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Due to trade, the middle class grew, and people began to accumulate vast sums of money. They then wanted to enjoy and show off their wealth, which led to a philosophy of enjoying this life instead of simply waiting for the next one.
Competition between wealthy people for status led to developments in education and art, since wealthy people, wanting to be respected, would compete to see who was the most educated or had sponsored the most artists.
-Paintings were lacking in depth and perspective.
- lacked a background.
-usually focusing on heaven or holy people.
-The paintings were not realistic, and made no sense
-The subjects did not show any emotions, except for calm
- Good use of depth in paintings.
- more detailed backgrounds.
- more focus on earthly themes and humans.
- geometrically precise and mathematically accurate.
- Subjects showing signs of more emotion.
- The growth in the power of the secular king and the decrease in the power of the Pope.
- The movement towards more personal ways of communicating with God
- The fiscal crisis in the Church that led to corruption and abuses of power
- The Reformation was the final splitting of the Western Church into two halves.
- The theses made the profits from the indulgences drop off
built up funds without overtaxing his subjects; he put collection and revenue in the hands of a small, efficient group of his officials
-had the Star Chamber resume hearing appeals, which strengthened royal power and decreased noble power
-Adopted the sale of simony
-Due to the fact that the clergy and nobles were exempt from taxation, the crown was forced to rely on the lower classes, under Louis XII, the country began taking loans from banks (Fugger).
-challenged Ptolemy’s system simply because it was too complex and he felt that there had to be a better system mathematically
-developed a new, sun-centered system that placed earth as the third planet rotating around the sun.
-mathematician who developed the first theories of motion. With the aid of Brahe’s star data
-Kepler came of with the theory that the planets moved in ellipses, and that they did not move at a steady rate.
Empiricism (a.k.a. induction) was advocated by Francis Bacon (who wrote New Atlantis a description of an ideal society based on science) and supported going from particular knowledge (observation) to general knowledge
-began with the assumption that, at birth, each person is born with a tabula rasa (blank slate) and that all human nature and knowledge comes from direct experience
-stated that, in the state of nature, people are neutral, since it all depends on the environment. said that, at birth, each person has certain inalienable rights of life, liberty and property
-The universe was no longer appeared to be a mystery. In fact, people felt that it was orderly, rational, and, most importantly, could be understood by humans.
- People felt that humans were able to control their own destiny.
*Social Patterns and Popular Culture During the Scientific Revolution*
Cardinal Mazarin rules b/c Louis XIV was too young. Mazarin put down the Fronde (rebellion by nobles, not by peasants) but only after Louis XIV fled Paris and his entire family was killed which, naturally, left a lasting impression on Louis XIV
Louis takes over, builds Versailles, and vows not to let anyone rule over him. He built up the standing army, continued centralization of power through the bureaucracy, helped the economy grow and said I am the state, which pretty much sums it up.
Employing intendants to subdue peasants and collect taxes helped the economy and the treasury, terrible for the peasants, who had to pay taxes to support the wars, and, since nobles couldn’t be taxed, the peasants were forced to bear all the burden
Keeping the parlements and nobles (with Versailles) under control. Additionally, he ruthlessly suppressed all the peasant rebellions that occurred.
-William was able to accept a limited monarchy, and a Bill of Rights was passed, which determined succession, defined Parliament’s powers, and established civil rights
Engineered by Bismarck as part of his master plan to unify Germany under the Prussian monarchy. Prussian troopes surprised and overwhelmed a larger Austrian force, winning victory
Result: Austria was expelled from the old German Conferderation
The Enlightenment provided the ideology for the Revolution
-The French government was corrupt and ineffective. Louis XVI was not suited to be an absolute monarch and his queen, Marie Antoinette, was hated through the land for her lack of sympathy.
-emphasized emotion, the heart, and poetry
-while liberalism emphasized reason, the mind, and prose
- Romanticism stressed intuition, and the concept of genius
-while liberalism stressed reason and scholarship
-stressed the role of the state in society
-a significant decrease in the population
-a series of peasant rebellions
-a more politically unified France
-an economically weaker England
-inflation in the economy of Europe
-the establishment of Roman Catholicism in the New World
-the rise of a wealthy merchant class in Europe
-the establishment of a system of economic dependence between Europe & the new World
-mastery of ancient languages
-patronage of the arts
-was less secular than Italian humanism
-linked scholarhip and learning with religious piety
-criticized the notion that priests were required to understand the Bible
-contributed to the Reformation
-the pope's status as ruler of the Papal States
-its use of Latin un the mass and in the printed Bible
-an increasingly Literate population
-its inability to tend to the emotional and spiritual needs of the population
-luthers students used the printing press to spread Luthers theology
-peasants saw Luthers theology as a justification for their dissatisfaction
-the church was slow to excommunicated Luther and his followers
-poor class understood teaching of Protestantism to mean that the existing social hierachy should be overthrown
-property owning Protestant reformers were not looking to reform social order
-continued to control most of the wealth of the country and still dominated the administration and the military.
