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Seated scribe. Saqqara, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2620-2500 B.C.E. Painted limestone
Form: naturalistic, in the round, color
Content: seated writing scribe of the king
Context: writers were seen as high since not many could write and it was seen as a talent.
Function: left in burial chamber so king has a writer in his afterlife.
Great Pyramids (Menkaure, Khafre, Khufu) and Great Sphinx. Giza, Egypt. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2550-2490 B.C.E. Cut
Form: 3 dimensional, mastaba, smaller temples next to pyramids
Content: Holds places inside for burial as well as smaller chambers next to pyramids
Context: was seen as a ensured place in the afterlife if buried next to a Pharaoh.
King Menkaura and Queen. Old Kingdom, Fourth Dynasty. c. 2490-2472 B.C.E. Greywacke w/ traces of red and black paint.
Form: idealized, frontal, static, naturalistic
Content: King Menkaura and Queen represented in statues. Missing cobra and seems unfinished.
Context: Cobra was apart of the royal crown, might've been made in a rush
Function: Put in burial place so
Temple of Amun-Re and Hypostyle Hall. Karnak, near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th and 19th Dynasties. Temple: c.1550 B.C.E.
Form: hypostyle, ritual place, columns, axial plan, processional path, hieroglyphics, sunken relief, clerestory
Content: Lotuses on capitals of columns.
Context: Houses of Gods, replica of Egyptian cosmos, original belief from water and rise from wa
Mortuary temple of Hatshepsut. Near Luxor, Egypt. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. c. 1473-1458 B.C.E. Sandstone, partially carved
Form: built into mountain, temple, axial plan, courtyard
Content: burial place of Pharaoh Hatshepsut
Context: gradual walk through courtyard to intimidate and show power.
Function: Was built into mountain to show the harnessing of the the power of
Akhenaton, Nefertiti, and three daughters. New Kingdom (Amarna), 18th Dynasty. c. 1353-1335 B.C.E. Limestone.
Form: stylized, naturalized, sunken relief
Content: Akhenaton, Nefertiti and their three daughters being cared for. Sun god blessing them through sun rays.
Context: Amarna period had a change of style in art due to a different God being worshiped.
Tutankhamun's tomb, innermost coffin. New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty. c. 1323 B.C.E. Gold inlay of enamel and semiprecious stones.
Form: sarcophagus, tomb, stylized, static
Content: The burial tomb for Tutankhamun, cobra, wings, headdress, dressing in stones
Context: Covered in ceremonial Pharaoh belongings. stones were considered more valuable than gold
Function: burial tomb
Last judgement of Hu-Nefer, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty, c.1275 B.C.E. Painted papyrus scroll.
Form: narrative, composite creature, registers
Content: weighting his heart, addressing the Gods, being introduced to Osiris, Isis, Nepthys, and Anubis
Context: It is intended for your Ka and is expensive so not all people can get one
Anavysos Kouros, c. 530 BCE. Marble.
Form: frontal, static, stylized hair, archaeic smile, naturalized
Content: Greek Kouroi or warriors that represent young men
Context: Representsed the ideals of young men through use of nudity
Function: funerary, pay omage, help people remember
Peplos kore, from the Acropolis, Athens, Greece, c. 530 BCE. Marble.
Form: static, frontal, naturalized, missing arm, stylized hair
Content: Korai clothed, may have been a goddess
Context: ideal femininity representation, found in religious centers
Function: votive, may have been a goddess
Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). Polykleitos. Original 450-440 BCE. Roman copy (marble) of Greek original (bronze).
Form: dynamic, contrapposto, naturalized, idealized, canon
Content: spear-bearer, warrior
Context: perfection of human form, Greeks believed in mathematical ratios
Function: To show perfection using mathematical proportion
Niobides Krater. Anonymous vase painter known as the Niobid Painter. c. 460-450. Clay, red-figure technique.
Form: stiffness, sense of depth, contrast, perfect profile of gods, foreground, background
Content: Gods and Goddesses, story of Niobe and Leto
Context: a mortal challenging a god and paying the cost, shows the chaos of gods
Athenian Agora, c. 500 BCE, Classical Greek, Athens, Greece. Marble.
Form: columns, open space, courtyard, stoa
Content: civic center, democracy, markets, stoa
Context: democracy in Greece, talk political and civic discussion
Function: markets used to trade and buy, stoa is used to talk politics, sacred space
Acropolis. c. 450-410 BCE, Classical Greek. Athens, Greece. Iktinos and Kallikrates. Marble.
