentials.
produces inhibitory postsynaptic potentials which cause hyperpolarization
occurs when these potentials are added together.
occurs when a neuron fires rapidly. involves time and may use just 1synapse. fires so fast that the neuron may not go all the way back to resting.
more than 1 neurons activating the post synapse and combine together to go over thresholds
found at neuromuscular junctions. degraded by acetylcholinesterase to stop its functioning.
these include catacholamines such as dopamine norepinephrine and epinephrine and indolamines such as serotonin and histamine.
synthesized from amino acids.
found in brain and play a role in emotions and setting the biological clock.
used in ans
found only in the cns
acts as opiates or euphorics giving ppl a sense of well being.
atp can act as a fast excitatory neurotransmitter
nitric oxide and carbon monoxide
ionotropic \ direct
open ion channels
act like hormones and activate a second messenger system
part of the brain makes up the majority of the brains weight. makes by distinctive features.
outer layer of the hemispheres and is made up nerve cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers.
some domains control motor and sensory functions.
primary/somatic motor cortex
controls skeletal muscles. neurons known as pyramidal cells are used associated with fine motor control in the hands fingers and face
area is associated with learned motor skills of a repetitious or patterned manner.
sends coordinating signals to primary cortex and to lower, subcortical motor centers
motor speech area
found in left hemisphere
controls muscles if lips tongue jaw.
frontal eye field
controls voluntary movement of the eye
found in the frontal lobe
more in brain then then there are motor areas. associations areas that means we not only can sense things but make sense of things
primary sensory cortex
located right behind the primary motor cortex in the parietal bone. receives input from receptors located in the skin and skeletal muscles.
sensitive like hands and face
found in pariental lobe
analyzes input info from the primary sensory cortex
primary area lets you know where
and this area lets you know
found in the occipital lobe
broken down into the primary visual cortex
receives info and the visual association area which tells us what we are seeing
found in temporal lobe
primary aiditory cortex receives input from the inner ear and relates them to pitch rhythm and loudness
helps us understand what we hear
associated with temporal lobe
smells has a lot to do with emotions and the limbic system
balance found in temporal lobe
speech area found in temporal reign. left hemisphere
receives input from visual and auditory association areas and allows us to comprehend written and spoken language
connected to brocas area
anterior ass area/prefrontal cortex
found inf frontal lobes
deals with thoughts intelligence judgements and personality
posterior ass area
includes parts of the temporal parietal and occipital bone
receives info from all sensory ass areas
helps us recognize patterns faces and surroundings
gathers info from sensory inputs into1
area found under the cerebral hemispheres made of 3 regions
relay station which takes in signals from the senses sorts them out and sends them into proper areas in the cerebrum
area of the brain with many functions
sleep wake cycle
includes the pineal body
plays a role in circadian cycles
pathway for signals to and from the brain.
includes midbrain pons and medulla oblongata.
known as the small brain
import in smooth coordinated voluntary muscle move.
a functional system of the brain and not found in a certain area. involved in the emotional affective part of the brain.
found on brain stem
wide spread of axon connections
formations looks out for the activity of the ns as a whole
reticular activating system
part of this formation that keeps the cerebral cortex activated.
gets input from sensory neurons n keeps normal low level info out.
tough matter outer most layer. 2 layers
periosteal which is attached to the bone
meningeal that covers the the brain
subarachnoid space below this layer is filled with cerebrospinal fluid and contains all the major cerebral arteries and veins
sits right on top of the brain and contains lots of smaller blood vessels
allows the brain to float
cushions it against shock
buffers it a d gets rid of waste products
the blood braon barroer
helps to maintain a stable environment around the brain
provides by the tight junctions of the capillary walls
made of white and gray matter
makes up the butterfly configuration
mirror image connected by geay commissure.
surround the horns is made up of myelinated and some unmyelinated fibers that asend to higher brain centers
desends from the funiculi or fiber tracts on sides of the spinal cord
myelinated fibers that connects areas together
sensory pathway and will consist of 3 neurons.
first order neuron
second order neuron
used to transmit to the brain
third order neuron
most often is the brain itself.
trainsmits to the sensory cortex
lateral and spinothalamic tracts and transmits pain temp and coarse touch that may be diff to localize
transmits to sensory cortex.
more direct info that can be localized
transmits signals on muscle length or stretch to the cerebellum to help with coordination
sends axons down pyramidal/corticospinal tracts and used for fast and skilled vol movements.
