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composition of interestitial fluid, clotting to prevent fluid loss, defense, and body temp. regulation
cells, plasma, and dissolved proteins.
becomes overly excited, convulsions may take place.
blood pressure raises
salts and proteins
invaginate- infold one portion of a structure with another portion.
invest- envelope, cover, surround a tissue
visceral serous pericardium ( epicardium)
pericardial cavity - space between the parietal and viseral layers of the serous P.
Parietal serous pericardium
R and L ventricle
right- right atrium
Left- left ventricle
inferior- right ventricle
superior - ill defined
visceral serous pericardium
Atriventricular groove _ aka coronary sulcus
anterior interventricular groove
Posterior interventricular groove
great cardiac vein
posterior / inferior
middle cardiac vein
ear like flaps that are wrinkled externally.
openings for SVC IVC and coronary sinus
Opening for tricuspid valve
fetal foramen ovale
RA to LA
strokes and migrains
cusps of tricuspid V
pulmoary semilunar V
allows blood from left to right which overworks the right side of the heart, heart murmer.
openings for 4 pulmonary veins
opening for bicuspid valve /; mitral
cusps of bicuspid valve
aortic semilunar valve
mitral valve prolapse- occurs when valve fails to close allows backflow to LA during Ventricular contraction. surgery
mitral valve stenosis- due to abnoraml of cusps, decreast av orifice diameter, reduces heart function and can cause heart failure.
heart murmer- abnormal heart sound caused by turbulent flow
Where are the auscultatory areas of these heart valve...
Fibrous skeleton of the heart.. what are 3 functions?
analagous to the bony skeleton in the sense that provides a point of attachment for the valves and cardiac m.
stops direct transmission of electrical signal between the atrial and ventricular musculature.- prevents simultaneous contraction of the atria and ventricles
4 fibrous rings
surround the opening of each valve
specialized cardiac m. cells.
NOT NUERAL TISSUE!
determines heart rate
located in the upper wall of the right atrium near the entrance of the SVC.
located in the lower part of the interatrial septum near the opening of the right AV tricuspid valve.
delays the signal
BOH is located in the upper part of the interventricular septum.
only route by which an electrical impulse can travel from teh atria to ventricles
lovated in the lower part of the interventrucular septum
carry electrical signal to the right and left ventricles.
atrial diastole begins
AV valves close
Ventricular pressure increases
Semilunar valves are forced open
Ventricular pressure decreases
Semilunar valves close
AV valves open
Ventricles fill with blood
located on the pulmonary trunk and aortic arch.
contains post gang sympathetic neurons and pre and post gang parasym. neurons as well as GVAs
spinal cord t1-t5
cervical symp chain
sunapse with post gang nerves
thoracic spinal cord
clse to the heart, P high
muscular ( distributive)
aorta, pum trunk, collom iliac, subclavian
nutrients and gas exchange
return blood from teh lungs to the left atrium of the heart
part of LV
SA and AV node
part of interventriuclar septum
anterior interventrcular artery
anterior interventricular artery
left end of the coronary sinus
areas supplied by LCA
post interventricular artery
drains into the R end ofthe coronary sinus
areas supplied by RCA, pst desceding
runs from ant to post around right side of heart
runs with the right coronary sulcus on the ant surface of the heart
drains into the right end of the coronary sinus
drains areas suppl;ied by RCA
venous blood withdrawal
SVC, IVC, azygos, hepatic portal vein
immunity- production and distribution of lymphocytes, primarily lymphoid tissues, red bone marrow, thymus gland. secondary lymph tissue- lympoh nodes, tonsils, spleen
movement of fluid- maintenance of normal blood volume and intersitial fluid homeostasis
transportation of digested fat( chylomicrons) from the small intestine- provide alternate route for transport.
portions of the spleen
mucous membranes (nasal and oral cavities)
The parietal layer of serious membranes ( pleura, pericadium, peritoneum)
veins and arteries
visceral organs in thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
L and R subclavian lymph trunks- upper limbs and portions of the thorax and upper back
L and R jugular lymph trunks- head and neck
L and R bronchomediastinal - thoracic viscera
L and R lumbar- abdominopelvic wall, distal colon and rectum, reproductive viscera, and lower limbs
intestinal lymph trunks- abdominal viscera
one way valves
R subclavian, R jugular, and R bronchomediastinal trunks
R internal jugular and R subclavian
Thoracic duct- dumps to __
inferior, R and L lumbar trunks and the intestinal trunks
left , L subclavian, L jugular, L bronchomediastinal trunks
L subclavian and L internal jugular veins
muscular contractions, respiratory movements, valves
gravity and inactivity
red bone marrow- flat bones and epiphysses of long bones and ilium- produce lymphocytes- lymphopoiesis
lymph node includes?
