Wife of the second president of the United States. She was an astute thinker who’s ideas deeply influenced the political life of the country through the influence she had on her husband.
First secretary of the treasury, and a leader of the Federalist party who argued for strengthening the powers of the federal government. As secretary of the treasury he created a controversial financial plan for the nation that helped promote his views and the direction he believed the nation should go.
A term used to describe the loose alliance of politicians and citizens who opposed the ratification of the Constitution.
Checks and Balances
Phrase that describes the powers given to each of the three branches of the federal government that enable them to prevent one of the other branches from becoming too powerful.
Democratic Republican Party
Also know as the Jeffersonians. One of the first political parties in the nation. They favored agriculture concerns over industry and favored France over Great Britain. Initially they favored loose constructionism vs. strict constructionism.
Known for inventing the cotton gin, and advancing the concept of using interchangeable parts with manufacturing
Project led by DeWitt Clinton, artificial waterway connecting Buffalo (Great Lakes) with Albany and Hudson River, informally known as Clinton’s Ditch
A series of 85 essays published in the NYC newspapers in 1787 and 1788 trying to convince the New Yorkers to elect delegates that would vote for the ratification of the constitution at the upcoming convention. Written anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay.
One of the first political parties in the nation. The party’s early leaders were Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. It was popular with businessmen who supported a strong centralized government. Favored industry over agriculture and Great Britain over France
Group of Individuals who signed the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
Period of political and social upheaval in France. The absolute monarchy was abolished.
First President of the United States. Commander of the Continental Army.
This man painted and study birds along with writing Birds Of America in 1826.
Political Leader, radical patriot, and statesman. Fourth President of the United States. Helped write the federalist papers. Along with Thomas Jefferson helped start the Democratic-Republican Party. Served as secretary of state for Jefferson twice.
A Revolutionary War leader. Vice President for Washington. Second President of the U.S. His administration is associated with the XYZ Affair and the passing of the Alien and Sedition acts.
4th Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. A Federalist that strengthened the power of the federal government in the cases of Marbury vs. Madison, Dartmouth vs. Woodward, McCulloch vs. Maryland, and Gibbons vs. Ogden
John Quincy Adams
Sixth President of the U.S. Helped negotiate the Treaty of Ghent. Ambassador of Britain served as secretary of state for James Monroe. Wrote the Monroe Doctrine. Associated with the Corrupt Bargain.
This piece of land was bought by Jefferson from Napoleon for 15 million dollars. This land more than doubled the size of the United States.
A declaration of US foreign policy in 1823 that declared that European intervention in the Americas would not be tolerated and the US wouldn’t interfere with European affairs in Europe. Written by John Quincy Adams.
This man was the French Emperor that sold Jefferson the Louisiana Purchase for 15 million dollars.
Indian guide and interpreter who helped Lewis and Clark during their westward expedition.
A violent protest in Massachusetts in 1786 and 1787. Farmers who could not pay their debt were becoming imprisoned and losing their land. Occurred during a time of economic depression. Exposed flaws with the current government and made the government realize the need for reform.
Author of the Declaration of Independence. Third president of the U.S. Also helped establish the Democratic-Republican Party with James Madison. His presidency is associated with the Louisiana Purchase and the Embargo Act.
Compromise between northern and southern states that said that only three-fifths of the population of slaves would be counted in relation to the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the House of Representatives.
This term is associated with a group of western and southern congressman who wanted to go to war in 1812. Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun were among their members.
Vice President of Jefferson. Killed his foe, Alexander Hamilton, in a duel. He was tried for treason after his attempt to take Mexico away from Spain and the western territories from the United States. He was acquitted and his role in the affair remains a mystery.
(1819) Agreement between the United States and Spain where Spain sold Florida to the United States. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams secured the deal.
Elected to the House of Representatives and served as secretary of treasury during the Jefferson’s Administration. Cut federal spending but found a way to pay for the Louisiana Purchase.
(1786) meeting of delegates from five states to discuss interstate commerce. They discovered the necessary reforms were beyond their powers to implement. Led by Hamilton, called for a general convention in 1789- became the Convention.
Napoleon’s attempt to wage economic warfare against Great Britain.
(1817) Introduced by John Calhoun. Proposed spending proceeds from the Second Bank of the United States on internal improvements like roads, canals, bridges, etc. The bill was passed by Congress but was vetoed by Madison.
Citizen Genet Affair
Incident in which the French Minister to the United States tried to ignore Washington’s Proclamation of Neutrality and wage war against Great Britain. Washington wanted to have him removed from his position and sent back to France, but Genet was likely to be killed. So he stayed in America and became a citizen.