includes the rubrospinal which is involved with muscle tone and posture on the opp side of the body
deals with muscle tone in the same side of the. body
responds to sensory stimuli
concerned with muscle tone and sweat glands
the factory where products for the cell are produced
the first cell body is found in
the cns and its axons extends to a ganglion
are specialized rough er that makes up proteins for the cell
collection of nerve cell bodies outside the cns
movement towards the 0
movement away from the 0
resting membrane potential
set up bc of the diff in permeability bt Na and K ions
surround each nerve fiber
bundles of fibers
surrounds the fascicles
ct that surrounds the group of fascicles and forms the nerves
nerve signal that jumps from one node to another
areas that connect one hemisphere to another
connects within a hemisphere one gyri to another
go from the cortex to the rest of the nervous system
narrow grooves bt the gyri
deep grooves bt the gyri
can cause repolarization or hospitalization
a change in the permeability of the membrane in the region of the receptor
used for communication bt neurons transmitting a signal from 1 end of the neuron to the other
generation of atp
starts with the neurons at resting potential
outlines the flap like temporal lobes and separates it from the parietal frontal lobes
separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum below
separates the cerebral hemipsheres
lies in the frontal plane separates the frontal lobes from the parietal lobe
specialized to respond to changes in their environment
respond to mechanical force as touch pressure vibration and stretch.
respond to changes in temp
respond to changes in chemical. pH oxygen and carbon dioxide
respond to oxygen and low pH in the blood. found in aorta and carotid area. if o2 or ph is low vasoconstriction occurs
retina of the eye. responds to light
respond to damaging stimuli that result in pain.
respond to stimuli outside of body
touch pressure pain temp. special senses
respond to stimuli in the body
chemical changes tissue stretch
hunger thirst discomfort
responds to internal stimuli
occurs in skeletal muscle tendons joints ligaments
modified dendrites endings of sensory neurons. found throughout the body a d monitor most types if general sensory info.
vision hearing equilibrium smell and taste
are housed in the sense organs
nonencapsualted nerve endings
everywhere in body
abundant in epithelia and ct
rapid predictable motor responses to a stimulus.
things we dnt have to think about or learn. they are involuntary
learned or acquired reflexes
things we automatically do without thinking about them. its practiced or an acquired skill.
reflex arc is made of
feels the stimulus
sends info to the cns along afferent fibers
found in cns. a simple synapse or more than one
carries messages from the cns by wah of the efferent neurons
that which responds like a muscle fiber or gland
involve the skeletal muscles and the autonomic involve the smooth muscle organs and cardiac muscles, as well as glands
are somatic reflexes that are controlled by the spinal cerebral cortex.
stretch/knee jerk reflex
monosynapti. and ipsilateral (same side)
responds to pain and is postsynaptic and ipsilateral
parasympatheti. fibers supply the heart lungs and digestive organs. considered vital for life
made of sensory/afferent fibers from the dorsal root ganglia
made of motor/efferent fibers
areas where parts of the spinal nerves can cross and mix with each other
spinal nerves forms sets of
somatic system works on
the ans works on
cardiac smooth muscles which are found in blood vessels organs and on glands
has the motor cell bodies in the central nervous system. their axons extends to the effector organs, the skeletal muscles.
the somatic system has the
motor cell bodies in the cns
and axon extend to the effector organ
the somatic system alway releases
acteylcholine. it excites the skeletal muscles
the ans may release
acteylcholine or norepinephrine onto the effector organs and causes excitation or inhibition
known as the thoracolumbar division bc the preganglionic neurons come from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord
when a preganglionic fibers get to the sympathetic trunk it can
synapse with a post ganglionic fiber
move through the chain
helps make up the abdominal aortic plexus
known as the craniosacral bc the preganglionci fibers come from the brain stem and sacral region
the vagus serves
most of the organs in the thoracic and abdominal cavity
the physiology of the ans depends on the
neurotransmitters acetylcholine and norepinephrine
ACh is released by
all preganglionic fibers and parasympathetic ppstganglionic fibers
nicotine produces the same effect as ACh does at these receptors
is always found on postganglionic neurons
named after a mushroom poison that nimics the effect if ACh. found on effector cells stimulated by postgang cholinergic fibers
muscarinic is always found
on effector cells stimulated by postganglionic cholinergic fibers
cause inhibition or stimulation
adrenergic receptors fall in to 2 cate
alpha and beta
the ans has
A chain of neurons that lead to the effector organs
collection of nerve cell bodies outside of the cns
transmits the signal to the effector organ.