-held on to more power in the south and east, though, for, there, they in effect had control over the peasant masses
-lived dependent on their employers and often made barely enough to keep alive.
held together by shared ideals and common interests all were opposed to special privileges and saw themselves as the beneficiaries of careers open to talent. liked to see themselves as self-made
-Nationalist tensions led to the Crimean War, which originated over competing claims by Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox monks to be the guardians of Jerusalem’s holy places.
-Led by middle class women, most women’s movements were centered in charitable work and education.
-Another movement, led by the women’s trade unions, was mainly concerned about the problems of pay and working conditions in the factories
-Instead of attempting to capture reality, impressionists showed “what the eye first sees” by using color, light, and flattening the canvas
-Big Guys were: Manet Monet and Renoir
who wrote Reflections on Violence in 1908 and rejected bourgeois rationalism in favor of violence to create political movements).
- #1 power in Europe
-first to industrialize
-England was the biggest imperial power, with India, Canada, and its plans for the Cape à Cairo railroad. It had the Suez Canal as well.
-#3 power in Europe
-After the horrible mess of the Paris Commune and the Dreyfus affair, the French Third Republic seemed solidly established. The main goal for France was to regain control of Alsace-Lorraine
-also the #3 power in Europe
-only freed its serfs in 1861, was not industrialized at all
- It wanted to get it on the Mediterranean, from Turkey, which would be easily done if not for England, which wanted to maintain peace near
-#5 power in Europe
-scared of one thing: Slavic nationalism, which is being encouraged by Russia who they hate
-#2 power in Europe
-Controlled by Bismarck, Germany developed a huge (and confusing) system of peacetime alliances, all based on their fear of a two front war – or that France, who hates them, might find an ally.
-to prevent the dreaded two front war Bismarck had to befriend BOTH AH & Russia one slight problem: due to the Pan-Slavism issue, A-H and Russia hated e/o!
-In 1874, Bismarck formed the Three Emperors League an understanding between A-H and Russia.
-beginning w/the Treaty of Versailles, which blamed it all on Germany.
-Britain should have declared its intentions earlier, Serbian nat’lism started it, Russia was the key country to mobilize and Germany was the last to mobilize – so
- war strained the resources of each country
-It created national unity but it also caused great hardship. Supplies were lacking, women went to work in the factories, there was disruption and dislocation, and Europeans were less fashionable
-Many social customs faded out, and society became more open
-rapid development of new technology. Overall, however, the economy was greatly hurt by the war, as world trade had been totally disrupted.
-destroyed theological coherence of the cosmos
-questioned the authority of the Aristotelian tradition
-required the church to admit it had been wrong
-contradicted the physical principles that served as the foundation of physics
-aimed to educate the puiblic
-goal was a society goverened by reason
-wrote in many diff genres
-were guests of and correspondents with the women who hosted salons
-human are born good and virtuous but are easily corrupted by society
-early years of a chiulds education should be spend developing the senses
-citizen should be willing to subordinate his own self interest to the good of the commuunity
-the shift of agruculture to a market orientation
-the conversion to wage labor
-it began when Frederick the Great of Prussia challenged maria theresa's right to ascend to the throne of Austria
-violated the terms of the Pragmatic Sanction
-Maria theresa was able to rally the Hungarians to her cause
made up of the clergy
-safeguarded all forms of property
-upheld equality before the law
-establioshed the right to choose a profession
-guaranteed promotion on merit for employees of the state
-upheld the ban on working men's associations
-upheld the patriarchal nature of French society by grangitng men extensive rights over their wives and children
-goal was to reestablish the foundations of aristocratic dominance that had been challenged by the French revolution
-brought about by the development and expansion of the iron and steel industry, coal mining, steam power, and railroads
-created many soial changels, including urbanization, and heightened class consciousness
-tradition is the only trustworthy guide to social and political action
-supported the privileges of the aristocracy and clergy
-Marx and his collaborator Freidrich Engels argued that all history is the histoy of class struggle
-also argued that a human beings relationship to the means of production gave him a social identity
bourgeoisie- who controlled the means of production
- and the
proletariat-who sole their labor for wages
-asserted that the task of government was to promote individual liberty
-opposed government intervention in the economy
-believe d in the existence of natural laws that goverened human behavior
-drew its support primarily from the middle classes
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