Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Which of the following research strategies is most characteristic of anthropology?
All of the following are characteristic field techniques of the ethnographer except
longitudinal analysis of data sets gathered from state-sponsored statistical agencies.
An anthropologist has just arrived at a new field site and feels overwhelmed with a creepy, profound feeling of alienation, of being without some of the most ordinary, trivial (and therefore basic) cues of his culture of origin. What term best describes what he is experiencing?
Which of the following is not an example of participant observation?
administering interviews according to an interview schedule over the phone
What did Bronislaw Malinowski mean when he referred to everyday cultural patterns as "the imponderabilia of native life and of typical behavior"?
Features of culture such as distinctive smells, noises people make, how they cover their mouths when they eat, and how they gaze at each other are so fundamental that natives take them for granted but are there for the ethnographer to describe and make sense of.
In the field, ethnographers strive to establish rapport: a good, friendly working relationship based on personal contact
achieved in large part by engaging in participant observation
The research technique that uses diagrams and symbols to record kin connections is called
the genealogical method.
What is the term for an expert on a particular aspect of native life?
A. Representative sample
B. Etic informant
C. Key cultural consultant
D. Biased informant
E. Example of the life-history approach
Ethnographers typically combine emic and etic strategies in their fieldwork. This means they are interested in applying both
local and scientist-oriented research approaches.
Which of the following is not a characteristic field technique of the ethnographer?
Traditional ethnographic research focused on the single community or culture, which was treated as more or less isolated and unique in time and space. However,
here has been a shift within the discipline toward a recognition of ongoing and inescapable flows of people, technology, images, and information.
What is the term used by John Durham Peters (1997) to describe how contemporary people simultaneously experience the local and the global?
Reflecting today's world, in which people, images, and information move about as never before, fieldwork must be more flexible and on a larger scale. The result of such fieldwork is often an ethnography that
is increasingly multi sited and multi timed, integrating analyses of external organizations and forces to understand local phenomena.
In survey research, what is sampling?
the collection of a study group from a larger population
In survey research, a sample should
be constituted so as to allow inferences about the larger population
In survey research, what term is used to refer to the attributes that vary among the members of a population?
Despite the variety of research techniques that the ethnographer may utilize in the field, in the best studies the hallmark of ethnography remains
entering the community and getting to know its people.
This chapter's survey of the major theoretical perspectives that have characterized anthropology highlights all of the following except
the theoretical and methodological shift from complexity to models that simplify human diversity.
Lewis Henry Morgan is well known for his work The League of the Iroquois, considered anthropology's earliest ethnography. This and other of his works illustrate his view of unilinear evolutionism, which is that
there is one line or path through which all societies have to evolve, and this path involves specific stages that cannot be skipped, ending at the final stage of civilization.
Franz Boas is the undisputed father of four-field U.S. anthropology. One of his most important and enduring contributions to anthropology was
showing that human biology was plastic, and that biology (including race) did not determine culture.
The view that each element of culture, such as the culture trait or trait complex, has its own distinctive history, and that social forms (such as totemism in different societies) that might look similar are far from identical because of their different histories, is known as
As investigators who illustrated the functionalist approach in anthropology, both Bronislaw Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown's ethnographic research focused on
the role of cultural traits and practices in contemporary society.
Radcliffe-Brown advocated that social anthropology be a synchronic rather than a diachronic science; that is, a study
of societies as they exist today (synchronic, one at a time) rather than across time (diachronic).
Which of the following terms refers to the theoretical paradigm which holds that customs (social practices) function to preserve the social structure?
structural functionalism, as illustrated in the work of Radcliffe-Brown and Evans-Pritchard
The work of which of the following anthropologists illustrated a renewed interest in cultural change and even evolution (although of a very different sort than Tylor and Morgan had in mind)?