when the preganglionic fibers gets to close to the sympathetic trunk it can
synapse with a postganglionic fiber
move thru the chain
the cranial output is associated with
facial and vagus cranial nerves
the sacral output of the parasympathetic division serves
the lower body
NE is released by
the beta receptor
clear curved anterior portion that allows light to pass thru
the anterior chamber of the eye is
bt cornea and iris
posterior chamber of the eye is
bt the iris and the lens
the posterior chamber is
filled with aqueous humor
the posterior segment
is filled with vitreous humor
transparent and flexible
allows light to get thru
enables us to adjust our eyesight to near and far vision
first part if focusing
simply getting the light to converge
the lens is held in place
the suspensory ligaments/ciliary zonula
the suspensory lig/ciliary zonula is connected to
the. ciliary body made of ciliary muscles (smooth)
control the shape of the lens
the ability to focus on close objects
light rays from distant objects are focused to soon in front of the retina
occurs when light rays are not focused before they hit the retina or focused behind it
caused by an uneven curvature of the cornea or lens so light is focused in diff places
occurs as the lens becomes less flexible usually with age
made of the pigmented layer that contains cells that absorbs light and stores vit. a
contains the photoreceptors cells
the rods which are active in dim light and see gray tones.
see in high light and see colors
the cones are concentrated
in the fovea centralis
area of the retina where we have the best visual accuracy
when light hits the retina
it is absorbed by rhodopsin in the rods and photopsin in the cones
3 diff types of photopsin
responds to either blue green or red wavelengths
go from light areas to dark areas
go from dark areas to light areas
the area where the nerve fibers leave the eye
meet at the optic chiasma
the crossing over. of fibers help
with our binocular vision depth perception 3d vision
fluids of the chambers are drained here
the ear. outer ear
includes the auricle the visible part of the outer ear which gathers sound waves
external auditory canal
extends into the temporal bones
modified sweat glands secrete earwax or cerumen
traps material and protects the rest if the ear canal
the outer ear ends
at the tympanic membrane or the ear drum
middle ear(tympanic cavity)
is bordered on 1 side by the eardrum and on the other by the oval and round windows
inner ear (labyrinth)
contains the organs of hearing and balance.
the inner ear can be divided into
the bony/osseous labyrinth which is holes in the bones.
perilymph & endolymph
fluids that are used in hearing and balance.
areas in the inner ear
are vestibule and contain saccule and utricle
impot in balance and movement
contains the spiral organ of corti which is involved in hearing
the frequency of the sound waves accounts for
the mixture of frequencies is
quality of sound
organ of corti
used to hear. found in the scala media
caused by the inability if the ear to transmit sound waves to the inner parts of the ear
occurs due to damage to the nerve network that transmits impulses to the brain
ringing in the ears
refers to our position with respect to gravity and straight line changes in speed and directions
actual sensory receptors found in saccule and utricle
involves angular movements and the organs involved are found in the semicircular canals
organ of dynamic balance
taste and smell
taste buds are found
in the fungiform papillae and circumvallate papillae of the tongue
basic taste sensations
salty sweet sour bitter
the organ of smell
smell is a combination an activation of many olfactory cells that respond to
simple sensory receptors
modified dendritic nerve endings
complex sensory receptors
specialized senses. sight smell
if the potential is strong enough it will create an action potential
nerves that are sensory / afferent
carry signals to the cns
nerves that are motor /efferent
carry signals away from the cns
carry to or away from the cns
act throughout the body
regulate functions of the body
growth sexual dev reproduction
change the permeability of cell mem
start synthesis of material in cell
activate or deactivate enzymes
stimulation of mitosis
release of horm is controlled by other horm
hormones in the body
chemical messengers that are dropped into the blood stream directly from the glands
factors that influence horm activity
blood level of horm
affinity or strength of binding
# of receptors
up and down regulations
the presence of 1 hormone will make another one work better
important in setting the metabolic rate for cells. helps use hormones more efficiently.
2 or more hormones cause the same action and they build in each other. getting a stronger response that expected
occurs when hormones have opposite actions
insulin and glucagon
direct gene activations
involves steroid hormones which are soluble in lipids and able to go through the cell membrane. bind to a receptor and becomes activated. travels to nucleus and causes transcription of mRNA and a new protein
hormones is insoluble in the plasma membrane and cont enter the cell. binds to a receptor and activates adenylate cyclase. converts ATP to AMP cAMP
phosphatidyle inositol PIP
Splits into 2 second messengers. some cause a rise in CAL and will act as a 3rd messenger.
