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Private devotional work. People buy small alter pieces like this to take around with them to enhance their worship experience. Outside of one of the many scenes, where joseph works as a carpenter, is a city scape, adding both dimension and scenery to the piece. Mary reads before she is forewarned of her birth\, this is traditional. The perspective of few things such as the table are still being understood. There is no vanishing point. Lilies sit on the inclined table.
Phillip the bold was the duke of Burgundy. He was a great patron of the Carthusian monks, another monastic order. This piece is at a Charter house that was made for the monarchy. This is the Well of Moses, it is limestone at six feet high. This monastic orders demands complete silence, so this could not have possibly been a fountain. During the revolution, some of it was destroyed. Represented here are only old testament figure. Beauftil drapert. David wears a crown which is one of his individual characteristic, as they all have personal qualities. Classicalization can be identified through beard incision as well as hair and drapery.
Two wings of the piece, this really is a large triptych, though it is labeled a polytich. The closed wings are melchior broederlam: Retable de Champmol and the two sides of the exterior winds are the annunciation/ the visitation, and the presentation and flight into Egypt on the right. The open alter piece showcases a centerpiece which is the crucifixion, the entombment detail lies on another side. The inside is completely carved wood. On the outside are painted backs. Annunciation to the left (lily symbolizes marys purity) Two cherubs fly aound the top. Varying architecture. Left looks slightly more roman than the right that is slightly more gothic.
The exterior doors are painted and the inside is also painted. This piece is made with both tempera which dries quickly and is made from egg yolk and matted for finish, and with oil which dries slowly and can be retouched. Ghent is in Belgium. On the exterior are donor portraits as well as an annunciation. Yodekis and Isabel are the donor, they make themselves know through their commissioned portrayal. John the Evangelist and John the Baptist are painted into the center almost in the form of marble texture. Mary is visited by the hoy spirit in the form of the dove. Sibyls were soothsayers, they were respected for their godly inspiration, and two were portrayed here.
Most people believe that the showcased center piece is a portrayal of God, but many doubt this because God is a thoroughly rare subject to portray. Mary Madelyn (crown with roses and royal blue gown) and John the Baptist (scruffy, maybe with animal skins) suggest that it is Jesus. The fabric sheen suggests that there is great weight to the fabric. Auras surround God or Jesus. Papal Tears crown is what popes begin to wear, he wears this and popes today wear it as well. Musicians play, fascinating that the music of the seers are being incorporated into the piece. Adam and eve cover themselves in shame to the fat. Stone-like texture is simulate above Eve and Adam, this harkens back to Pompeii. Flowery landscape along the bottom. Central pillar is said to be used to depict where Christ was bound and whipped. The dove represents the holy spirit, and angels fly among it. Prophets on the left and Martyrs on the right. 4 cardinal virtues are portrayed and are represented by people. Fountain of life rests in the center.
This double portrait has various glances and gender roles represented. Meaningful objects are portrayed as well. A convex mirror and reflection depict the artists who painted the piece and above it is a signature. The bed is on her side, because this is domestic, he faces the outdoors, for he can leave. They are simulating a household, they take their shoes off. Fidelity is portrayed by the dog, loyalty. Fruitfulness is portrayed by the peaches. Presence of God is recognized by the lit chandelier. Oil paint allows artist to depict substantial detail in facial features and in drapery, even the fur on the dog and the sheen on its nose.
Portraiture is incredibly imported in the renaissance. This symbolizes the commemorative image the people yearn for, we, for example, take pictures to fulfill this need. This man has beard stubble, the skin texture evoke age. This gaze follows you. Van Eich may have been portraying himself not only to memorialize himself, but also to showcase his skill as a virtuoso.
This alter piece was sponsored by the Archers Guild, who made weapons and were wealthy enough to pay for this, this isindicated by the spandrels, wear there is a woodcarving in the shape of a crossbow. This picture is packed with figures that fight for space. Great emotion is portayed here as the virgin almost faints as her son is pulled from the cross on which he passed. The other women may be related to Mary. The shapes of the ams simulate the shape of crossbows, was this intentional? Mary’s dress is unbelievably realistic.
Commissioned by the guild of St. Luke. Mary under a canopy as she nurses her child. There are allusions to adam and eve (carving), head of an ox (saint luke). Oculus window above the columns of the piece. Fabric is painted realistically which is clearly allowed by the recent introduction of oil paint.
May have been a commission from the goldsmiths. A halo was added beforehand. This is represented as the goldsmith in his shop, what the profession looks like. This is a vocational piece. Container in the back for the Eucharist. Chastity belt lays on the table as its owner is about to get married, they are going about getting their rings.
