Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms, esp. as structural components of body tissues such as muscle, hair, collagen, etc., and as enzymes and antibodies
Building blocks of life. Proteins make up living material but also hormones or enzymes. Proteins are molecules composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order. This order is determined by the base sequence of nucleotides in the gene coding for the protein.
Any of a class
of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents. They include many natural oils, waxes, and steroids
a large molecule that does not dissolve in water
A complex organic substance present in living cells, esp. DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain
Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information
Ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information
adenosine triphosphate: a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions
Adenosine Triphosphate; nucleotide; ATP is produced via cellular respiration in the mitochondria and photosynthesis in chloroplasts; intracellular energy transport
A fibrous substance
consisting of polysaccharides and forming the major constituent in the exoskeleton of arthropods and the cell walls of fungi
An insoluble substance that is the main constituent of plant cell walls and of vegetable fibers such as cotton. It is a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers
A substance forming the cell walls of many bacteria, consisting of glycosaminoglycan chains interlinked with short peptides
An organism that consists of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus. Eukaryotes include all living organisms excluding the eubacteria and archaebacteria
A microscopic single-celled organism, including the bacteria and cyanobacteria, that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles
A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins
The rough endoplasmic reticulum manufactures membranes and secretory proteins. In certain leukocytes (white blood cells), the rough ER produces antibodies. In pancreatic cells, the rough ER produces insulin. The rough and smooth ER are usually interconnected and the proteins and membranes made by the rough ER move into the smooth ER to be transferred to other locations
The smooth ER has a wide range of functions including carbohydrate and lipid synthesis. It serves as a transitional area for vesicles that transport ER products to various destinations. In liver cells the smooth ER produces enzymes that help to detoxify certain compounds. In muscles the smooth ER assists in the contraction of muscle cells, and in brain cells it synthesizes male and female hormones.
A complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
A small fluid-filled bladder, sac, cyst, or vacuole within the body
An organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.
a membrane-bound cavity in living cells that contains enzymes that are responsible for degrading and recycling molecules
Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as an energy store
A small organelle that is present in the cytoplasm of many cells and that contains the reducing enzyme catalase and usually some oxidases.
A space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.
An organelle found in l
arge numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers (cristae).
(in green plant cells) A plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
the form of RNA in which genetic information transcribed from DNA as a sequence of bases is transferred to a ribosome.
transcription begins when RNA polymerase recognizes and binds to the promoter region on the double-stranded DNA molecule
The normal process of DNA synthesis, in which the two original strands of the molecule separate, and each acts as a template on which a new complementary strand is laid down.
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule.
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains an electron to form a negative ion.
formed between a metal and a nonmetal
Any of the class of sugars that cannot be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar.
A simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (COOH) and an amino (NH2) group
a.) An organic compound that is the building blocks from which proteins are constructed.
b.) Works like bricks building a house, because the bricks are what is being used to build the house.
c.) Protein building blocks
d.) Fatty acid, because they are all a certain type of acid.
A compound consisting of a nucleoside linked to a phosphate group. Nucleotides form the basic structural unit of nucleic acids such as DNA
One major class of lipids is called glycerolipids. Glycerolipids are composed of glycerol and fatty acids
fatty acid + glycerol
Any of a large class of organic compounds with a characteristic molecular structure containing four rings of carbon atoms (three six-membered and one five). They include many hormones, alkaloids, and vitamins
Any of a group of natural esters of glycerol and various fatty acids, which are solid at room temperature and are the main constituents of animal and vegetable fat
Any of a group of natural esters of glycerol and various fatty acids that are liquid at room temperature
Helicases are a class of enzymes vital to all living organisms. They are motor proteins that move directionally along a nucleic acid phosphodiester backbone, separating two annealed nucleic acid strands (i.e., DNA, RNA, or RNA-DNA hybrid) using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis.
A DNA polymerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the polymerization of deoxyribonucleotides into a DNA strand.
an enzyme that removes RNA primers and replaces them with the appropriate deoxyribonucleotides during DNA replication
Adaptation occurs when sensory receptors are subjected to an unchanging stimulus
- Receptor membranes become less responsive
- Receptor potentials decline in frequency or stop
The process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth
Vascular plants that develop their seeds from exposed ovules hidden within cones rather than in an ovary as in angiosperms
A plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel. The angiosperms are a large group and include herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses, and most trees
The vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the woody element in the stem
The vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves
an organic biological compound; consists of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that is an important source of food and energy in living organisms; found in the forms of sugars (monosaccharide), starches and cellulose.
Relating to a molecule having hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.
–Change the structure change the function
- Everything in science wants to move from high to low
- More folds = more surface area = more work
- Water moves towards sugar, salt, and minerals
1.cofactors- non-protein, small inorganic compounds, and ions
2.conenzymes-non-protein, organic molecules
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate, whose structure it mimics.