Form: doric temple, frieze, ionic, elevated, optical refinements
Content: depicts battle between gods and mythological creatures, depicts birth of athena
Context: civic pride, elevated to be closer to Gods
Function: home of Gods, worship, treasury
Grave Stele of Hegeso. Attributed to Kallimachos, c. 410 BCE. Marble and paint.
Form: stoic, reflective, restrained, idealized, drapery, foreshortening, was painted
Content: servant and woman who is holding jewelry and sitting down
Context: shows female modesty and domestic setting of women
Function: shows remembrance of person
Winged Victory of Samothrace. Hellenistic Greek. c. 190 BCE. Marble.
Form: dynamic, in-motion, stylized wings, naturalized, emotional, idealized
Content: winged Nike (victory) depicted on top of hill
Context: spreads victory among people
Function: perched on a cliff over port for boats
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon. Asia Minor. Hellenistic Greek. c. 175 BCE. Marble.
Form: idealized, expression, dynamic, narrative, heroism, high relief
Content: story of fight between gods and mythological creatures
Context: after Alexander the great, made for important battle decisions
Function: metaphor for winning over unkown
Alexander Mosaic from the House of Faun, Pompeii. Republican Roman. c. 100 BCE. Mosaic.
Form: tiny pieces of stone and glass, modeling, foreshortening, stylized
Content: Persian and greek war, alexander the great
Context: when the Persian general ordered his troops to retreat
Function: to show national power and pride amongst greeks
Seated Boxer. Hellenistic Greek. c. 100 BCE. Bronze.
Form: individual, high detail, emotional, naturalized
Content: boxer seated looking upset and bruised
Context: boxer after loss and looking up saddened
Function: to show human emotion amongst people
Sarcophagus of the Spouses. Etruscan. c. 520 BCE. Terrance cotta.
Form: stylized, naturalized, intimacy, warm expressions
Content: a couple cuddled together laid out looking happy
Context: etruscans depicted very intimate topics, similar religion to Egyptians
Function: funerary, held ashes
Temple of Minerva (Veii, near Rome) and sculpture of Apollo. Master sculptor Vulca. c. 510-500. Wood, Mud brick, or tufa.
Form: columns, cella, gabled roof, Tuscan columns, deep porch, contrapposto
Content: temple on roof tells a narrative of Hercules
Context: Etruscans borrowed gods from greeks and mirrored them after their own
Function: temple to gods
Tomb of the Triclinium. Tarquinia, Italy. Etruscan. c. 480-470 BCE. Tufa and Fresco.
Form: patterns, color, twisted perspective, stylized, naturalized, contrapposto
Content: partying amongst etruscans, dancing, eating
Context: depicted their ideals of the afterlife
Function: funerary paintings, sent into afterlife
House of the Vettii. Imperial Roman from Pompeii, Italy, c. 2nd century CE. Frescos.
Form: columns, courtyard, smaller rooms in back, fountain
Content: many strongboxes, gallery room filled with paintings
Context: shows wealth of house owners through strongboxes and artworks, gods
Function: for living and to show wealth to other
Head of a Roman Patrician. Republican Roman. c. 75-50 BCE. Marble.
Form: old, naturalized, veristic, wrinkled, frontal
Content: old man looking very sad
Context: people who would run for office would show themselves in veristic form
Function: used to show wisdom
Augustus of Prima Porta. Imperial Roman. Early first century CE. Marble
Form: clothed, idealized, proportioned, contrapposto, powerful
Content: empire augustus and his connection with cupid
Context: Rome, showed the power of emporer
Function: show power over the people
Colosseum. Rome, Italy. Imperial Roman. c. 70-80 CE. Stone and concrete.
Form: concrete, roman arches, decorative columns, doric, ionic, Corinthian, Tuscan
Content: used for fights and battles
Context: political propaganda
Function: to give entertainment to people
Forum of Trajan. Rome, Italy. Apollodorus of Damascus. Forum and markets; 106 - 112 CE; column 113 CE. Brick and concrete
Form: cleresorties, barrel vaults, arches, columns, sculptures
Content: libraries, temple, column of trahan, markets
Context: place for people, democratic space
Function: tribute to soldiers
Pantheon. Imperial Roman. 118-125 CE. Concrete with stone facing.
Form: colonnade, dome, frieze, coffers, dynamic, entablature
Content: held gods inside, hole in roof
Context: hole in roof to connect to gods
Function: mathematical perfection, worship of gods
Ludovisi Battle Sarcophagus. Late Imperial Roman. c. 250 CE. Marble.
Form: lacks elegance, expressions, naturalistic, frontal, skewed perspective
Content: shows battle and crowded people
Context: put into niches in tombs
Function: funerary, bodies put into tomb
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