March 3rd, 2008 Social Class Stratified- Highly unequal distribution of resources and wealth, with large differences in access to power and social rewards (prestige). Inequalities between social strata- Unequal access to wealth, power, and prestige, as well as productive resources, such as land, technology, and education or training. More associated with state level societies and not bands or tribes. Types of Strata Caste: Endogamous (marry within own caste) groups with no possibility of mobility. Laws and regulations regarding social relations between castes. More permanent membership. Most common example is India?s caste system. If born into caste, you ain?t going anywhere. Class: Strata that have different degrees of ownership of productive property (means of production?land, technology, tools) and material goods. Also have different influence over difference-making and public policy. Exogamy is technically allowed and people can move up and down social class by marriage. Race and Gender- Not discussed today but will be touched upon in future. Pre-Capitalist Strata Feudalism: Relationship between lords, serfs, and fiefs. Largely self-sufficient. Lords-Owners of fiefdom (fief=land) Serfs- Peasant laborers bound to a lord. Allowed to farm on this land but had to give certain amount to lord. Class and Capitalism Karl Marx?Focused on differences based on material wealth. Bourgeoisie- Owners of factories, mines, large farms, and other means of production. Elite class. Proletariat- Working class that sells their labor to survive. Max Weber- Three dimensions of social stratification in addition to material wealth. Wealth (economic) Power (political) Prestige (social status) Socio-Economic Status Quantitative studies often use socio-economic status which combines variables of income, profession, and education. No set boundaries to determine differences in socio-economic status. Questions to ask regarding class: How are class relations reproduced? (How do they change over time?) Why do subordinated groups consent to be governed? How do subordinated groups accommodate to and resist dominant or hegemonic ideologies? Coercion- Forced or subtle. Making another view the way you view. Enculturation Ideologies (numerous types) Become prominent when viewed as ?common sense. Can shape conventional thought. Hegemony (Antonio Gramsci)-The prominent influence over others. Gender Stratification Biological Sex Female- XX Male- XY Gender The social construction of male and female characteristics. Gender Roles Tasks and activities that are ?assigned? to men and women in the culture Gender stereotypes Oversimplified but often strongly held ideas about the characteristics of men and women Types of gender stratification Material and other valued resources Power Prestige Human rights and personal freedoms Control over own life, labor, and its fruits Control over the lives, labor, and produce of others Gender Inequality In economic systems Women have less of a role in the production of goods in agricultural societies. They tend to have the more domesticated roles. Occurred near the end of the 19th century. In kinship and residence systems Matrilineal, matrilocal societies have women with more decision making power and less domestic violence as the women are surrounded by their family. In power structures Matriarchy is very uncommon. Most often occurs that the structure is Patriarchy and men control the political system. Contributions to subsistence Control over economic resources Post-marital kinship ties and residence Domestic (Private)/ Public Dichotomy Participation in politics, trade, warfare, ?work,? spiritual activities and curing Violence History: Inequalities, struggles to change roles and meanings Remember that all of these can go both ways, just depends on the culture and society you are looking at.
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