3 ways a hormone can release
controlled by a change in blood make up of normal constituents.
release is controlled by nervous system stimulation
gland under n connected to the hypothalamus by the infundibulum has 2parts
stores neurohomones, hormones secreted by a neuron which is produced in the hypothalamus.
circulatory cinn bt this part and hypothalamus which will carry hormones that will regulate the release of pituitary horm.
growth hor GH
known as somatotropin. gh is released by regulated gh releasing horm (GHRH) gh responds to stress and exercise through the release of GHRH
works on most body cells. mainly skeletal and muscle. its anabolic in nature, taking amino acids into cells and promoting protein synthesis. and uses fat as fuel
child shows rapid growth and becomes tall
epiphyseal plate has already fused no bone can no longer growm
gigantism & acromegaly
child will not grown above 4 feet.. can be treated eith growth horm
thyroid stimulating horm TSH
known as thyrotropin
horm acts on the thyroid gland.
release of thus horm is regulated by thyrotropin releasing horm TRH from the hypothalamus
adrenocortictropic horm ACTH
known as corticotropin
acts on the adrenal cortex
release of this horm is stimulated by corticotropin releasing horm CRH
follicle stimulating hormFSH
released under the influence of gonadotropin releasing horm GnRH
stimulates the production of gametes in both sexes.
luteinizing horm LH
released under the influence ofbgonadotropon releasing horm.
works with FSH in females to trigger maturation of an ovarian follicle. in males it produces testosterone from inyerstitial cells
stimulates milk production
when PIH decreases PRL increases
oxytocin and antodiuretic horm
stimulates contractions of smooth muscles. uterus
antidiuretic horm ADH
acts on the kidneys causing reabsorption of more water producing less urine.
condition where lots of urine is produced and the subject has intense thirst
responsible for 2 horm
throxine and triiodothyronie
made up of cubodial follicle cells and follicles that are filled with colloid and thyroglobulim molecules.
metabolism is the chemical reaction in the body that releases energy or create materials the body can use.
low t4 levels stimulate TSH production
CONTROLLED by a neg feedback loop which csn over come when the. body needs more energy
signs are a low bmr chills constipation thick dry skin.
low thyroid activity in children
shiet bodies thick tongue and neck and mental retardation
causes by genetics or lack of iodine in diet
enlargement of the thyroid gland
caused by lack of iodine in diet
signs are high bmr perspiration irregular heart beat weight loss
treated by removing thyroid gland or killing most active vells
parathyroid horm PTH
responds to low level of calcium in the body. will increase calcium levels by
reabso of cal in kidneys
absor of cal in intestines
leads to high level of Ca hypercalcemia depresses the nervous system. causes muscles twitches spasms leads to deaths
leads to loe ca hypoclacemia increases nervous system activities.
divide into the cortex and medulla.
cotex is in 3 zones
helps maintain mineral balance in the body by regulating the Na ions causing their reabsorption from the kidneys.
increase in blood colume hypertension and edema. also causes a loss in K ions which makes muscles weak and nerves unresponsive
the cells in the kidneys sense low bp or low solute concentration. causes a release of the enzymes renim which converts angiotensinogen into ang II which releases aldosterone
causes release of CRH and a rise in ACTH
atrial natriuretic peptide ANP
horm secreted by heart muscles when the bp increases. blocks renin and lowers bp
leads tOo hyperglycemia loss of muscle and boned water and slat rentdntion. swollen face
involves both glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids
loss weight and Na levels drop K levels rise.
secreted from the zona reticularis used to form testosterone as well as estrogen and progesterone
in males pre puberty
early maturation of repro. organs
in females may develop beards body hair and clitoris may grow the size of a small penis
causes hyperglycemia by releasing glucose into the blood. main target is liver
lowers blood sugar levels.
inhibits breakdown of glycogen and gluconeogensis
helps causes oxidarion of glucose for atp
can be caused by either hyposecretion of insulin or hypoactivity.
large amounts of urine produced.
insulin dependent occurs in early life and sudden
autoimmune disease body attacks the beta cells of the pancreas
non insulin dependent
occurs after 40
weight control is import
universal donor. no agglutinogens on the surface of the rbc. so nothing for the body to attack.
have 2 a genes or may have an A and an O gene.
