Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
All of the following are macronutrients except:
Justification that sees some aspect of the environment as valuable because it provides individuals with economic benefits:
When did the most dramatic increase in the history of the human population occur?
It is said that population crises become worse the larger the population. This worsening is the result of:
The Gaia Hypothesis states that the dominant force that has shaped the global environment through time is:
supply of food
supply of clothing and shelter
It has been said that the total human impact on the environment is the product of the average impact of each individual times the number of individuals. According to this scheme, how would the impact of one additional person in an industrialized country (A) compare with the impact of one additional person in an undeveloped nation (B) and why?
According to the Environmental Science text, overuse of local resources had little or no long-lasting effect:
The rapid population increase since the Industrial Revolution occurred for all of the following reasons except:
a lack of scientific knowledge
a general recognition that real solutions to environmental problems include and depend on human beings
recognition that we must seek sustainability in the environment and our economic activities
a lack of understanding that environmentalism and economic progress are not contradictory
The Gaia hypothesis proposes that:
the global environment at a global level has been profoundly changed since life appeared on Earth
life is sacred, and eating meat or animal by-products is unethical
changes in the environment tend to improve the environment for life
A scientific statement that can be proven or disproven is called
An experiment that can be compared to a standard is called a
Which of the following is the correct sequence of steps, from beginning to end, in the Scientific Method:
One distinction between (A) science and (B) religion, ethics, and morals is that scientific statements are:
the scientific method
Premise: A straight line is the shortest distance between two points.
Premise: The line from A to B is the shortest distance between points A and B.
Conclusion: Therefore, the line from A to B is a straight line.
The above syllogism is an example of _________________
A hypothesis is defined as:
a statement that can be disproved
Science and technology are often confused with each other. Which of the following is an incorrect statement regarding science and technology?
Using the Scientific Method in conducting an experiment is useful because:
following a standardized procedure allows a scientist to compare his/her data with the results of other scientists
Which of the following statements is not true about assumptions of science?
basic processes and laws are not the same throughout the universe
Science is the search for __________ of the natural world, while technology is the search for __________ the natural world for human benefit.
understanding; control of
Generalizations based on a number of concrete observations are:
test a hypothesis by observation
Modern science (as opposed to technology) is focused on:
observations of the natural world
The growth rate at which the amount doubles in a fixed unit of time is called
Change that tends to stabilize a system is called
Change that tends to destabilize a system is called:
Simply stated, the principle of environmental unity states that:
everything affects everything else
Considering inputs to a pool and outputs from it, the pool will be in steady state when:
inputs equal outputs
The balance in your bank account is 1200. You have a monthly income of 600 and monthly expenses of 600. Calculate the average residence time (ART) of dollars in your account:
Observation of modern oceAns: shows that most areas are characterized by the accumulation of sediment. Rivers and wind carry sand, silt, and clay into the oceans, and eventually to the flat ocean floor. Using this insight, we look at sandy and muddy rock in flat lying layers and infer that they are the result of oceanic deposition millions of years ago. This conclusion is an example of:
the principle of uniformitarianism
The region of the Earth where life exists is known as:
Which of the following are associated with natural systems that have long residence times (for example, underground aquifers)?
A ____________ type of feedback mechanism functions as a _______________ process for the system as a whole.
negative; stabilizing or self-regulating
Systems are either open or closed. The planet Earth can be considered in terms of the simultaneous functioning of many systems, including its energy and its mass. Ignoring minute exceptions such as meteorites,
energy is an open system; mass is a closed system
Consider a situation where increased solar radiation reaches the Earth's surface and raises the ocean temperature. This results in more evaporation, which produces more clouds. The increased cloud cover reduces the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface of the Earth. This is an example of:
a negative feedback
the principle that the past can be understood by studying the processes operating at present
The herd of caribou on Edwardan Island was measured in 1959. At that time, there were 20 animals, and the herd was growing at a steady rate of 14% annually. What was the doubling time of the herd?
A chemical spill has occurred on the shore of a lake in an area where the underlying aquifer is widely used as a drinking water supply. The pollutants threaten to flow into both the surface water and the groundwater. The residence time of water in the lake is short, and the residence time in the groundwater is long. Which of the following statements is correct?
pollutants will quickly invade the lake, but will linger longest in the groundwater
A system with a greater input than output would experience:
an increase in storage
logistic growth curve
Which of the following examples describes the maximum number of a particular species that an environment can support without degrading the environment?
Which of the following examples describes the movement of a nation from a high population growth to a low population growth?
population age structure
The doubling time of a population:
is a function of exponential growth
Decreased death rate and the accelerated rate of human population growth are related to:
I. improved sanitation and health
II. increased food supply
III. control of disease-spreading organisms
Human population growth during the pre-industrial agricultural period and during the Industrial Revolution period occurred with little change in:
maximum human life expectancy
In a developing country, chronic diseases account for a _________ proportion of total mortality. Acute diseases account for a _________ proportion of total mortality.
