· Rogerian Arguments
o Developed by psychiatrist Carl Rogers
o Based on the assumption that having a full understanding of an opposing position is essential to responding to it persuasively and refuting it in a way that is accommodating rather than alienating
o Goal is not to destroy opponents or dismantle their viewpoints, but rather to reach a satisfactory conclusion
· Toulmin Arguments
o Approach to argument created by British philosopher Stephen Toulmin in his book The Uses of Argument (1958)
o Effective tool in uncovering the assumptions that underlie arguments
o Has six elements: claim, support (evidence), warrant (the assumption), backing, qualifier, and reservation
§ expresses the assumption necessarily shared by the speaker and the audience
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