continue to create more spermatogonia
come down from the basement layer to become primary spermatocyte
causes the maturation of rep organs
estrogen declines after menopause
works with estrogen to promote breast deve. and menstrual cycle
maturation of rep oragans
aggressiveness sperm production
triggers spermatogensis & helps develop other masculine body chara. a neg feedback effect on the release of GnRH and FSH and LH
is implicated in the set up of what is known as circadian cycles. daily rhythms of horm and body functions.
thymosin and thymopoietin
invovled in the immune response
growth hormones is regulated by
growth hormones releasing hormones GHRH
growth hormone releasing hormones is released by
growth hormone inhibiting hormones GHIH
abnormalities of GH
red blood cells
mature in 2 days
red blood cell functions
transport of gasses
red blood cell description
increase surface area and allows for more efficient exchange of oxygen
red blood cells
able to fit through small capillaries
red blood cells
more room for hemoglobon but means they can not reproduce. must be replaced
binds oxygen. contain HEME group with an atom of iron and the goblin part are are the proteins.
production of erythrocytes
occurs in the red bone marrow
found in flat bones of the skull and pelvis
known as erythropoiesis
formation of blood
stem cell for all cells found in the blood
a committed cell that has to become a red blood cell
the stage where we have production of a large #of ribosomes
on these ribosomes that we get the production of hemoglobin
this phase the nucleus and organelles are ejected. the cell collapses on on itself to take the place of the ejected cells
cells enter the circulation
process from hemocytoblast to reticulocytes
takes about 15 days
when more than usual rbc production must take place
a decline in rbc #
decreased amount of hemoglobin/decline in oxygen delivery
reduced ava./increase in oxygen demand from the tissue
not enough o2 being carried to the tissues.
due to lose of blood
rbcs are lysed or destroyed. caused by mismatched transfusion bacteria or parasites
caused by a destruction of red bone marrow due to cancer drugs radiation.
not having enough iron in the diet poor iron absorption or chronic bleeding
genetic disease that effect certain races
effects Mediterranean descent. production of thin and delicate rbc
effects Africans. hemoglobin is spiky and sharp and causes rbc to become crescent shaped when o2 levels are low.
there are too many rbc
blood gets sluggish and moves slow
too much iron in the blood.
leads to coppery bronze gray skin color. clog internal organs stomach pains cancer
wbc goes above 11000 due to infection
attracted to an area of infection responding to chemical signals sent by cells when an infection occurs
most numerous wbc
dnt take up acid or basic strain
granules are hard to see
these strains with a basic strain and the granules come out a purplish to black. u or s shaped
pick up the acid strain and the granules come out red. respond to parasites such as worms by releasing enzymes.
2nd most numerous wbc
involved in the immune response with the b type producing antibodies and the t type helping
these contain a u or kidney shaped nucleus. they are macrophages that act against viruses.
production of wbc
leukopoiesis is controlled by hormones known as interleukins and colony stimulating factors.
excess of wbc
cells are immature and cant react to help fight disease.
excess of atypical agranulocytes. contagious disease that is caused by the epstein barr virusm tired and painful.
abnormally low wbc count caused by drugs such as anticancer agents
small parts of a larger cell. a megakarocytes. the mega breaks in to small pieces. important for formation of a blood clot
fluid part of the blood contains proteins that are impot in the formation of the blood clot and proteins that are impor in maintaining osmotic pressure in the blood
process wherein the body works to prevent blood loss.
triggered by injury chemicAls or pain. vessel goes into constriction. slow down blood flow. effective in small vessels
formation of plug
platelets do not usually stick to the wall of the blood vessels.
followed when the endothelium of the vessel is damaged. all factors needed are within or intrinsic to the blood.
followed when tissue cells are damage is done or blood escapes to the tissue.
both pathways have a cascading effect leading to the activation of the factor x.
removal of a clot. the clot sows on its own seeds of destruction. the cells in the clot secret plasminigen which turns to plasmin and eats the clot
too few circulating platelets. causes spontaneous bleeding from small vessels.
bleeding disorder in which some factors are not producrd due to a genetic defect.
lay in top of rbc to let them know what can and cant go into the body
has both agglutinogens so it will not make antibodies against each other. universal recipients. receive any type
must have both the A and B gene
the Rh factor
comes into play when the Rh negative mother gives birth to an Rh positive child. there are no natural occurring antibodies in the mothers blood and will not create any til she gets the meds.