hilus ( helium)
activation of lymphocytes by antigens, and phagocytosis of antigens by macrophages.
ruptured- blood leaks to abdomin. occur if damgae to 9-11 ribs. car accident hockey
spleno- bimanula palp enlarged speen. causes blood cnacer, viral infections, hemoytic anemia
MALT ( mucuso associated lympoh tissue- dense collection of lymphoctes foundin mucous membebranes of GI rep and urinary and reproductive.
Peyers patches- ilieum, of SI
lymphoma-malignant ___ of lymph structure
non hodgkins more common
autoimmune disorders 4
type 1 diabetes
olfaction- receptors in upper nasal cavity
filtering, warming, moistening inspired air
sound production during vocalization- larynx produces speech, resonate sound
destruction of inhaled airborne pathogens
metabolic functions- assist in blood volume, blood pressure, and control pH.
conducting portion- most of pulm tree, interconnected cavities adn tubes that conduct air to and from the lungs. includes nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, primary and secondary bronchiole, no gas exchange here
resp- gas excang eoccurs, resp bronchios, alveolar ducts, alveoli, liked to cap beds and gas exchange here
upper resp tract includes the and the lower resp includes
nose and nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx
larynx, tachea, bronchi, lungs
superior- roof- frontal ethmoid, sphenoid, . ( ethmoid- crista galli, cribiform plate olfactorny n)
lateral- walls- ehtmoid, inf. nasal conchae, maxilla
inferior- -floor- hard (maxilla and palantine) and soft palate(maxilla mucuous membrane leading to orophar.
posterior- post nasal aperature or choanae.
divid nassal cavity into R and L halves, ehmoid and vomer,post. nasal septal cartilage ant
all 3 nasal conchae, inf, sup, mid
flitering, warming, and moistening ( hair, cilia,, vascularity, mucous)
Pharynx- what is it and what is its function?
common space for digestive and resp tracts.
passageway for air and food
nasopharnyx ( post to nasal cavity, sup to soft palate)- soft palate, sphenoi, nasal concae
oropharynx ( mid region, immed. post to oral cavity- mucous covered) - soft palate, hyoid bone, fauces- palatgolossal arch
laryngopharynx- hyioid, cont with esophagus and inf larynx
eustachian tube openings
pharyngeal tonsils- only at top of NP, alls pressure in mid ear to be released- swallow gum planes
exclusively resp functions
fauces- throat, uvula, palatine and lingual tonsils- first line of defense- between 2 m covered arches- ling- base of tongue
both resp and digestive funtsions
both resp and dig functions
conducts air to lower resp tract and produces sounds
inf to pharynx- sup to trachea
laryngeal skeleton has __ peices of cartilage name them
epiglottis, thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid, cuneiform, corniculate
false cords- protect true
true folds vibrate to make sounds
glottis- space btwn R and L vocal folds
what are the laryngeal m. and what do they do?
intrinsic- move the parts of the larynx relative to one another, regulate the lenth and tension of the vocal cords, open and close the glottis regualting air flow
extrinsic- move the larynx as a whole unite, elevated during swallowing
cricoid cartilage, C6, esopagus- post trachea, t4, t5 dis sternal angle
tubular 5 in long lined with mucous membraned, ciliated epithelium with goblet cells, cartilaginous rings, carina- ridge in center at tracheal bifuciarion - important for cough tickel
right, sup mid and inf lobe, obliques and horiz. fissure,, and the caridac impression
left- sup inf lobes, oblique fissure, cardiac nothc,linguila, cardiac improession
pleura- parietal, costal parietal, mediastinal parietal, and diaphragmatic parietal
pulm veins- carry o blood drain into LA
bronchial veins- carry deo blood drain into azygos venous system
thoraccic symp trunk
intercostal- costal parietal pluera, diaphram parietal pleural
phrenic n - mediastinal and central pdiaphrma parietal pluera
external- used in inspiration, elevate ribs
internal- forced expiration
innermost intercostals- exhale
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