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Believed in antionianism: faith alone is necessary for salvation
Migrated to Long Island and killed in an Indian uprising
Believed individual conscience beyond control of any evil or church authority
founded Providence RI
Recongnized right of Native Americans
Complete Religious Toleration
Kings of Spain gave land grants to Indians
Indians worked on mines and farmed
Churches-Padres - mission
enslaved the Indians
Conquistadors- security focre
Presido- fort- keeps Indians contained
use of African slaves
Why- NA angered by increasing western movement of Settlers and British rusal to offer gifts (like French)
What: alliance of NA in Ohio Rivier Valley destroyed forts and settlements from NY to VA
Young men who were obligated to work on a plantation for x aount of years in exchange for free transportation to a colony and room and board
Why: gained freedom, labor shortage
Problems: Indian attacks, famine, disease, own mistakes
Survived by having food brought over to them. later on the natives helped the pilgrims by teaching them how to hunt and grow crops.
wealthy "planter class"
Carolinas: Sugar based economy
each plantation becomes a "mini society"
small family farms
urban mercantile society
King James II's high handed attempts at asserting royal power led to it
Succeeded in deposing James and replaced him with William and Mary
Predestination- God guides those who are to be saved
Goal: Purify their church of Catholic influences
Association of individuals in a business enterprise with transferable shares of stock, much like a corporation except that stockholders are liable for the debts of the business
Chartered the VA
CompanyFirst permanent English colony in America
"Puritans" wanted to remain as part of the English establishment, working for biblical reform from within
"Pilgrims" wanted to achieve "reformation without tarrying," their emphasis was on their new political identity and spiritual identity.
Henery Hudson: established the english in Canada after the Dutch in NY
English in VA: John Smith
war debts unpaid
worthless paper money
congress had no taxing power
European nations had little respect for new nations taht couldn't pay debts
Spain threatened to take of advantage of US
Uprisings against taxes
granted a limited self government to developing territory b/w Great Lakes and Ohio River
Prohibited slaver in region
Why: need for coordinating colonial defense
Ben Franklin (wrote it)
Provided for an intercolonial government and system for recruiting troops and colleting taxes from various colonies for common defense
1. The Great Compromise: A bicameral legislature consisting of two houses was set up:
2. The 3/5 Compromise: Slaves were to be counted in the following manner; 5 slaves equaled three persons.
Checks and Balences
Bill of Rights
4 Year Terms
Federalists- Strong Federal gov't needed to maintain union
Antifeds- strong centeral gov't would destroy work of teh Revolution, limit democracy and restrict states rights
Daniel Shays led other farmers in an uprising against high stat saxes, imprisonment for debt and lack of paper money.
Significance: Began growth of federal government
French ambitions to claim North America
British Ambitions to claim North America
Previous European Wars
Conflict in Ohio Valley
American Colonies are PROUD to be British
Presented cogent reasons for believing in the practicality of each major Provision of the Constitution
Key for Federalist campaign for Constitution
Part of Federalists Papers written by James Madison arguing for the Constitution, addresses the question of how to guard against factions, or groups of citizens, with interests contrary to the rights of others or the interests of the whole community
a movement charaterized by fervent expressions of religious feeling among masses of people.
Significance: Religious- major divison within churches. More evengelical sects attracted more members. Political- changed the way people viewed authority
initiated the Great Awakening with a series of sermons, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
Argued that God was rightfully angry with human sinfulness.
Each individual who expressed deep penitence could be saved by God, those who didn't - hell
Argued strongly for the colonies becomming independent
Significane: EVERYBODY read it, very influential to independace
Declared the colonies to be independent
Listed specific grievances against George III's government and expressed basic principles that justified revolution.
To tax the colonies on legal documets and other publications becaus British had to pay them.
Colonists petitioned, boycotted, and were violent because they didn't see reasons for paying the taxes
US opposed any further colonization in America/ Western Hemisphere and the US pledged not to get involved in international affairs of Europe and European war
Protection of North and South from possible aggression of European Power
Wanted to put US finances on firm and stable foundation
Norhtern Merchants were greatly helped
Why: Continued violation of US neutral rights at sea and rouble with British on Western Frontier
Outcomes: everything put back to way it was before the war.
Significance: Supreme Court would exercise the poer to decide weahter an act of Congress/ Prez was or was not unconstitutional- could overrule two other brances
Alien- authorized president to deport any aliens considered dangerous
Sedition- illegal for newspaper editors to critisize prez or congress (punishement)
Written to restrict political oponents- Democratic Republicans
Prohibited American merchant ships from sailing to any foreign port, hoping British would stop violating rights of neutral nations.
