The ability to adapt to changes in your immediate environment such as removing your hand from a hot stove is called...
Regional Anatomy studies
All superficial and internal features of a specific area of the body
studies how organisms PERFORM vital functions
complex chemical reactions that provide energy for life processes
In terms of levels of organization the groupings from SMALLEST particles to LARGEST pieces are...
Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism
The type of physiology that studies the effects of diseases on an organ systems function is called:
This system consists of the heart, blood and blood vessels:
The main job of the integumentary system is:
This system consists of the bladder, ureters and urethra:
In homeostatic regulation, the area that integrates, and receives and processes information from the receptors is known as:
A variation outside the normal limits that triggers an automatic response to CORRECT the situation by going in the opposite direction is called (ex Thermoregulation)
Negative Feedback Loop
When an initial stimulus produces a response that REINFORCES that stimulus (ex milk production or blood clotting) is called:
Positive Feedback Loop
A person is in the anatomical position when:
They face forward, hands at sides, palms up, feet together
This muscle is responsible for dividing the ventral body cavity in the superior thoracic and inferior abdominopelvic cavities:
The science that investigates MATTER and its interactions is called:
Perform bonding in an atom and are in the furthest shell from the nucleus
Another name for a POSITIVELY charged ION is:
An example of an ANION is:
A bind created by the ATTRACTION of a CATION to an ANION is called:
This type of bond is formed when two pairs of electrons (4 electrons) are shared between two atoms:
When electrons are shared, but NOT shared EVENLY, the bond is called:
Any chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more elements regardless of the types of bonds are called:
This type of reaction occurs when two reactants are put together yielding the product and a molecule of water:
All the molecules that are synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside our body are called
Pure water has a pH of
If blood has a pH of 7.4 it is called:
Glucose, sucrose, and lactose are all examples of:
When a glycerol is bonded to three fatty acid chains it is called:
Which of these is NOT a function of proteins?
Support, Movement, Defense, Reproduction or Transport
When proteins bend or come apart because of changes in temperature and/or pH it is called:
The region on an enzyme where the substrates meet for a reaction to occur is called:
ATP stands for:
analyzes the internal structure of individual cells
examines different types of tissues
a group of cells that function together
two or more tissues working together
the existence of a stable internal environment
consistes of all the bones in the body
something sensitive to a particular environmental change
divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
divides the body into left and right portions
internal organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
serous membrane around the heart
atoms that have a different number of neutrons than normal
Particles in an atom with NO charge
energy in motion
reaction that RELEASES energy
reactions that ABSORB energy
Which process involves only the transport of water across a membrane?
Which of the following organelles contains inner and outer membranes and plays and important role in energy productions (ATP)?
The ___ is a clear gel, with no visible structure of its own, in which the organelles of a cell are embedded.
Which function is associated with the ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM?
What function would immediately cease if the ribosomes of the cell were destroyed?
Which one of the following statements is an incorrect interpretation of the modern cell theory?
all organisms are composed of cell and cell products
Which two of the following shapes are commonly found in epithelial tissues?
Squamous and Columnar
A red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution. The concentration of the solution is ___ to the concentration of the intracellular fluid and will cause the cell to __.
A normal red blood cell is placed into a solution that causes the cell to swell and burst. The solution was...
Malignant tumors differ from benign tumors in all of the following ways except that
they are the only potentially fatal tumors
The process of transcription produces:
The process of translation produces
The stage at which chromosomes aggregate along the equator of a cell is:
Cytokinesis occurs during which phase of mitosis?
Sperm and eggs cells contain __ chromosomes and are called __ cells.
A tissue specialized for energy storage and thermal insulation is:
Which of the following is not one of the four primary classes of tissue?
The epithelium that lines the stomach and intestine is:
Which of the following is not a connective tissue?
A __ is a relatively impenetrable attachment between two epithelial cells formed by membrane proteins that interlock somewhat like a zipper
Tendons and ligaments are made predominantly of the protein
Which type of epithelium is best suited for rapid filtration?
This tissue regulates what enters and what leaves the body
This cell is large and flat and produces the fibers and ground substance of connective tissue.
The most common fiber in connective tissue is:
Which two muscle types are controlled involuntary?
smooth and cardiac
The membrane that lines the outer wall of the heart is a ___ membrane, specifically called the ___.
serous, visceral pericardium
You decided to become buff and started seriously lifting weighs. After 6 months, you began to notice that some of your muscles increased in size. This increase in size was due to ___ of the muscle cells.
During wound healing, macrophages serve to
phagocytize foreign material and the blood clot
Thick skin is found
on the fingertips
Thin skin is found
on the eyelids
The fastest rate of mitosis is seen in
the stratum basale
The skin discoloration where no melanin is produced is called:
The skin discoloration most likely to result from anemia is
The synthesis of __ depends on the penetration of ultraviolet light through the epidermis
The parts of the hair from the deepest in the skin to the part above the surface, respectively, are
the root, bulb, and shaft
The glands most responsible for cooling the skin are:
Merocrine glands or Aprocrine glands
In thick skin, the layers of the epidermis from deep to superficial, respectively, are the stratum
basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, and corneum.
Shiny hair gets its sheen from oil produced by the __ glands.