First commercially successful steamboat. Robert Fulton invented it and Robert Livingston financed it.
Confederate System of Government
System of government that allows the state governments to be more powerful than the federal government. The Articles of Confederation created this kind of government.
This allowed for people to travel along the boundary of the thirteen colonies to the Mississippi river. Allowed for migration of trappers and farmers.
Dartmouth College V. Woodward
(1819)U.S. Supreme Court Case. The state of New Hampshire took away Dartmouth colonies charter and replaced it with a new charter that they had control of. The court found in favor of the college and the case established private property rights. The case strengthened the power of the federal government over the states.
Principal supporter of the Erie Canal project. Served in New York legislature, U.S. Senate, and was mayor of New York City and governor of New York. Federalist candidate in 1812 presidential race but was defeated by Madison.
States that Congress has the authority to make any laws that they feel are necessary and proper to carry out their enumerated powers (powers specifically stated in the Constitution – like to power to tax).
Gibbons V. Ogden
(1824)U.S. supreme court case that established the Constitutions’ commerce clause as the basis for federal regulatory power. It strengthened the power of the federal government by saying that only the Federal Govt. had the right to regulate interstate commerce.
(1814-1825) This was a meeting of the federalist party that protested the U.S. policy during the War of 1812. Included 26 representatives. This group wanted to revise parts of the constitution and advocated states rights on the issue. This convention also symbolizes the end of the Federalist Party.
Seizure of seamen from U.S. ships by the British navy, during the early 1900’s. The Chesapeake Leopard incident is one example of this. A major cause of the War of 1812
The fifth president of the U.S. He was part of the Virginia Dynasty. His time as president was known as the “Era of good Feelings”
An agreement between the U.S. and Great Britain that addressed issues over the Treaty of Paris(1794). It was not popular in the United States but it avoided another war with Great Britain.
Political goals from 1800-1820s. Believed in representative government, the yeoman farmer, and separation of church and state, among other things.
First Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court. Was part of the unpopular treaty with Britain that bares his name. He was the chief justice at the time of the treaty.
Replaced the unsuccessful Non-Intercourse Act and tried to change British and French economic policy. It reopened U.S. trade with all nations including Great Britain and France but threatened to restore the Non-Intercourse Act if they failed to comply with U.S. demands.
Marbury V. Madison
(1803) U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle that the court had the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional (Judicial Review). Case establishes the Judicial branches role in U.S. government. It also strengthens the power of the federal government.
McCulloch V. Maryland
Established the constitutional supremacy of the federal government over the states. Maryland tried to impose a tax on a federal agency but the Supreme Court said that they couldn’t do that. – “The power to tax is the power to destroy”
This man was the personal secretary to Jefferson. He was made famous for his exploration of the Louisiana territory. He created detailed journals and maps of the exploration.
U.S. naval officer that was to build a fleet on Lake Erie during War of 1812. Famous for the Quote “We have met the enemy and they are ours.”
This was treaty between the United States and Spain. Recognized the 31st parallel as the southern boundary of the U.S. It also gave the U.S. Navigation rights to the Mississippi and the right to deposit at the port of New Orleans.
Piracy against enemy ships commissioned by sovereign powers.
Proclamation of Neutrality
President Washington’s famous foreign policy statement in regards to the war between Britain and France. He declared that the United States was neutral in the conflict.
Reports on Manufacturing
Hamilton’s policy that would stimulate the economy and ensure U.S. independence. Would later be incorporated into Henry Clay's" American System. It advocated the development of industry.
This man served on the constitutional congress and helped create the declaration of independence. First Sec. of Foreign Affairs.
Revolutionary War statesman. Signer of the Dec. of Independence, Articles of Confederation and the Constitution. Introduced the idea of the Connecticut Compromise at the constitutional convention. The compromised that established a two-chamber congress.
Associate Justice to the Supreme court. Outspoken Federalist on the bench. The Jeffersonians tried to impeach him, but the senate did not convict him.
This man was a French Diplomat. Most Known for his involvement in the XYZ Affair.
Shawnee war chief who attempted to form a pan-tribal confederacy to resist American expansion onto Indian lands in Ohio and Mississippi valleys.
This man was an early 19th century naval officer. Commander of American naval forces in Lake Champlain during the War of 1812.
Also known as the Barbary War. Fought between the U.S. and Northern Africa. The pirates were demanding things from American Merchant vessels as they passed through the Mediterranean sea
First major insurrection against the authority of the federal government. People were upset about the excise tax on liquor.
American Soldier and explorer. Known for exploring From St. Louis across Kansas and up to the Arkansas river into Colorado. He also explored the area of Santa Fe which spurred expansion to Texas.
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