blood types are created by
inferior and superior vena cavas
the blood returns to the ❤ through these 2 major veins
returns blood that has circulated around the cardiac tissue
passive. mostly open. attached to the wall of ventricles by the chordae tendoneae & pappillary muscles
pulmonary semilunar valve
as ventricles contract forcing blood out through this valve the av valve closes
blood travels to the lungs by way of the pulmonary artery and back via the pulmonary vein
thicker walls than the right side. needs more muscle to send blood to the whole body rather than just the lungs
that run through it are interconnected.
areas that the diff fibers connect in. anchor adjoining disks and allow communication bt the fibers
all or none law
applies to the whole heart not just one fiber
longer refractory period
time that the muscle can not be stimulated this prevents the heart from going into tetanus
contracts on its own.
sinoatrial node pace maker
this area of the heart depolarizes 70 80 time a min. fastest rate than any other area of the heart. sets the pace for the rest of the heart
atrioventricular node av node
pulse spreads out over the atria and reaches this area. this is comm area bt the atria and the ventricles.
stimulation of the heart will take place
through the bundle branches and AV bundle.
most of the simulation comes from
the purkinje fibers
the heart can be acted upon by the
cardioacceleratory and cardioinhibitory centers
shows the depolarization of the atria
shows repolarization of the ventricles.
shows the depolarization of the ventricles
atrial repolarization occurs during
the qrs complex and is masked. if system isnt working right you might get a av bloack showing up
uncoordinated contractions of the cardiac muscle which each fiber going its own way
shocking the heart to make it go back to zero a d reset itself.
ventricular filling..mid to late diastole
blood passively flows through the artia into the ventricles and the av valves are open
2nd stage ventricle systole
starts with qrs complex which means both set of valves are closed. pressure inside valves builds rapidly until semilunar valves open
ventricle relax and pressure drops rapidly as it built rapidly. blood flows back towards the ventricles and this closes the semilunar valves producing the sound
hr + sv
co stands for
cardiac output on ml/min
heart rates in beats/min
stroke volume in ml/beat
amount of blood the heart pumps out each time it beats
diastolic volume edv
amount of blood on the ventricles after filling
end systolic volume esv
amount if blood left in the heart after contractions
stroke volume is affected
by the preload, contractility and afterload.
preload depends on
the frank~starling law of the heart.
frank starling law
the more stretch applied to the cardiac muscle the more force it will exert when it contracts
the greater the venous force
the more the cardiac muscle stretches and the greater the contraction force
a slow heart beat
will allow for more filling time and more stretch of the muscle
is increased force independent of muscle stretch. its affected by Ca ions and the sympathetic nervous system
is the pressure that must overcome to get ejection of blood from the ventricles. import with high bp
area found in the medulla oblongata. this is the sympathetic nervous system branch.
responds to emotional or physical stress. it releases norepinephrine that stimulates the SA and AV nodes and makes the heart beat faster
part of the parasympathetic system. calms us down after stress. releases acetylcholine from the vagus nerve fibers.
responds to bp
increases heart rate quickly
increases heart rate at a slower pace and is more sustained
a fast heart rate over 100b/min
slow heart rate often effect of exercise
innermost layer and is the only one that will be found in all three types of vessels.
middle layer and is made up of mixture of smooth muscle and elastic tissue. will change the most depending on the needs of the vessels
outer most layer anchors the vessels to other objects in the body. may have own blood vessles running through it
vessels that carry blood away from the heart and are divided by size and functions
large thick walled vessels found near the heart. elastic tissue.
more smooth muscle and less elastic fibers. can change diameter by having the muscle constrict or dilate
smaller version of arteries that have less and less media around them.
smallest vessels in the body. made up if tunica intima. the thinness of the capm membrane makes them ideal for exchanging materials.
endothelium of these vessels is interrupted. cells joined by tight junctions with clefts that allow material like fluids to get through
has endothelial cells that are joined by gap junctions.
collections of cap with a thoroughfare channel or vascular shunt
small amount of smooth muscle which are found at the entrance way if true cap
help direct the flow of blood. they will shut off the flow to cap and keep it going through the thoroughfare channel.
where cap come together they form venules.
the start of the veins
layers of the heart
epicardium & endocardium
the visceral layer of the serous pericardium
endothelium which lines the chamber walls
stimulation of the heart takes place
in the bundle branches and the av bundles
stimulation of the ventricles comes from the purkinje fibers
a union or connection of vascular channels and offer more than 1 pathway for blood to get to organs or drain blood from an area
the volume of blood that flows through an area.
relates to bp and is the differences in pressure from 1 area to another
r-resistance or opposition of flow
friction caused by 3 factors
3 factors of r-resistance
thickness of blood