The part of the fingernail that we can cut is called:
Debridement (getting rid of dead skin) is a treatment for:
When sunburned, the skin often peels off in sheets. This can be explained because the keratinocytes are connected by
The epithelium of the epidermis is best described as
keratinized stratified squamous
The color of the skin in different races is primarily caused by the
amount of melanin formed
Flat melanized patches that are caused by a dominant gene are called ____, while an elevated patch of melanized skin is called a__.
The major function of the vellus hair on your arm is to
detect objects with a light touch
Uses energy to transport things into and out of the cells
does not need energy to transport things into and out of the cell
Fluid movement INTO cells
particles or fluid exiting the cells
proteins that make chemical reactions go faster
term used when something does not like to be near water
term used when something likes water
organelle used to destroy things that do not belong in a cell
organelle used to propel a cell forward; sperm
programmed cell death
overgrowth of c ells may be benign or malignant
serous membrane that surrounds the lungs
connective tissue fibers
elastic, reticular, collagen
Fluid connective tissue
blood and lymph
voluntary movement, attached to bones
involuntary, found only in the heart
main cell used for communication in the nervous system
basal cell carcinoma
most common type of skin cancer
most deadly form of skin cancer
blood clot used to protect body while skin heals
The skeletal system is responsible for all of the following except:
support, storage, blood cell production, maintaining posture and body position, protection
maintaining posture and body position
Which of these is an example of a long bone?
Vertebrae are examples of which type of bone:
The outermost layer on the surface of bones is called:
Bone marrow is made of up which kind of tissue:
loose connective tissue
Which of these parts of bone looks like a network of rods separated by spaces and adds support without adding a lot of weight:
Channels that go through the matrix between lacunae and link osteocytes to one another are called:
This type of cell is responsible for the production of new bone and promoting calcium deposition in bone:
Intramembranous ossification is responsible for
making flat bone
Which is the first steps in a fracture repair:
fracture hematoma forms
Which of the following vitamins are required for proper bone formation:
D, A and C
Which of these is not a cranial bone?
occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid, temporal, nasal
Which of the following groups is only made of bones of the face?
maxillae, lacrimal, vomer
Fibrous connective tissue in babies and toddlers that attach the bones of the skull together are called:
Which of these puts the vertebral regions in order from superior to inferior?
Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
This area of the body is responsible for supporting the shoulder joint and arm:
The part of the pelvis where the head of the femur fits in is called:
Ribs 8 through 12, which do not directly attach to the sternum:
The surrounding area of each muscle fiber that ties muscle fibers together is called:
Which of these is NOT a function of the skeletal muscles:
Blood cell production
A specialized form of endoplasmic reticulum that helps with calcium release and absorption in muscles is called:
The neurotransmitter responsible for signaling muscle fibers is called:
When muscle fibers become weak from disuse it is called:
Which of the following is/are voluntary muscle?
In a relaxed muscle fiber, the active sites of actin are blocked by
Each end of a sarcomere is marked by
a Z disc
The region of a sarcomere where actin and myosin overlap is
the A band
Which of these processes occurs during the contraction of skeletal muscle?
Z discs move closer together
When a muscle develops increased tension, but does not change in length, it is said to exhibit
A motor unit is
one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers innervated by it
If a poison inhibits the activity of the acetylcholinesterase, a muscle
may be unable to relax
You are working out with weights and after a while you notice that your muscles are becoming larger. This can be best explained because
muscle cells enlarged because of increased number of myofibrils
In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca 2+ binds to ___ ro continue the process of contraction.
In skeletal muscle, the light bands are called __ and they contain:
I bands; actin
At the neuromuscular junction, the motor neuron releases ___ into the synaptic cleft.
Which of the following supports the sliding filament theory of muscle contration?
The distance between the Z lines decreases during contraction
reducing the angle between articulating elements
increasing the angle of articulating joints
moving wrist form palm up to palm down
twisting foot to turn soles inwards
movement of thumb towards palm and fingertips
moving something in a superior direction
moving back to the anatomical position
has angular movement ability, single plane
articulates facets on two faces
Ball and Socket
round head of one bone rests in cup of another
The 3 things the Nervous System does..
1. monitors internal and external environments
2.intergrates sensory info
3. coordinates voluntary and involuntary responses of many other organ systems
Central Nervous System (CNS)
the brain and spinal cord, integrates and coordinates processing of sensory data and the transmission of motor commands
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
all nerves everywhere else; takes info from body to CNS or from CNS to PNS
Sensory to CNS
motor away from CNS
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
provides control over skeletal muscle contraction "walk to the vending machine"
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Visera inside of the body (respiratory, digestive, etc), provides automatic involuntary regulation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glandular secretion "digest your food"
"rest and digest"
"fight or flight"
nerve cells, basic unit of the nervous system
"neuro-glue"; regulates the environment around neurons, provides a supporting framework for neural tissue and act as phagocytes
Dendrites Cell body or stoma Axon hillock Axon Synaptic terminals
the part of a neuron that receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body
carries outgoing signals toward on or more synaptic terminals
the neuron communicates with other cells or the effector
clusters of rough ER and free ribosomes , give gray color to areas containing neuron cell bodies and accounts for color of the grey matter seen in the brain and spinal cord dissections
Multipolor Shape of a neuron
has 2 or more dendrites and a single axon, most common, all the motor neurons that control skeletal muscles