Brought harder econmics to US then Britian
Jefferson called for repeal, but US ships could trade people, not Brit.
Tippocanoe and Tyler Too! Whig nomination.
Log Cabin Campaign: tried to make him appear as common man, handed out cider
Died 31 days after innaguration
Passivly: destroyed property, working slowly, breaking tools, stealing live stock, running wayw.
Few Large scale: ie. Nat Turner
Andrew Jackson lost to John Quincy Adams
Corrupt Bargin: Clay tells Adams he will het him votes if, when elected Clay is Secretary of State
Jackson Supporters Unite: Democratic Party
Believed the BUS was corrupt b/c in hands of the elites
Bank of War, fear of money power, BUS didn't have a permenant charter (ended in 1832)
Congress approved, Jackson vetoed
Why: Mex- Nueces River US- Rio Grande
Outcome: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, NM and CA
North felt it wasw only going to spread slavery
Controversy: Plk sent Taylor to disputed terr. in hope MX would start war
Wrote the Liberator an abolitionist newspaper
Advocated immediate termination of slavery
Liberator marks beginning of radical abolitionist movement.
men: responsible for economic and political affairs
women: moral leaders of home
Why reformers so active: Leisure time to uplift and organize actions
Nativism: Hate of immigrants
Most immigrants from Ireland becouase of the Potatoe Famine
Belief that God supported American expansion that was needed b/c of population growth.
All of North America
Supported: John Tyler and Polk
NOT the right of nullification
Slaveholders had a higher social status, owning slaves was a sign of wealth
Lowerclass white in middle often hired to oversee slaves
Slaveholders higher political status (owned land-vote)
Slaves gaurenteed owners a place in society.
Texas wanted independance from MX because MX was making them convert to Catholisim and free their slaves.
Reason for Texas Revolution- Unwillingness of Anglo-Americans to accept Mexican Rule
Constitution did not intend African Americans to be citizens
Congress did not have powere to deprive any person of property w/o process of law
MO Compromise was Unconstitutional
North: shocked and indignant
Wilmot Proviso, 1846à no slavery in territories acquired from Mexico
Free Soil Movement
Popular Sovereigntyà The people in a territory/state chose whether slavery was allowed or not
CA is admitted as a free state, South is angry!
1867- Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act taht required Senate consent for removal of any federal official whose appointment had required Senate confirmation
Tried to protec Sec of War Edwin Stanton, but Johnson dismissed him anyway
Did NOT free any slaves, but did signal a shift in war aims- now about slavery not states rights
2 Goals: Preserve the union, and end slavery
Economic: Sharcropping took place of Slavery
Social: Most Successful for feedman, reconnected w/ family, churches, schools, woman's clubs
Political: short lived success, poll taxes, literacy tests, grandfather clause used to keep them from voting
In order to be restored to the Union, the majority of each state's white adult men had to take loyalty oath, new sate gov'ts had to be formed by those who had never carried arms against the Union
Lincoln pocketed the veto bill
Impact: slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty
Repealed MO Compromise
North cried slave power conspiracy
MO people would cross the border and vote for their side of slavery. Small Civil war broke out.
Trying to seize federal armory and arsenal and hoped slaves would rise up and fight against their masters.
a system of labor and agricultural production where a land owner allows someone to work on their land in return for their part of the crop.
Had to buy tools, seed, cloths on credit at the plantation at store
Never worked out of debt
Radicals wanted to punish the South, especially leaders, make the south be like the North
Reconstrution Acto of 1867 ended RR
Provieded emergency aid to ex slaves as they transitioned from war to peace
Built schools, hospitals, homes, helped find jobes, loans
Most successful in education
South devastated, railroads, industry, some major cities in ruins
Happened because people were not volunteraly enlisting
Rich people avoided draft by hiring substitutes
Conscription Act: was a military draft issued during the Civil War
Bloodiest single day of battle in American History
Convinced Britian and France not to recognize the Confederacy
Attacked African Americans, Catholics, carpetbaggers and scalawags
KKK Act in 1871- Race crimes prosecuted by gov't but was not enforced
General Winfield Scott
Hoped to squeeze the South to death by cutting off supplies
Naval Blockade sent troops down major rivers
Hoped South would give up with minimal bloodshed
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