A. Ruth Benedict
B. Max Gluckman
C. Victor Turner
D. Julian Steward
E. Margaret Mead
Despite the differences among theoretical paradigms of practitioners as varied as Harris (cultural materialism), White (neoevolutionism), Julian Steward (cultural ecology), and Margaret Mead (configurationalism), all of them have what in common?
a strong sense of determinism, leaving very little (if any) room for the exercise of individual human agency
Émile Durkheim's focus on social facts illustrates what assumption shared by many anthropologists?
Psychologists study individuals, but anthropologists study individuals as representative of something more: a collective phenomenon that is more than the sum of its parts.
Interpretive anthropologists such as Clifford Geertz approach the study of culture as
Which is the key assumption in Claude Lévi-Strauss's structuralism?
Human minds have certain universal characteristics that originate in common features of the Homo sapiens brain and lead people everywhere to think similarly regardless of their society or cultural background.
The actions that individuals take, both alone and in groups, in forming and transforming cultural identities are referred to as
A. psychological individualism.
B. dynamic structuralism.
C. free will.
focuses on how individuals, through their actions and practices, influence and transform the world they live in.
This chapter mentions the work of Wolf and Mintz, both students of Julian Steward, as illustrations of approaches that
consider the relevance of world-system theory and political economy to anthropology.
More recent approaches in historical anthropology, while sharing an interest in power with world-system theorists, have focused more on
local agency, the transformative actions of individuals and groups within colonized societies
What right do ethnographers have to represent a people or culture to which they don't belong? This question illustrate
anthropology's crisis in representation—questions about the role of the ethnographer and the nature of ethnographic authority.
The characteristic field techniques of the ethnographer are participant observation, the genealogical method, and in-depth interviewing.
Traditionally, ethnographers have tried to understand the whole of a particular culture.
When an ethnographer uses an interview schedule to gather information from the field, this inevitably limits the researcher's capacity to ask and answer truly relevant questions.
Really good key cultural consultants will actually end up recording most of the data needed to write an ethnography.
The emic perspective focuses on local explanations of criteria and significance.
Since there are so many anthropologists in the United States, the distinction between emic and etic does not apply to American culture.
Longitudinal research is the long-term study of a community, region, society, culture, or other unit, usually based on repeated visits.
Despite the increasing popularity of team research among anthropologists, the best ethnographies are always the product of individual work.
Ethnography is increasingly multi timed and multi sited, the result of a shift toward a recognition of the ongoing and inescapable flows of people, technology, images, and information that characterizes much of the world today.
Given the realities of the contemporary world, anthropologists need to apply methods that protect their analyses from biases caused by external forces.
The American Anthropological Association Code of Ethics prohibits anthropologists from working with governments on matters of national security
Survey research studies a small sample of a larger population.
Survey research is usually conducted through intensive personal contact with the study subjects.
his chapter's brief overview of the history of anthropological theory suggests that the discipline has made no important contributions to social theory in general.
Morgan and Edward Tylor, both considered among the fathers of anthropology, worked within the paradigm of unilinear evolution.
Franz Boas's famous biological studies of European immigrants to the United States revealed and measured phenotypical plasticity, showing that the environment and cultural forces could change human biology.
Boas and his students were strong proponents of cross-cultural comparisons, without which they could not validate their findings.
Manchester anthropologists Max Gluckman and Victor Turner made conflict an important part of their analysis, distancing themselves somewhat from Panglossian functionalism, the tendency to see things as functioning not just to maintain the system but to do so in the most optimal way possible.
Beyond Morgan'd and Tylor's early anthropological work, no major theoretical paradigm in anthropology has embraced the role of evolution in cultural change.
Much of the history of anthropology has been about the roles and relative prominence of culture and the individual.
Among the classic works of processual approaches to culture is Edmund Leach's Political Systems of Highland Burma. This study made a tremendously important point by taking a regional rather than a local perspective.
The overall trend in anthropological theory has been from theories that put human agency at the center of cultural dynamics to paradigms that see evolution as the main force behind cultural change.
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!