Rapid human population growth puts an especially heavy burden on:
rapid human population growth burdens all of these
Human demography suggests that an improving economy in a country correlates with:
decreased birth rate, decreased population growth rate
Which of the following parameters is/are necessary to describe exponential population growth?
The demographic transition occurs in three stages. Under which circumstance is a nation unable to make the transition from stage II to stage III:
when parents don't see the benefit from having few but well educated children
The crude growth rate is defined as:
birth rate minus death rate
The basic concepts of population growth and change are known as:
The simplest and one of the least controversial means of slowing population growth is:
delaying first childbearing
In Thomas Malthus' theory of human population, the ultimate fate of humankind is said to be:
plague, pestilence, and famine
The growth rate of the human population has increased over the last few hundred years due to all of the following reasons except:
the maximum age to which individuals can live has increased
the population is not replacing itself and the group may disappear
The reservoirs and pathways that any chemical element follows through the Earth's system is called the:
Processes that are responsible for the destruction of the lithosphere refer to the:
Which of the following cycles involves the movement of water from the surface of the Earth through the atmosphere back to the surface of the Earth?
Which of the following is not true about the first law of thermodynamics?
energy is the material that makes up our physical and biological environments
Within any one of the biogeochemical cycles, “flux” refers to:
the rate of transfer from one reservoir to another
The following chemical equation describes which process:
6CO2 + 6H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Many higher organisms have evolved symbiotic relationships with nitrogen-fixing microorganisms. This is because:
the microorganisms transform nitrogen into forms useful to the higher organisms
The original source of energy that drives the hydrologic cycle is:
How does erosion affect the global carbon cycle?
The tectonic cycle refers to the creation, destruction, and recycling of:
the crust of the Earth
Fluxes of nitrogen both into and out of the atmosphere are controlled predominantly by:
the activity of microscopic bacteria
An element with a gaseous phase under conditions at the surface of the Earth tends to ____________ much more rapidly than an element without a gas phase.
The rock cycle depends on the ________ cycle to lift mass above sea level and the ________ cycle to supply the force of erosion.
The substance with the greatest significance for the global carbonate-silicate cycle is:
The pathway by which carbon is transferred from living biota to the atmosphere is called:
Phosphorus, an important nutrient, enters living plants from:
Compared to elements that do not, elements that have a gaseous phase and a residence time in the atmosphere tend to:
take less time to recycle
The nitrogen cycle, which is one of the most important biochemical cycles, may cause environmental problems because too much nitrogen can:
cause eutrophication in bodies of water
Carbon is called the 'backbone' of our living environment because carbon:
is the chemical building-block of the organic world
The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important and most complex of the biogeochemical cycles. It is important because nitrogen:
is an important nutrient, necessary for life
Which of the following terms refers to energy produced from any source other than fossil fuels:
a.)distillation of coal; fusion reactor
b.)combustion of natural gas; cogenerator
c.)fusion; internal combustion engine
electrolysis of water; fuel cell (or by direct combustion)
d.)fission; photovoltaic cells
a.)convert 80-90% of solar energy into electricity
b.)do emit CO2, but they do not emit the SO2 that leads to acid rain
c.)are made from “Earth-friendly” materials
d.)can be used for power in remote locations
e.)can be produced inexpensively, although costs are rising
a.)heat derived from a geothermal power plant
b.)heat energy in the core of the earth
c.)the rate of temperature increase with depth in the Earth
d.)a thermal spring
e.)useful conversion of natural heat from the interior of the Earth
useful conversion of natural heat from the interior of the Earth
a.)power tower systems
b.)Greek and Roman temple architecture
c.)solar pond technology
e.)passive solar energy
passive solar energy
a.)the release of impounded water alters streamflow patterns
b.)most economical sites are already used
c.)reservoirs eventually fill with sediment
d.)the addition of reservoirs mean that more water is lost to evaporation
e.)all of these
passive solar systems
b.)decreasing pressure with increasing temperature
c.)decreasing moisture content with increasing temperature
d.)horizontal convergence of the wind
e.)vertical convergence of the wind
vertical convergence of the wind
a.)by combining fuel and oxygen in an electrochemical reaction
b.)by combining hydrogen atoms
c.)by splitting uranium
d.)by combusting gasoline
e.)by producing electricity
a.)sediment supply and transport
b.)size and frequency of storm events
c.)the frequency of tides
d.)large tidal range
e.)the cost of building the plant
a.)water colder than the surrounding environment
b.)hot, shallow water
c.)shallow magma bodies
e.)relative temperature differences
relative temperature differences
d.)emissions of gas
e.)disturbance of the land at the drilling site
a.)release of harmful electromagnetic resonance
b.)wind mills kill birds
d.)large extend of the area needed to generate power
e.)degradation of an area's scenic resources
Tidal power systems are designed to generate electricity during:
IIIrising and falling tides
a.)II and III
d.)I and III
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!