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Spatial interaction or "gravity models" estimate the flow of people, material or information between locations in geographic space. Factors can include origin propulsive variables such as the number of commuters in residential areas, destination attractiveness variables such as the amount of office space in employment areas, and proximity relationships between the locations measured in terms such as driving distance or travel time.
The domino theory was a foreign policy theory during the 1950s to 1980s, promoted at times by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. The domino effect suggests that some change, small in itself, will cause a similar change nearby, which then will cause another similar change, and so on in linear sequence, by analogy to a falling row of dominoes standing on end.
The Heartland lay at the centre of the world island, stretching from the Volga to the Yangtze and from the Himalayas to the Arctic. Mackinder's Heartland was the area ruled by the Russian Empire and then by the Soviet Union, minus the area around Vladivostok. Any power which controlled the World-Island would control well over 50% of the world's resources. The Heartland's size and central position made it the key to controlling the World-Island.
The Rimland's defining characteristic is that it is an intermediate region, lying between the heartland and the marginal sea powers. As the amphibious buffer zone between the land powers and sea powers, it must defend itself from both sides, and therein lies its fundamental security problems. Spykman's conception of the Rimland bears greater resemblance to Alfred Thayer Mahan's "debated and debatable zone" than to Mackinder's inner or marginal crescent.
The Rimland has great importance coming from its demographic weight, natural resources, and industrial development. Spykman sees this importance as the reason that the Rimland will be crucial to containing the Heartland (whereas Mackinder had believed that the Outer or Insular Crescent would be the most important factor in the Heartland's containment).
describes the remarkable regularity in many phenomena including the distribution of city sizes around the world, sizes of businesses, particle sizes (such as sand), lengths of rivers, frequencies of word usage, wealth among individuals, etc. All are real-world observations that follow power laws such as those called Zipf's law, the Yule distribution, or the Pareto distribution. If one ranks the population size of cities in a given country or in the entire world and calculates the natural logarithm of the rank and of the city population, the resulting graph will show a remarkable log-linear pattern. This is the rank-size distribution.
the founder of the intellectual school of world-systems theory, characterizes the world system as a set of mechanisms which redistributes resources from the periphery to the core. In his terminology, the core is the developed, industrialized part of the world, and the periphery is the "underdeveloped", typically raw materials-exporting, poor part of the world; the market being the means by which the core exploits the periphery.
The relative costs of transporting different agricultural commodities to the central market determined the agricultural land use around a city. The most productive activities will thus compete for the closest land to the market and activities not productive enough will locate further away.
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
Currently in progress, the Third Agricultural Revolution has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
assume all countries are capable of developing economically in the same way, and disparities between countries and regions are the result of short-term inefficiencies in local or regional markets. Walter Rostow
economic disparities are the result of historically derived power relations within the global economic system; cannot be changed easily (misleading to assume all areas will go through the same process of development).
phenomenon whereby corporations and others can draw from labor markets around the world; made possible through improvements in communication and transportation systems (resulting in time-space compression).
A model of economic development that describes a country's progression which occurs in five stages transforming them from least-developed countries to most-developed countries
System of standardized mass production attributed to Henry Ford
World economic system characterized by a more flexible set of production practices in which goods are not mass produced; instead, production has been accelerated and dispersed around the globe by multinational companies that shift production, outsourcing it around the world and bringing places closer together in time and space than would have been imaginable at the beginning of the 20th century
Theory developed by economist Harold Hotelling that suggests competitors, in trying to maximize sales, will seek to constrain each other's territory as much as possible which will therefore lead them to locate adjacent to one another in the middle of their collective customer base.
Model developed by Alfred Weber according to which the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization three critical expenses: labor, transportation, and agglomeration
Industrial location model that emphasizes profit maximization in its locational analysis. Firms look to identify a "zone of profitability."
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
Borchert created this model in the 1960s to predict and explain the growth of cities in four phases of trransportation history: stage 1, the "sail wagon" era of 1790-1830; stage 2, the "iron horse" era of 1830-1870; stage 3, the "steel rail" epoch of 1870-1920; and stage 4, the current era of car and air travel that began after 1920.
Developed in the 1930s by Walter Christaller, this model explains and predicts patterns of urban places across the map. In his model, Christaller analyzed the hexagonal, hierarchical pattern of cities, villages, towns, and hamlets arranged according to their varying degrees of centrality, determined by the central place functions existing in urban places and the hinterlands they serve.
This model was devised in the 1920s to predict and explain the growth pattern of North American urban spaces. Its main principle is that cities can be viewed from above as a series of concentric rings, as the city grows and expands, new rings are added and old ones change character. Key elements of the model are the central business district and the peak land value intersection.
This model predicts and explains North American urban growth patterns in the 1930s in a pattern in which similar land uses and socioeconomic groups clustered in linear sectors radiating outward from a central business district, usually along transportation corridors
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Developed in the 1950s, this model explains the changing growth pattern of urban spaces based on the assumption that growth occurred independently around several major foci (or nodes), many of which are far away from the central business district and only marginally connected to it.
This model was developed in the 1970s to explain and predict changing urban growth patterns as the automobile became increasingly prevalent and large suburban "realms" emerged. The suburban regions were functionally tied to a mixed-use suburban downtown, or mini-CBD, with relative independence from the original CBD.
Model of the Latin American city showing a blend of traditional elements of Latin American culture with the forces of globalization that are reshaping the urban scene.
"dominant elite residential sector and a commercial spine as well as a series of concentric zones in which residential quality decreases with distance from the city center"
The Southeast Asian City Model is similar to the Latin American (Griffin-Ford) City Model in that they each feature high-class residential zones that stem from the center, middle-class residential zones that occur in inner-city areas, and low-income squatter settlements that occur in the periphery.
- The main difference between the two models is that the Southeast Asian City Model features middle-income housing in suburban areas.
Africa has the world's lowest levels of urbanization yet the most fastest growing cities. African cities have a high range of diversity so formulating a model is difficult.
Often three CBDs: a remnant of the colonial CBD, an informal and sometimes periodic market zone, and a transitional business center where commerce is conducted from curbside, stalls, or storefronts. Vertical development occurse in the colonial CBD, the traditional business center consists of one-story buildings, and the mark zone tends to be informal, yet still important.
The neighborhoods are ethnic and mixed, often next to a mining and manufacturing zone. All of that is then ringed around by a zone characterized by squatter settlements and informal satellite townships.
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