Central panel oil on wood. Still working on perspective as indicated by the inclined table. But there is a clear use of a vanishing point. This is not our typical last supper, this is more of Christ as a priest, blessing the food before the last supper. Expensive colors depicted in the fabric (blue, purple, and red)
The patron was a Medici agent from the north who saw Hugo’s work. This work traveled to Florence, where it was donated to a church. Oil paints in Italy have become widespread in usage. In one panel is the holy family, in another is the wonder of the shepherds. Flowers angels, wheat, and animals are painted amongst the subjects. These small figure add to the piece. A clear hierarchy of scale in this piece as the holy family is much larger than the angels. Small scenes in the back such as the flight to Egypt behind the subjects of the right piece. Donor and his sons are portrayed to the left, important to the portenari family.
The youthful princess Madonna seated among many symbols. Christ is symbolized by the lamb that stands towards the back. Saint Catherine holds the hand of Christ, she founds the idea of the marriage to Christ, nunhood. Beside her are John the Baptist and John the Evangelist. John the Baptists’ life’s end is shown to the left. The book of revelation is very important for John the Evangelist, and this is therefore depicted to the left. Saints all have attributes of different kinds, these are indicated by the artist in order for historians to read the painting. The Christ child looks much like a doll.
Sower, harrower, washerwomen, city dwellers. Expansion of illusionism and illumination in artwork. This depicts seasonal tasks that alter between nobility and peasantry. Chronological from January to December. This is January and October. New years at this point was a much more celebrated holiday than christmas. Aquarius and Capricorn are portrayed in an arch. This is what we think the louvre actually looked like at the time as the peasants worked THE DETAILS ARE UNBELIEVABLE.
Saint seven holds a rock, which is indicative of one of his personal attributes. Angels in the picture are red and blue. Her skin quality resembles marble as she… nurses? Fouquet’s meticulous representation of a pious kneeling donor with a standing patron saint recalls Flemish painting, as do the three-quarter stances and the realism of the portraits.
Believed that it was actually a town outside of Geneva. This place is RECOGNIZABLE. This is the beginning of portraying realistic landscapes. Christ walks on water as he speaks to the fishermen, including Peter, who sinks (physics). The treatment of water is transparent, as one can see rocks scattered along the bottom of the lake.
Printing presses allow people to make individual prints. People used to copy these buy hand, but now people can print multiple pages. People want to illustrate these books however, so they leave a blank space and ink them with colored or non-colored wood presses. Rilievo is Italian woodcuttery.
Engraving or dry point prints were much more precise than woodcuts that can only be so detailed. After incising work like this almost the same way one carves the positive space into the apparatus. These can be made in repetition. This market was far less expensive and PORTABLE. People that couldn’t afford commissioned paintings could afford a print. Saint Anthony is being tormented by demons here. This is portrayed through multiple styles such as crosshatching.
Claudius, Nicostratus, Simpronian, Castorius. The building had been put together for guilds of many kinds. There were to be a guild represented in every guild, one for every guild in florence. This one in particular is made for the woodcarvers and stonecutters. Four saints are represented but they are not attached to the niches as they are in gothic, completely stuck to the wall. These men are freestanding, they mark the movements towards classical freestanding sculpture in renaissance art. Individual facial features are portrayed here, harkening back to the Roman art we have seen. Musculature, modeling, and drapery that we haven’t seen for centuries. Narrative relief of the guild workers.
Donato di Niccolo Bardi. Saint Mark is symbolized by a small winged lion towards the bottom of the niche. The way that the robe fall makes this next part ironic. This was made for the Linen drapers guild. CONTREPASTO. This is something we haven't seen in centuries. Huge leap towards the classical style, incredible re-visitation. His knee protrudes and his hip is thrown out the way it naturally would be.
This was commissioned by the armor guild. Saint Georges red cross is portrayed on his shield. Apparently a bronze sort fit into his hand and a helmet on his head, these were unfortunately lost. This sculpture, however, was wedded to the wall.
The damsel in distress symbolizes the Christian church being saved from the devil. Something relatively commonly portrayed. Objects recede from the background. Atmosphere perspective is used here to make this look more lifelike.
Placed into the font is a bronze plaque. Baptism is associated with John the Baptist because his scene, which is relatively inappropriate. His death is portrayed in bronze here. Atmospheric perspective is used here to make this look lifelike.
Donatello's David was a Medeci Commission. This may be the first freestanding male nude since ancient times. This indicates a movement towards classicism though crazy contrepasto. Very feminine in some ways. We look at this nude not because he was nude at the time, but because this indicates his study in anatomy. He steps on Goliath’s head triumphantly.
This man was he director of an art studio, he had multiple apprentices as a business operation. He taught Leonardo. This is another bronze of David for the Medici. Their symbolism of Florence is David and Goliath. This man, though graceful, is very different than that of Donatello. This marks the beginning of a competition between David portrayals.
Hercules and Antaeus, or Herakles and Antios. For the first time, we are making freestanding sculpture that hasn’t t been prevalent for centuries. So much motion and violence in the piece. The lion’s head rests on Herakles’ hip. Antaios, son of Gaia, derives power from the earth. Here we see Herakles pick him up to diminish this power and defeat him. The Medici want to be associated with Florence, so they commissioned this piece. Wanting to decorate a palazzo.
Tomb in the church or cathedral. This tomb, for a great scholar and philosopher, was made beautifully in Santa Croce. Including an amazing monument that goes into a church. This is the beginning of monumental tomb sculpture in church settings depending on the prestige of the commissioners. A head sculpture of the dead was probably made from a wax cast of his face. Corinthian columns. Puttis hold up garments towards the top of the piece. Virgin and Child are carved into the tondo.
How the horse is posed indicates how the general survived, or didn’t. Equestrain language. Here the horses hoof is stepping onto an orb, symbolizing the power over the world. This man was a condottiere. Donatello worked on this with other artists to honor this man’s success in Padua.
Another honor of a condottiere. What is unique of this piece is that the viewer sees something is about to happen. There is motion in the horses taught muscles, and the man stands instead of simply sitting, maybe this is a position of action.
The patron of this piece is Palla Stocci, one of the strongest groups of Florence. Made form tempera, not oil. This frame is very much late gothic. Virgin and child sit among the three magi. Late gothic feeling of tremendous pomp and ceremony. Exotic animals are included in the piece. Expert use of foreshortening, the horses diagonal foreshortening is demonstrative of this. Looks as though people snake down to watch the child. Pradellas towards the bottom depict a nativity (at night), a flight into Egypt , and what looks like an annunciation. Great amounts of gold display great wealth.
This marks an emergence of illusionism and realism. People seem to be in a real set, and there seems to be substance in their bodies. Masaccio was commissioned by Tommaso). Christ speaks to Peter as another scene is set to the side, were Peter searches for fish, then another scene is set out to the right where he pays off the tax collector. A natural light source looks to be outside and to the right as indicated by the shadow. The drapery is perfectly modeled with this in account. This creates depth and models the figure. This was something that was not important in Byzantine Art. Atmospheric and Linear Perspective are used. Mountains look hazy and blue for Atmospheric Perspective.
Fitted the expulsion of Adam and Eve into a Vertically oriented piece. Incredible play and lights and darks as seen in the abdomen of Adam. He walks towards the light source and away from their shadows. Understanding that he has of highlights is great. And what anguish! A lot of sorrow is portrayed in their faces which harkens back to the Hellenistic Greek style. Sword symbolizes the authority of God.
What this painter has managed to do is illustrate an actual chapel in the illusionistic style that he practices. Towards the bottom are probably the Virgin and John the Evangelist, as well as the donor portraits of Lorenzo Lenzi and his wife. A dove is made from positive space in the collar of god. God supports the Coffered ceiling above them. A skeleton is made on the bottom to remind people that death is inevitable. Depicts recession and projection.
This man created multiple frescoes. This is the Annunciation, incredible serenity and peacefulness in his simplistic work. The rosary reminds people that they must pray throughout the day.
The fresco portrays the last supper in a dining room. Judas is separated by a white slash. The stone style are portrayed on the “wall” which harkens back to Pompeii. The ceiling and roof of the structure can both be seen, this indicated that he is still learning.
The child is made almost perfectly which is something rare in painting until now. Virgin and her child. He uses his own family for models, his illegitimate child is made as the child. Fluidity and smoothness of the young virgin, Direct gaze from one the angels. Beautiful arm of a chair. The subjects are made within a frame, and a landscape is made towards the back.
Saints delivered chunks of Christ's tomb to this church, this was the relic for this particular church. This accordingly depicts his first resurrection. Full frontal emergence as he holds the flag of the cross. He bears a gash on his side. Compositional triangle. Lightness of his clothes versus the dark clothes of the bottom subjects. Beautiful landscape towards the bottom.
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